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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(12), 2582; doi:10.3390/ijms18122582

Tunisian Milk Thistle: An Investigation of the Chemical Composition and the Characterization of Its Cold-Pressed Seed Oils

1
Laboratory of Materials, Molecules and Applications (LMMA), Preparatory Institute of Scientific and Technical Studies (IPEST), University of Carthage, La Marsa, 2070 Tunis, Tunisia
2
Faculty of Science of Bizerte, Zarzouna, 7021 Bizerte, Tunisia
3
Biochemistry of the Peroxisome, Inflammation and Lipid Metabolism’ EA 7270, Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Inserm, 21000 Dijon, France
4
Food Conservation and Valorization Laboratory, High Institute of Food Industries, 58 Avenue Alain Savary, El Khadra City, 1003 Tunis , Tunisia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 October 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 28 November 2017 / Published: 2 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Beneficial Effects of Plant Oil on Human Health)
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Abstract

In this study, milk thistle seeds growing in different areas in Tunisia were cold pressed and the extracted oils were examined for their chemical and antioxidant properties. The major fatty acids were linoleic acid (C18:2) (57.0%, 60.0%, and 60.3% for the milk thistle seed oils native to Bizerte, Zaghouan and Sousse, respectively) and oleic acid (C18:1) (15.5%, 21.5%, and 22.4% for the milk thistle seed oils originating from Bizerte, Zaghouan and Sousse, respectively). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed the richness of the milk thistle seed oils (MTSO) in α-tocopherol. The highest content was recorded for that of the region of Zaghouan (286.22 mg/kg). The total phenolic contents (TPC) of Zaghouan, Bizerte, and Sousse were 1.59, 8.12, and 4.73 Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE) mg/g, respectively. Three phenolic acids were also identified (vanillic, p-coumaric, and silybine), with a predominance of the vanillic acid. The highest value was recorded for the Zaghouan milk thistle seed oil (83 mg/100 g). Differences in outcomes between regions may be due to climatic differences in areas. Zaghouan’s cold-pressed milk thistle seed oil had a better quality than those of Bizerte and Sousse, and can be considered as a valuable source for new multi-purpose products or by-products for industrial, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical utilization. View Full-Text
Keywords: milk thistle seed oil; fatty acids; phenolic acids; tocopherols; differential scanning calorimetry milk thistle seed oil; fatty acids; phenolic acids; tocopherols; differential scanning calorimetry
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Meddeb, W.; Rezig, L.; Abderrabba, M.; Lizard, G.; Mejri, M. Tunisian Milk Thistle: An Investigation of the Chemical Composition and the Characterization of Its Cold-Pressed Seed Oils. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2582.

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