Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(11), 6169-6183; doi:10.3390/ijerph10116169
Review

Methods for Recovering Microorganisms from Solid Surfaces Used in the Food Industry: A Review of the Literature

1,2,†email, 1,2,†,* email, 3email, 4email, 3, 4email and 1,2email
Received: 22 September 2013; in revised form: 6 November 2013 / Accepted: 7 November 2013 / Published: 14 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Safety and Public Health)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Various types of surfaces are used today in the food industry, such as plastic, stainless steel, glass, and wood. These surfaces are subject to contamination by microorganisms responsible for the cross-contamination of food by contact with working surfaces. The HACCP-based processes are now widely used for the control of microbial hazards to prevent food safety issues. This preventive approach has resulted in the use of microbiological analyses of surfaces as one of the tools to control the hygiene of products. A method of recovering microorganisms from different solid surfaces is necessary as a means of health prevention. No regulation exists for surface microbial contamination, but food companies tend to establish technical specifications to add value to their products and limit contamination risks. The aim of this review is to present the most frequently used methods: swabbing, friction or scrubbing, printing, rinsing or immersion, sonication and scraping or grinding and describe their advantages and drawbacks. The choice of the recovery method has to be suitable for the type and size of the surface tested for microbiological analysis. Today, quick and cheap methods have to be standardized and especially easy to perform in the field.
Keywords: wood; packaging; food contact; microorganisms; recovery methods; contamination
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ismaïl, R.; Aviat, F.; Michel, V.; Le Bayon, I.; Gay-Perret, P.; Kutnik, M.; Fédérighi, M. Methods for Recovering Microorganisms from Solid Surfaces Used in the Food Industry: A Review of the Literature. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 6169-6183.

AMA Style

Ismaïl R, Aviat F, Michel V, Le Bayon I, Gay-Perret P, Kutnik M, Fédérighi M. Methods for Recovering Microorganisms from Solid Surfaces Used in the Food Industry: A Review of the Literature. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(11):6169-6183.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ismaïl, Rached; Aviat, Florence; Michel, Valérie; Le Bayon, Isabelle; Gay-Perret, Perrine; Kutnik, Magdalena; Fédérighi, Michel. 2013. "Methods for Recovering Microorganisms from Solid Surfaces Used in the Food Industry: A Review of the Literature." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 11: 6169-6183.


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