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Special Issue "Arsenic in Drinking Water: Current Perspectives and Future Directions"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Ravi Naidu

Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, SA5095, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +61407720257
Interests: Soil Chemistry, Bioavailability, Analytical Environmental Chemistry, Environmental Remediation, Environmental Science, soil and ground water remediation, Soil Science, Nanomaterials Synthesis, Microbiology, Heavy Metals, Heavy Metal Speciation, Environmental Pollution, Water Quality, Bioremediation, Groundwater, Environmental Impact Assessment
Guest Editor
Dr. Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman

Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, SA5095, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Analytical Chemistry, Environmental Chemistry, Chemical speciation of metal and metalloids, Phytoremediation, Health impacts due to arsenic toxicity, Toxicology and bioavailability, Bioavailability of metals, Arsenic

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Long-term exposure to arsenic has been linked to severe skin disorder diseases, cancer, and many deaths in many regions worldwide, especially in Southeast Asian countries. Consequently, there has been significant investment of resources towards investigations focussing on the measurement of arsenic in environmental samples, the risks associated with exposure to arsenic, and possible cost-effective and sustainable remediations of arsenic-contaminated soil and ground water.  Although numerous articles have been published on this topic, there are still substantial knowledge gaps, particularly with respect to arsenic exposure that is incident to the ingestion of food crops cultivated via irrigation with arsenic contaminated ground water. In the world’s two worst arsenic impacted areas of Bangladesh and West Bengal state (in India), the current number of affected people are much less compared to what was perceived earlier as currently, many people are becoming aware of arsenic toxicity and its possible health effects.  This outcome results from the excellent awareness created by local governments and aid agencies and NGO mitigation activities. Given recent evidences showing new areas with elevated levels of arsenic in the ground water, further studies are required to determine the link between low dosages of arsenic exposure and the arsenic related health effects.

In recognition of the extent and severity of arsenic poisoning in most countries worldwide, the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health devotes this Special Issue to recent findings on “Arsenic in drinking water: current perspectives”. A wide range of topics will be included in this issue. These are:

  1. Current research on arsenic in drinking and irrigation water and hydrogeological processes,
  2. Arsenic in irrigation water and its impacts on food crops, society, and socioeconomics,
  3. The dose response relationship of arsenic and human health effects,
  4. Exposure of arsenical compounds and risk assessment and advanced analytical progress,
  5. Biotransformation, bio-accessibility, and the bioavailability of arsenic,
  6. The toxicity of arsenic species in aquatic/marine environments,
  7. The mitigation and management of arsenic in groundwater, soil, and crops, and future directions.

You are invited to submit manuscripts for consideration in this Special Issue, which covers the aforesaid topics (but the editors also welcome papers on other related topics concerning arsenic).

Prof. Dr. Ravi Naidu
Dr. Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • arsenic
  • drinking water
  • groundwater
  • soil
  • human health
  • risk assessment
  • arsenic in food
  • mitigation
  • bioavailability and bio-accessibility of arsenic
  • arsenic speciation
  • toxicity of arsenic compounds
  • management of arsenic in water and soil

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Factors Affecting Arsenic Methylation in Arsenic-Exposed Humans: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 205; doi:10.3390/ijerph13020205
Received: 29 November 2015 / Accepted: 2 February 2016 / Published: 6 February 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3484 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chronic arsenic exposure is a critical public health issue in many countries. The metabolism of arsenic in vivo is complicated because it can be influenced by many factors. In the present meta-analysis, two researchers independently searched electronic databases, including the Cochrane Library, PubMed,
[...] Read more.
Chronic arsenic exposure is a critical public health issue in many countries. The metabolism of arsenic in vivo is complicated because it can be influenced by many factors. In the present meta-analysis, two researchers independently searched electronic databases, including the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Springer, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, to analyze factors influencing arsenic methylation. The concentrations of the following arsenic metabolites increase (p< 0.000001) following arsenic exposure: inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethyl arsenic (MMA), dimethyl arsenic (DMA), and total arsenic. Additionally, the percentages of iAs (standard mean difference (SMD): 1.00; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60–1.40; p< 0.00001) and MMA (SMD: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.21–0.77; p = 0.0006) also increase, while the percentage of DMA (SMD: −0.57; 95% CI: −0.80–−0.31; p< 0.0001), primary methylation index (SMD: −0.57; 95% CI: −0.94–−0.20; p = 0.002), and secondary methylation index (SMD: −0.27; 95% CI: −0.46–−0.90; p = 0.004) decrease. Smoking, drinking, and older age can reduce arsenic methylation, and arsenic methylation is more efficient in women than in men. The results of this analysis may provide information regarding the role of arsenic oxidative methylation in the arsenic poisoning process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arsenic in Drinking Water: Current Perspectives and Future Directions)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Minerals with Iron Oxide and Hydroxide Contents as a Sorption Medium to Remove Arsenic from Water for Human Consumption
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(1), 69; doi:10.3390/ijerph13010069
Received: 25 September 2015 / Revised: 8 December 2015 / Accepted: 15 December 2015 / Published: 23 December 2015
PDF Full-text (4134 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Arsenic has been classified as a toxic and carcinogenic chemical element. It therefore presents a serious environmental problem in different regions of the country and the world. In the present work, two adsorbent media were developed and evaluated to remove arsenic from water
[...] Read more.
Arsenic has been classified as a toxic and carcinogenic chemical element. It therefore presents a serious environmental problem in different regions of the country and the world. In the present work, two adsorbent media were developed and evaluated to remove arsenic from water in the Pájaro Verde mine shaft, Huautla, Tlaquiltenango, Morelos. The media were synthesized and characterized, obtaining a surface area of 43.04 m2·g−1 for the goethite and 2.44 m2·g−1 for silica sand coated with Fe(III). To conduct the sorption kinetics and isotherms, a 23 factorial design was performed for each medium in order to obtain the optimal conditions for the factors of arsenic concentration, pH and mass of the adsorbent. The best results were obtained for goethite, with a removal efficiency of 98.61% (C0 of As(V) 0.360 mg·L−1), and an effluent concentration of 0.005 mg·L−1, a value that complies with the modified Official Mexican Standard NOM-127-SSA1-1994 [1] and WHO guidelines (2004) [2]. The kinetic equation that best fit the experimental data was the pseudo-second-order, resulting in the highest values for the constants for synthetic goethite, with a rate constant sorption of 4.019·g·mg−1·min−1. With respect to the sorption isotherms, both media were fitted to the Langmuir-II linear model with a sorption capacity (qm) of 0.4822 mg·g−1 for goethite and 0.2494 mg·g−1 for silica sand coated with Fe(III). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arsenic in Drinking Water: Current Perspectives and Future Directions)
Open AccessArticle Legionella pneumophila Seropositivity-Associated Factors in Latvian Blood Donors
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(1), 58; doi:10.3390/ijerph13010058
Received: 30 October 2015 / Revised: 7 December 2015 / Accepted: 9 December 2015 / Published: 22 December 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (215 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Continuous environmental exposure of humans to Legionella may induce immune responses and generation of antibodies. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of Legionella pneumophila serogroups (SG) 1–6 in the general healthy population and identify the associated host-related and environmental
[...] Read more.
Continuous environmental exposure of humans to Legionella may induce immune responses and generation of antibodies. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of Legionella pneumophila serogroups (SG) 1–6 in the general healthy population and identify the associated host-related and environmental risk factors. L. pneumophila SG 1–6 seroprevalence among a total of 2007 blood samples collected from healthy donors was 4.8%. Seroprevalence was higher in women (5.9%) than men (3.3%) and in areas with a larger number of inhabitants, ranging from 3.5% in rural regions to 6.8% in the capital, Riga. Blood samples from inhabitants of apartment buildings tested positive for L. pneumophila in more cases (5.8%) compared to those from inhabitants of single-family homes (2.7%). Residents of buildings with a municipal hot water supply system were more likely to be seropositive for L. pneumophila (OR = 3.16, 95% CI 1.26–7.91). Previous episodes of fever were additionally identified as a risk factor (OR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.43–4.1). In conclusion, centralized hot water supply, female gender and previous episodes of fever were determined as the main factors associated with L. pneumophila seropositivity in our study population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arsenic in Drinking Water: Current Perspectives and Future Directions)
Open AccessArticle As(V) and P Competitive Sorption on Soils, By-Products and Waste Materials
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(12), 15706-15715; doi:10.3390/ijerph121215016
Received: 25 September 2015 / Revised: 1 December 2015 / Accepted: 4 December 2015 / Published: 10 December 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (633 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Batch-type experiments were used to study competitive As(V) and P sorption on various soils and sorbent materials. The materials assayed were a forest soil, a vineyard soil, pyritic material, granitic material, coarsely and finely ground mussel shell, calcinated mussel shell ash, pine sawdust
[...] Read more.
Batch-type experiments were used to study competitive As(V) and P sorption on various soils and sorbent materials. The materials assayed were a forest soil, a vineyard soil, pyritic material, granitic material, coarsely and finely ground mussel shell, calcinated mussel shell ash, pine sawdust and slate processing fines. Competition between As(V) and P was pronounced in the case of both soils, granitic material, slate fines, both shells and pine sawdust, showing more affinity for P. Contrary, the pyritic material and mussel shell ash showed high and similar affinity for As(V) and P. These results could be useful to make a correct use of the soils and materials assayed when focusing on As and P removal in solid or liquid media, in circumstances where both pollutants may compete for sorption sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arsenic in Drinking Water: Current Perspectives and Future Directions)
Open AccessArticle A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression Analysis of Lung Cancer Risk and Inorganic Arsenic in Drinking Water
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(12), 15498-15515; doi:10.3390/ijerph121214990
Received: 1 September 2015 / Revised: 24 November 2015 / Accepted: 27 November 2015 / Published: 7 December 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1226 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High levels (> 200 µg/L) of inorganic arsenic in drinking water are known to be a cause of human lung cancer, but the evidence at lower levels is uncertain. We have sought the epidemiological studies that have examined the dose-response relationship between arsenic
[...] Read more.
High levels (> 200 µg/L) of inorganic arsenic in drinking water are known to be a cause of human lung cancer, but the evidence at lower levels is uncertain. We have sought the epidemiological studies that have examined the dose-response relationship between arsenic levels in drinking water and the risk of lung cancer over a range that includes both high and low levels of arsenic. Regression analysis, based on six studies identified from an electronic search, examined the relationship between the log of the relative risk and the log of the arsenic exposure over a range of 1–1000 µg/L. The best-fitting continuous meta-regression model was sought and found to be a no-constant linear-quadratic analysis where both the risk and the exposure had been logarithmically transformed. This yielded both a statistically significant positive coefficient for the quadratic term and a statistically significant negative coefficient for the linear term. Sub-analyses by study design yielded results that were similar for both ecological studies and non-ecological studies. Statistically significant X-intercepts consistently found no increased level of risk at approximately 100–150 µg/L arsenic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arsenic in Drinking Water: Current Perspectives and Future Directions)
Open AccessArticle Arsenic and Other Metals’ Presence in Biomarkers of Cambodians in Arsenic Contaminated Areas
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(11), 14285-14300; doi:10.3390/ijerph121114285
Received: 30 September 2015 / Revised: 30 October 2015 / Accepted: 4 November 2015 / Published: 10 November 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (888 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Chemical analyses of metal (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Ba, and Pb) concentrations in hair, nails, and urine of Cambodians in arsenic-contaminated areas who consumed groundwater daily showed elevated levels in these biomarkers for most metals of toxicological interest.
[...] Read more.
Chemical analyses of metal (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Ba, and Pb) concentrations in hair, nails, and urine of Cambodians in arsenic-contaminated areas who consumed groundwater daily showed elevated levels in these biomarkers for most metals of toxicological interest. The levels of metals in biomarkers corresponded to their levels in groundwater, especially for As, whose concentrations exceeded the WHO guidelines for drinking water. About 75.6% of hair samples from the population in this study contained As levels higher than the normal level in unexposed individuals (1 mg·kg−1). Most of the population (83.3%) showed As urinary levels exceeding the normal (<50 ng·mg−1). These results indicate the possibility of arsenicosis symptoms in residents of the areas studied. Among the three biomarkers tested, hair has shown to be a reliable indicator of metal exposures. The levels of As (r2 = 0.633), Ba (r2 = 0.646), Fe (r2 = 0.595), and Mo (r2 = 0.555) in hair were strongly positively associated with the levels of those metals in groundwater. In addition, significant weak correlations (p < 0.01) were found between levels of exposure to As and As concentrations in both nails (r2 = 0.544) and urine (r2 = 0.243). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arsenic in Drinking Water: Current Perspectives and Future Directions)
Open AccessArticle Arsenic in Drinking Water, Transition Cell Cancer and Chronic Cystitis in Rural Bangladesh
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(11), 13739-13749; doi:10.3390/ijerph121113739
Received: 30 September 2015 / Revised: 20 October 2015 / Accepted: 22 October 2015 / Published: 28 October 2015
PDF Full-text (665 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In earlier analyses, we demonstrated dose-response relationships between renal and lung cancer and local arsenic concentrations in wells used by Bangladeshi villagers. We used the same case-referent approach to examine the relation of arsenic to biopsy confirmed transition cell cancer (TCC) of the
[...] Read more.
In earlier analyses, we demonstrated dose-response relationships between renal and lung cancer and local arsenic concentrations in wells used by Bangladeshi villagers. We used the same case-referent approach to examine the relation of arsenic to biopsy confirmed transition cell cancer (TCC) of the ureter, bladder or urethra in these villagers. As the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has conclude that arsenic in drinking water causes bladder cancer, we expected to find higher risk with increasing arsenic concentration. We used histology/cytology results from biopsies carried out at a single clinic in Dhaka, Bangladesh from January 2008 to October 2011. We classified these into four groups, TCC (n = 1466), other malignancies (n = 145), chronic cystitis (CC) (n = 844) and other benign (n = 194). Arsenic concentration was estimated from British Geological Survey reports. Odds ratios were calculated by multilevel logistic regression adjusted for confounding and allowing for geographic clustering. We found no consistent trend for TCC with increasing arsenic concentration but the likelihood of a patient with benign disease having CC was significantly increased at arsenic concentrations >100 µg/L. We conclude that the expected relationship of TCC to arsenic was masked by over-matching that resulted from the previously unreported relationship between arsenic and CC. We hypothesize that CC may be a precursor of TCC in high arsenic areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arsenic in Drinking Water: Current Perspectives and Future Directions)
Open AccessArticle Enhanced Arsenate Removal Performance in Aqueous Solution by Yttrium-Based Adsorbents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(10), 13523-13541; doi:10.3390/ijerph121013523
Received: 27 August 2015 / Revised: 8 October 2015 / Accepted: 19 October 2015 / Published: 26 October 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1886 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Arsenic contamination in drinking water has become an increasingly important issue due to its high toxicity to humans. The present study focuses on the development of the yttrium-based adsorbents, with basic yttrium carbonate (BYC), Ti-loaded basic yttrium carbonate (Ti-loaded BYC) and yttrium hydroxide
[...] Read more.
Arsenic contamination in drinking water has become an increasingly important issue due to its high toxicity to humans. The present study focuses on the development of the yttrium-based adsorbents, with basic yttrium carbonate (BYC), Ti-loaded basic yttrium carbonate (Ti-loaded BYC) and yttrium hydroxide prepared using a co-precipitation method. The Langmuir isotherm results confirmed the maximum adsorption capacity of Ti-loaded BYC (348.5 mg/g) was 25% higher than either BYC (289.6 mg/g) or yttrium hydroxide (206.5 mg/g) due to its increased specific surface area (82 m2/g) and surface charge (PZC: 8.4). Pseudo first- and second-order kinetic models further confirmed that the arsenate removal rate of Ti-loaded BYC was faster than for BYC and yttrium hydroxide. It was subsequently posited that the dominant removal mechanism of BYC and Ti-loaded BYC was the carbonate-arsenate ion exchange process, whereas yttrium hydroxide was regarded to be a co-precipitation process. The Ti-loaded BYC also displayed the highest adsorption affinity for a wide pH range (3–11) and in the presence of coexisting anionic species such as phosphate, silicate, and bicarbonate. Therefore, it is expected that Ti-loaded BYC can be used as an effective and practical adsorbent for arsenate remediation in drinking water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arsenic in Drinking Water: Current Perspectives and Future Directions)
Open AccessArticle Unraveling Health Risk and Speciation of Arsenic from Groundwater in Rural Areas of Punjab, Pakistan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(10), 12371-12390; doi:10.3390/ijerph121012371
Received: 19 August 2015 / Revised: 19 September 2015 / Accepted: 25 September 2015 / Published: 5 October 2015
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (2973 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This study determined the total and speciated arsenic (As) concentrations and other health-related water quality parameters for unraveling the health risk of As from drinking water to humans. Groundwater samples (n = 62) were collected from three previously unexplored rural areas (Chichawatni,
[...] Read more.
This study determined the total and speciated arsenic (As) concentrations and other health-related water quality parameters for unraveling the health risk of As from drinking water to humans. Groundwater samples (n = 62) were collected from three previously unexplored rural areas (Chichawatni, Vehari, Rahim Yar Khan) of Punjab in Pakistan. The mean and median As concentrations in groundwater were 37.9 and 12.7 µg·L−1 (range = 1.5–201 µg·L−1). Fifty three percent groundwater samples showed higher As value than WHO safe limit of 10 µg·L−1. Speciation of As in groundwater samples (n = 13) showed the presence of inorganic As only; arsenite (As(III)) constituted 13%–67% of total As and arsenate (As(V)) ranged from 33% to 100%. For As health risk assessment, the hazard quotient and cancer risk values were 11–18 and 46–600 times higher than the recommended values of US-EPA (i.e., 1.00 and 10−6, respectively). In addition to As, various water quality parameters (e.g., electrical conductivity, Na, Ca, Cl, NO3, SO42−, Fe, Mn, Pb) also enhanced the health risk. The results show that consumption of As-contaminated groundwater poses an emerging health threat to the communities in the study area, and hence needs urgent remedial and management measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arsenic in Drinking Water: Current Perspectives and Future Directions)
Open AccessArticle Arsenic Accumulation and Translocation in Mangrove (Aegiceras corniculatum L.) Grown in Arsenic Contaminated Soils
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(7), 7244-7253; doi:10.3390/ijerph120707244
Received: 5 May 2015 / Revised: 11 June 2015 / Accepted: 19 June 2015 / Published: 26 June 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (998 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mangrove wetlands serve as both a sink and source for arsenic (As), as mangrove plants are able to uptake and accumulate As. The present study used pot experiments to evaluate As accumulation and translocation in mangrove (Aegiceras corniculatum L.) seedlings grown in As
[...] Read more.
Mangrove wetlands serve as both a sink and source for arsenic (As), as mangrove plants are able to uptake and accumulate As. The present study used pot experiments to evaluate As accumulation and translocation in mangrove (Aegiceras corniculatum L.) seedlings grown in As contaminated soils. Results indicated that A. corniculatum seedlings grew normally under As stress with minute growth inhibition and biomass reduction at different As treatment concentrations in a range of 0–150 mg·kg−1. As concentrations in roots, stems and leaves were increased with increasing As treatment concentrations, but As accumulated mainly in roots, with accumulation rates of 74.54%–89.26% of the total As accumulation. In particular, relatively high bioconcentration factor (BCF) in root (2.12–1.79), low BCF in stem (0.44–0.14) and leaf (0.06–0.01), and thereby a low translocation factor (TF) in stem/root (0.21–0.08) and leaf/root (0.02–0.008) were observed. These results demonstrated that A. corniculatum is an As excluder with the innate capacity to tolerate As stress and root tissues may be employed as a bio-indicator of As in polluted sediments. Additionally, A. corniculatum is a potential candidate mangrove species for As phytostabilization in tropical and subtropical estuarine wetlands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arsenic in Drinking Water: Current Perspectives and Future Directions)
Open AccessArticle Introducing Simple Detection of Bioavailable Arsenic at Rafaela (Santa Fe Province, Argentina) Using the ARSOlux Biosensor
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(5), 5465-5482; doi:10.3390/ijerph120505465
Received: 22 April 2015 / Revised: 6 May 2015 / Accepted: 14 May 2015 / Published: 21 May 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (880 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Numerous articles have reported the occurrence of arsenic in drinking water in Argentina, and the resulting health effects in severely affected regions of the country. Arsenic in drinking water in Argentina is largely naturally occurring due to elevated background content of the metalloid
[...] Read more.
Numerous articles have reported the occurrence of arsenic in drinking water in Argentina, and the resulting health effects in severely affected regions of the country. Arsenic in drinking water in Argentina is largely naturally occurring due to elevated background content of the metalloid in volcanic sediments, although, in some regions, mining can contribute. While the origin of arsenic release has been discussed extensively, the problem of drinking water contamination has not yet been solved. One key step in progress towards mitigation of problems related with the consumption of As-containing water is the availability of simple detection tools. A chemical test kit and the ARSOlux biosensor were evaluated as simple analytical tools for field measurements of arsenic in the groundwater of Rafaela (Santa Fe, Argentina), and the results were compared with ICP-MS and HPLC-ICP-MS measurements. A survey of the groundwater chemistry was performed to evaluate possible interferences with the field tests. The results showed that the ARSOlux biosensor performed better than the chemical field test, that the predominant species of arsenic in the study area was arsenate and that arsenic concentration in the studied samples had a positive correlation with fluoride and vanadium, and a negative one with calcium and iron. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arsenic in Drinking Water: Current Perspectives and Future Directions)
Open AccessArticle A Concurrent Exposure to Arsenic and Fluoride from Drinking Water in Chihuahua, Mexico
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(5), 4587-4601; doi:10.3390/ijerph120504587
Received: 14 February 2015 / Revised: 11 March 2015 / Accepted: 31 March 2015 / Published: 24 April 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1165 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Inorganic arsenic (iAs) and fluoride (F) are naturally occurring drinking water contaminants. However, co-exposure to these contaminants and its effects on human health are understudied. The goal of this study was examined exposures to iAs and F in Chihuahua, Mexico,
[...] Read more.
Inorganic arsenic (iAs) and fluoride (F) are naturally occurring drinking water contaminants. However, co-exposure to these contaminants and its effects on human health are understudied. The goal of this study was examined exposures to iAs and F in Chihuahua, Mexico, where exposure to iAs in drinking water has been associated with adverse health effects. All 1119 eligible Chihuahua residents (>18 years) provided a sample of drinking water and spot urine samples. iAs and F concentrations in water samples ranged from 0.1 to 419.8 µg As/L and from 0.05 to 11.8 mg F/L. Urinary arsenic (U-tAs) and urinary F (U-F) levels ranged from 0.5 to 467.9 ng As/mL and from 0.1 to 14.4 µg F/mL. A strong positive correlation was found between iAs and F concentrations in drinking water (rs = 0.741). Similarly, U-tAs levels correlated positively with U-F concentrations (rs = 0.633). These results show that Chihuahua residents exposed to high iAs concentrations in drinking water are also exposed to high levels of F, raising questions about possible contribution of F exposure to the adverse effects that have so far been attributed only to iAs exposure. Thus, investigation of possible interactions between iAs and F exposures and its related health risks deserves immediate attention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arsenic in Drinking Water: Current Perspectives and Future Directions)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview A Review of Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Bangladesh: The Millennium Development Goal Era and Beyond
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 215; doi:10.3390/ijerph13020215
Received: 23 November 2015 / Revised: 24 January 2016 / Accepted: 2 February 2016 / Published: 15 February 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (296 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Arsenic contamination in drinking water has a detrimental impact on human health which profoundly impairs the quality of life. Despite recognition of the adverse health implications of arsenic toxicity, there have been few studies to date to suggest measures that could be taken
[...] Read more.
Arsenic contamination in drinking water has a detrimental impact on human health which profoundly impairs the quality of life. Despite recognition of the adverse health implications of arsenic toxicity, there have been few studies to date to suggest measures that could be taken to overcome arsenic contamination. After the statement in 2000 WHO Bulletin that Bangladesh has been experiencing the largest mass poisoning of population in history, we researched existing literature to assess the magnitude of groundwater arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. The literature reviewed related research that had been initiated and/or completed since the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) under four domains: (1) extent of arsenic contamination; (2) health consequences; (3) mitigation and technologies and (4) future directions. To this means, a review matrix was established for analysis of previous literature based on these four core domains. Our findings revealed that several high-quality research articles were produced at the beginning of the MDG period, but efforts have dwindled in recent years. Furthermore, there were only a few studies conducted that focused on developing suitable solutions for managing arsenic contamination. Although the government of Bangladesh has made its population’s access to safe drinking water a priority agenda item, there are still pockets of the population that continue to suffer from arsenic toxicity due to contaminated water supplies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arsenic in Drinking Water: Current Perspectives and Future Directions)
Open AccessReview Technologies for Arsenic Removal from Water: Current Status and Future Perspectives
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(1), 62; doi:10.3390/ijerph13010062
Received: 20 November 2015 / Revised: 16 December 2015 / Accepted: 17 December 2015 / Published: 22 December 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1186 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review paper presents an overview of the available technologies used nowadays for the removal of arsenic species from water. Conventionally applied techniques to remove arsenic species include oxidation, coagulation-flocculation, and membrane techniques. Besides, progress has recently been made on the utility of
[...] Read more.
This review paper presents an overview of the available technologies used nowadays for the removal of arsenic species from water. Conventionally applied techniques to remove arsenic species include oxidation, coagulation-flocculation, and membrane techniques. Besides, progress has recently been made on the utility of various nanoparticles for the remediation of contaminated water. A critical analysis of the most widely investigated nanoparticles is presented and promising future research on novel porous materials, such as metal organic frameworks, is suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arsenic in Drinking Water: Current Perspectives and Future Directions)

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