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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(2), 205;

Factors Affecting Arsenic Methylation in Arsenic-Exposed Humans: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Department of Public Health, Shihezi University School of Medicine, Shihezi 832000, Xinjiang, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 November 2015 / Accepted: 2 February 2016 / Published: 6 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arsenic in Drinking Water: Current Perspectives and Future Directions)
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Chronic arsenic exposure is a critical public health issue in many countries. The metabolism of arsenic in vivo is complicated because it can be influenced by many factors. In the present meta-analysis, two researchers independently searched electronic databases, including the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Springer, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, to analyze factors influencing arsenic methylation. The concentrations of the following arsenic metabolites increase (p< 0.000001) following arsenic exposure: inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethyl arsenic (MMA), dimethyl arsenic (DMA), and total arsenic. Additionally, the percentages of iAs (standard mean difference (SMD): 1.00; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60–1.40; p< 0.00001) and MMA (SMD: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.21–0.77; p = 0.0006) also increase, while the percentage of DMA (SMD: −0.57; 95% CI: −0.80–−0.31; p< 0.0001), primary methylation index (SMD: −0.57; 95% CI: −0.94–−0.20; p = 0.002), and secondary methylation index (SMD: −0.27; 95% CI: −0.46–−0.90; p = 0.004) decrease. Smoking, drinking, and older age can reduce arsenic methylation, and arsenic methylation is more efficient in women than in men. The results of this analysis may provide information regarding the role of arsenic oxidative methylation in the arsenic poisoning process. View Full-Text
Keywords: arsenic; methylation; meta-analysis; human arsenic; methylation; meta-analysis; human

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Shen, H.; Niu, Q.; Xu, M.; Rui, D.; Xu, S.; Feng, G.; Ding, Y.; Li, S.; Jing, M. Factors Affecting Arsenic Methylation in Arsenic-Exposed Humans: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 205.

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