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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(5), 4587-4601; doi:10.3390/ijerph120504587

A Concurrent Exposure to Arsenic and Fluoride from Drinking Water in Chihuahua, Mexico

1
Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Chihuahua 31125, Mexico
2
Departamento de Toxicología, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Cinvestav-IPN), Mexico D. F. 07360, Mexico
3
Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7461, USA
4
Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Juárez del Estado de Durango (UJED), Gómez Palacio, Durango 35050, Mexico
5
IARC Monographs Section, IARC/WHO, Lyon Cedex 69372, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ravi Naidu and Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman
Received: 14 February 2015 / Revised: 11 March 2015 / Accepted: 31 March 2015 / Published: 24 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arsenic in Drinking Water: Current Perspectives and Future Directions)
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Abstract

Inorganic arsenic (iAs) and fluoride (F) are naturally occurring drinking water contaminants. However, co-exposure to these contaminants and its effects on human health are understudied. The goal of this study was examined exposures to iAs and F in Chihuahua, Mexico, where exposure to iAs in drinking water has been associated with adverse health effects. All 1119 eligible Chihuahua residents (>18 years) provided a sample of drinking water and spot urine samples. iAs and F concentrations in water samples ranged from 0.1 to 419.8 µg As/L and from 0.05 to 11.8 mg F/L. Urinary arsenic (U-tAs) and urinary F (U-F) levels ranged from 0.5 to 467.9 ng As/mL and from 0.1 to 14.4 µg F/mL. A strong positive correlation was found between iAs and F concentrations in drinking water (rs = 0.741). Similarly, U-tAs levels correlated positively with U-F concentrations (rs = 0.633). These results show that Chihuahua residents exposed to high iAs concentrations in drinking water are also exposed to high levels of F, raising questions about possible contribution of F exposure to the adverse effects that have so far been attributed only to iAs exposure. Thus, investigation of possible interactions between iAs and F exposures and its related health risks deserves immediate attention. View Full-Text
Keywords: adults; arsenic; drinking water; fluoride; groundwater adults; arsenic; drinking water; fluoride; groundwater
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

González-Horta, C.; Ballinas-Casarrubias, L.; Sánchez-Ramírez, B.; Ishida, M.C.; Barrera-Hernández, A.; Gutiérrez-Torres, D.; Zacarias, O.L.; Saunders, R.J.; Drobná, Z.; Mendez, M.A.; García-Vargas, G.; Loomis, D.; Stýblo, M.; Del Razo, L.M. A Concurrent Exposure to Arsenic and Fluoride from Drinking Water in Chihuahua, Mexico. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 4587-4601.

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