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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(1), 58;

Legionella pneumophila Seropositivity-Associated Factors in Latvian Blood Donors

Institute of Food Safety, Animal Health and Environment “BIOR”, Riga LV-1076, Latvia
Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Riga LV-1005, Latvia
Department of Infectology and Dermatology, Riga Stradiņš University, Riga LV-1007, Latvia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 30 October 2015 / Revised: 7 December 2015 / Accepted: 9 December 2015 / Published: 22 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arsenic in Drinking Water: Current Perspectives and Future Directions)
Full-Text   |   PDF [215 KB, uploaded 22 December 2015]


Continuous environmental exposure of humans to Legionella may induce immune responses and generation of antibodies. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of Legionella pneumophila serogroups (SG) 1–6 in the general healthy population and identify the associated host-related and environmental risk factors. L. pneumophila SG 1–6 seroprevalence among a total of 2007 blood samples collected from healthy donors was 4.8%. Seroprevalence was higher in women (5.9%) than men (3.3%) and in areas with a larger number of inhabitants, ranging from 3.5% in rural regions to 6.8% in the capital, Riga. Blood samples from inhabitants of apartment buildings tested positive for L. pneumophila in more cases (5.8%) compared to those from inhabitants of single-family homes (2.7%). Residents of buildings with a municipal hot water supply system were more likely to be seropositive for L. pneumophila (OR = 3.16, 95% CI 1.26–7.91). Previous episodes of fever were additionally identified as a risk factor (OR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.43–4.1). In conclusion, centralized hot water supply, female gender and previous episodes of fever were determined as the main factors associated with L. pneumophila seropositivity in our study population. View Full-Text
Keywords: Legionella pneumophila; seroprevalence; blood donors Legionella pneumophila; seroprevalence; blood donors
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Valciņa, O.; Pūle, D.; Lucenko, I.; Krastiņa, D.; Šteingolde, Ž.; Krūmiņa, A.; Bērziņš, A. Legionella pneumophila Seropositivity-Associated Factors in Latvian Blood Donors. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 58.

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