Special Issue "The Antioxidant Potential of the Skin"

A special issue of Cosmetics (ISSN 2079-9284).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Martina Meinke

Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Klinik für Dermatologie, Venerologie und Allergologie Charitéplatz 1, D-10117 Berlin, Germany
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Fax: 030 450 518 918

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The antioxidant potential (AOP) of the skin is known to be a decisive factor in skin aging, i.e., the depth of furrows and wrinkles and the risk of skin cancer. It can be influenced by various parameters such as lifestyle, stress, nutrition and illness. It can be increased by a healthy nutrition rich in vegetables and fruits, but also by topical application of creams rich in antioxidants. However, there are still controversial discussions about possible positive or negative effects of antioxidant supplementation. Fast and noninvasive methods to measure the cutaneous AOP are rare. On the other hand, stress reduces the AOP. Several studies have shown, e.g., that UV light as the major noxa reduces the AOP, but also light in the visible and near infrared spectral ranges induce radicals or changes in the biochemical parameters, thus affecting the AOP of cells and skin.

This Special Issue is dedicated to highlighting the benefits of antioxidant cosmetic products, which could be applied systemically or topically, and the methods to evaluate the biological effects of the products or provide new insights into the mechanisms of action in the skin.

Dr. Martina Meinke
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cosmetics is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) is waived for well-prepared manuscripts submitted to this issue. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • antioxidants
  • stress factors
  • nutrition, supplements
  • noninvasive methods
  • furrows
  • collagen-elastin index
  • cutaneous carotenoids
  • radical scavenging activity

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Rutin—Increased Antioxidant Activity and Skin Penetration by Nanocrystal Technology (smartCrystals)
Cosmetics 2016, 3(1), 9; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3010009
Received: 25 November 2015 / Revised: 5 February 2016 / Accepted: 14 February 2016 / Published: 29 February 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1382 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rutin is a well-known antioxidant from the group of flavonoids. Its use in cosmetic dermal products is, however, limited due to its poor water solubility. In order to increase rutin saturation solubility and improve the diffusion to the skin, rutin nanocrystals were produced
[...] Read more.
Rutin is a well-known antioxidant from the group of flavonoids. Its use in cosmetic dermal products is, however, limited due to its poor water solubility. In order to increase rutin saturation solubility and improve the diffusion to the skin, rutin nanocrystals were produced by the smartCrystal process, e.g., bead milling followed by high pressure homogenization. Rutin nanocrystals were further incorporated into hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) gel and its long-term stability was assessed. Determination of the antioxidant activity was made by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay for these formulations: rutin nanocrystals (mean size 300 nm), rutin raw drug powder (mean size 33 μm) and commercial product. Furthermore, the skin penetration profile of rutin was investigated by the tape-stripping method on porcine skin. This study demonstrated that rutin nanocrystal gel had the highest neutralizing activity (90%), followed by a commercial product and rutin raw drug powder. According to the skin study, rutin nanocrystals penetrated to the deeper layers of the stratum corneum, the horny layer of the skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Antioxidant Potential of the Skin)
Open AccessArticle Influence of the Systemic Application of Blue–Green Spirulina platensis Algae on the Cutaneous Carotenoids and Elastic Fibers in Vivo
Cosmetics 2015, 2(3), 302-312; doi:10.3390/cosmetics2030302
Received: 30 June 2015 / Revised: 13 August 2015 / Accepted: 18 August 2015 / Published: 1 September 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (770 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of a food supplement rich in antioxidants on the antioxidant status of the skin. For this reason, the blue-green algae Spirulina platensis powder was used for oral application during eight weeks. The effect
[...] Read more.
The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of a food supplement rich in antioxidants on the antioxidant status of the skin. For this reason, the blue-green algae Spirulina platensis powder was used for oral application during eight weeks. The effect of oral application of the antioxidant-containing Spirulina platensis on characteristic skin aging parameters, e.g., concentration of cutaneous carotenoids and the collagen/elastin index (SAAID), was investigated in vivo. A significant average increase from 2.67 ± 0.86 arb. units to 3.25 ± 0.93 arb. units (p < 0.001) in the cutaneous carotenoid concentration was detected subsequent to oral application of the carotenoid-containing Spirulina platensis powder, showing a significant improvement of the antioxidant status of the skin. A slight but not significant increase (p = 0.33) in the dermal SAAID mean values was measured from −0.54 ± 0.11 to −0.51 ± 0.11 subsequent to oral intake of Spirulina platensis powder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Antioxidant Potential of the Skin)
Open AccessArticle Thermal Behavior and Free-Radical-Scavenging Activity of Phytic Acid Alone and Incorporated in Cosmetic Emulsions
Cosmetics 2015, 2(3), 248-258; doi:10.3390/cosmetics2030248
Received: 15 May 2015 / Revised: 15 July 2015 / Accepted: 21 July 2015 / Published: 31 July 2015
PDF Full-text (1558 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Phytic acid is a natural compound widely used as depigmenting agent in cosmetic emulsions. Few studies are available in the literature covering the stability and the antioxidating property of this substance, used alone or into emulsions. Therefore, the purpose of this work was
[...] Read more.
Phytic acid is a natural compound widely used as depigmenting agent in cosmetic emulsions. Few studies are available in the literature covering the stability and the antioxidating property of this substance, used alone or into emulsions. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to investigate the thermal behavior and antioxidant properties of phytic acid alone and into cosmetic emulsions. The thermal behavior of this substance was evaluated by thermogravimetry (TG)/derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the free-radical-scavenging activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). TG/DTG and DSC curves allowed evaluation of the thermal behavior of phytic acid. These results showed that the substance presented four stages of mass loss. Thermal decomposition of the material initiated at 150 °C. Thermal behavior of the cosmetic emulsions detected that the addition of phytic acid decreased the thermal stability of the system. DPPH free-radical-scavenging activity showed that phytic acid incorporated into emulsion had no antioxidant capacity compared to BHT. In summary, we concluded that the thermoanalytical techniques (TG and DSC) were efficient and reliable in the characterization of phytic acid alone and incorporated into cosmetic emulsions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Antioxidant Potential of the Skin)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Stimulation of the Fibrillar Collagen and Heat Shock Proteins by Nicotinamide or Its Derivatives in Non-Irradiated or UVA Radiated Fibroblasts, and Direct Anti-Oxidant Activity of Nicotinamide Derivatives
Cosmetics 2015, 2(2), 146-161; doi:10.3390/cosmetics2020146
Received: 28 February 2015 / Accepted: 28 April 2015 / Published: 13 May 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (421 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In skin aging, from intrinsic factors or exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, there is loss of structural fibrillar collagen and regulatory heat shock proteins. Phenolic compounds, with hydroxyl groups attached to an aromatic ring, have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Nicotinamide is an amide
[...] Read more.
In skin aging, from intrinsic factors or exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, there is loss of structural fibrillar collagen and regulatory heat shock proteins. Phenolic compounds, with hydroxyl groups attached to an aromatic ring, have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Nicotinamide is an amide derivative of niacin or vitamin B3, with an amide linked to an aromatic ring, with UV absorptive, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cell death/apoptosis properties. The goal of this research was to investigate the anti-skin aging mechanism of nicotinamide and its derivatives, 2,6-dihydroxynicotinamide, 2,4,5,6-tetrahydroxynicotinamide, and 3-hydroxypicolinamide (collectively niacin derivatives), through the stimulation of fibrillar collagens (type I, III and V, at protein and/or promoter levels) and the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP)-27, 47, 70, and 90 in non-irradiated or UVA radiated dermal fibroblasts; and from its direct antioxidant activity. UVA radiation inhibited the expression of types I and III collagen, and HSP-47 in dermal fibroblasts. The niacin derivatives significantly and similarly stimulated the expression of types I (transcriptionally), III and V collagens in non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts indicating predominant effects. The 2,6-dihydroxynicotinamide had greater stimulatory effect on types I and III collagen in the non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts, as well as greater direct antioxidant activity than the other niacin derivatives. The niacin derivatives, with a few exceptions, stimulated the expression of HSP-27, 47, 70 and 90 in non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts. However, they had varied effects on the expression of the different HSPs in non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts indicating non-predominant, albeit stimulatory, effect. Overall, nicotinamide and its derivatives have anti skin aging potential through the stimulation of fibrillar collagen and HSPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Antioxidant Potential of the Skin)

Review

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Open AccessReview Skin Redox Balance Maintenance: The Need for an Nrf2-Activator Delivery System
Cosmetics 2016, 3(1), 1; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3010001
Received: 8 November 2015 / Revised: 7 January 2016 / Accepted: 7 January 2016 / Published: 15 January 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3104 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The skin, being the largest organ of the body, functions as a barrier between our body and the environment. It is consistently exposed to various exogenous and endogenous stressors (e.g., air pollutants, ionizing and non-ionizing irradiation, toxins, mitochondrial metabolism, enzyme activity, inflammatory process,
[...] Read more.
The skin, being the largest organ of the body, functions as a barrier between our body and the environment. It is consistently exposed to various exogenous and endogenous stressors (e.g., air pollutants, ionizing and non-ionizing irradiation, toxins, mitochondrial metabolism, enzyme activity, inflammatory process, etc.) producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and physical damage (e.g., wounds, sunburns) also resulting in reactive oxygen species production. Although skin is equipped with an array of defense mechanisms to counteract reactive oxygen species, augmented exposure and continued reactive oxygen species might result in excessive oxidative stress leading to many skin disorders including inflammatory diseases, pigmenting disorders and some types of cutaneous malignancy. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an emerging regulator of cellular resistance and of defensive enzymes such as the phase II enzymes. Induction of the Keap1–Nrf2 pathway may have a beneficial effect in the treatment of a large number of skin disorders by stimulating an endogenous defense mechanism. However, prolonged and enhanced activation of this pathway is detrimental and, thus, limits the therapeutic potential of Keap1–Nrf2 modulators. Here, we review the consequences of oxidative stress to the skin, and the defense mechanisms that skin is equipped with. We describe the challenges of maintaining skin redox balance and its impact on skin status and function. Finally, we suggest a novel strategy for maintenance of skin redox homeostasis by modulating the Keap1–Nrf2 pathway using nanotechnology-based delivery systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Antioxidant Potential of the Skin)
Open AccessReview Under Persistent Assault: Understanding the Factors that Deteriorate Human Skin and Clinical Efficacy of Topical Antioxidants in Treating Aging Skin
Cosmetics 2015, 2(4), 355-367; doi:10.3390/cosmetics2040355
Received: 12 August 2015 / Revised: 29 October 2015 / Accepted: 29 October 2015 / Published: 5 November 2015
PDF Full-text (749 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent studies contend that the skin is subject to far more damage than just ultraviolet (UV) light, with infrared radiation and pollution now clearly demonstrated to degrade cutaneous tissue. While consumers continue to strive for new ways to augment the aesthetic appeal and
[...] Read more.
Recent studies contend that the skin is subject to far more damage than just ultraviolet (UV) light, with infrared radiation and pollution now clearly demonstrated to degrade cutaneous tissue. While consumers continue to strive for new ways to augment the aesthetic appeal and improve the health of their skin, awareness regarding environmental insults and effective ways to protect the skin remains low. New advances in dermatologic science have exponentially increased the available information on the underlying mechanism of cutaneous damage and potential of topical antioxidants to treat aging skin. Combining antioxidants that can work through multiple pathways holds great potential for a cumulative and synergistic way to treat aging skin. Our goal is to provide a comprehensive review on environmental factors that damage human skin, discuss scientifically proven benefits of topical antioxidants, understand challenges of formulating and administering topical antioxidants, evaluate novel mechanisms of antioxidant activity, and suggest practical ways of integrating topical antioxidants with aesthetic procedures to complement clinical outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Antioxidant Potential of the Skin)
Open AccessReview Nanocarriers for Delivery of Antioxidants on the Skin
Cosmetics 2015, 2(4), 342-354; doi:10.3390/cosmetics2040342
Received: 14 August 2015 / Revised: 30 September 2015 / Accepted: 8 October 2015 / Published: 10 October 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1425 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Skin is protected from the harmful effects of free radicals by the presence of an endogenous antioxidant system. However, when exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, there is an imbalance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants, leading to oxidative stress and photoaging of the skin. It
[...] Read more.
Skin is protected from the harmful effects of free radicals by the presence of an endogenous antioxidant system. However, when exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, there is an imbalance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants, leading to oxidative stress and photoaging of the skin. It has been described that free radicals and other reactive species can cause severe damage to cells and cell components of the skin, which results in skin aging and cancer. To prevent these actions on skin, the use of topical antioxidant supplementation is a strategy used in the cosmetics industry and these antioxidants act on quenching free radicals. There are many studies that demonstrated the antioxidant activity of many phytochemicals or bioactive compounds by free radical scavenging. However, many bioactive substances are unstable when exposed to light or lose activity during storage. The potential sensitivity of these substances to light exposure is of importance in cosmetic formulations applied to skin because photo-degradation might occur, reducing their activity. One strategy to reduce this effect on the skin is the preparation of different types of nanomaterials that allow the encapsulation of the antioxidant substances. Another problem related to some antioxidants is their inefficient percutaneous penetration, which limits the amount of the active ingredient able to reach the site of action in viable epidermis and dermis. In this sense, the encapsulation in polymeric nanoparticles could enhance the permeation of these substances. Nanocarriers offers several advantages over conventional passive delivery, such as increased surface area, higher solubility, improved stability, controlled release, reduced skin irritancy, and protection from degradation. The different nanocarrier systems used in cosmetics include nanolipid delivery systems such as solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC), nanoemulsions (NEs), nanoparticles (NP) suspension, and polymer NPs, among others. In this review, we present the different types of nanomaterials used in cosmetic formulations to obtain the best effect of antioxidants applied onto the skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Antioxidant Potential of the Skin)
Open AccessReview Determination of the Antioxidant Status of the Skin by In Vivo-Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Spectroscopy
Cosmetics 2015, 2(3), 286-301; doi:10.3390/cosmetics2030286
Received: 15 July 2015 / Revised: 6 August 2015 / Accepted: 10 August 2015 / Published: 19 August 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1044 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Organisms produce free radicals which are essential for various metabolic processes (enzymatic oxidation, cellular respiration, signaling). Antioxidants are important chemical compounds that specifically prevent the oxidation of substances by scavenging radicals, especially reactive oxygen species (ROS). Made up of one or two unpaired
[...] Read more.
Organisms produce free radicals which are essential for various metabolic processes (enzymatic oxidation, cellular respiration, signaling). Antioxidants are important chemical compounds that specifically prevent the oxidation of substances by scavenging radicals, especially reactive oxygen species (ROS). Made up of one or two unpaired electrons, ROS are free radicals that are highly reactive and can attack other metabolites. By using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, it is possible to measure paramagnetic substances such as free radicals. Therefore the dermal antioxidant activity can be determined by applying semi-stable radicals onto the skin and measuring the antioxidant-induced radical scavenging activity in the skin. In recent years, EPR has been developed as a spectroscopic method for determining the antioxidant status in vivo. Several studies have shown that an additional uptake of dietary supplements, such as carotenoids or vitamin C in physiological concentrations, provide a protective effect against free radicals. Using the EPR technique it could be demonstrated that the radical production in stress situations, such as irradiation with infrared and visible light, was reduced with time. However, not only the oral uptake of antioxidants, but also the topical application of antioxidants, e.g., a hyperforin-rich cream, is very useful against the development of oxidative stress. Regular application of a hyperforin-rich cream reduced radical formation. The skin lipids, which are very important for the barrier function of the skin, were also stabilized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Antioxidant Potential of the Skin)
Open AccessReview Relevance of Natural Phenolics from Grape and Derivative Products in the Formulation of Cosmetics
Cosmetics 2015, 2(3), 259-276; doi:10.3390/cosmetics2030259
Received: 30 June 2015 / Revised: 26 July 2015 / Accepted: 28 July 2015 / Published: 13 August 2015
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (886 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The consumer demand for natural ingredients in cosmetic products is increasing. Phenolic compounds are among the most studied natural antioxidant compounds, they also present antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory or antiaging actions and can permeate through the skin barrier. Grapes contain valuable phenolic components and grape
[...] Read more.
The consumer demand for natural ingredients in cosmetic products is increasing. Phenolic compounds are among the most studied natural antioxidant compounds, they also present antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory or antiaging actions and can permeate through the skin barrier. Grapes contain valuable phenolic components and grape byproducts are widely available low cost raw materials. This review presents an overview of the application of phenolic compounds from grape products and byproducts as sources of natural ingredients for cosmetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Antioxidant Potential of the Skin)
Open AccessReview GHK-Cu may Prevent Oxidative Stress in Skin by Regulating Copper and Modifying Expression of Numerous Antioxidant Genes
Cosmetics 2015, 2(3), 236-247; doi:10.3390/cosmetics2030236
Received: 17 June 2015 / Revised: 8 July 2015 / Accepted: 21 July 2015 / Published: 28 July 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (843 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The copper binding tripeptide GHK (glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine) is a naturally occurring plasma peptide that significantly declines during human aging. It has been established that GHK:Copper(2+) improves wound healing and tissue regeneration and stimulates collagen and decorin production. GHK-Cu also supports angiogenesis and nerve outgrowth,
[...] Read more.
The copper binding tripeptide GHK (glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine) is a naturally occurring plasma peptide that significantly declines during human aging. It has been established that GHK:Copper(2+) improves wound healing and tissue regeneration and stimulates collagen and decorin production. GHK-Cu also supports angiogenesis and nerve outgrowth, improves the condition of aging skin and hair, and possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, it increases cellular stemness and secretion of trophic factors by mesenchymal stem cells. GHK’s antioxidant actions have been demonstrated in vitro and in animal studies. They include blocking the formation of reactive oxygen and carbonyl species, detoxifying toxic products of lipid peroxidation such as acrolein, protecting keratinocytes from lethal Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, and blocking hepatic damage by dichloromethane radicals. In recent studies, GHK has been found to switch gene expression from a diseased state to a healthier state for certain cancers and for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The Broad Institute’s Connectivity Map indicated that GHK induces a 50% or greater change of expression in 31.2% of human genes. This paper reviews biological data demonstrating positive effects of GHK in skin and proposes interaction with antioxidant-related genes as a possible explanation of its antioxidant activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Antioxidant Potential of the Skin)
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