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Cosmetics 2015, 2(3), 286-301; doi:10.3390/cosmetics2030286

Determination of the Antioxidant Status of the Skin by In Vivo-Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Spectroscopy

1
Department of Dermatology, Center of Experimental and Applied Cutaneous Physiology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin, Berlin 10117, Germany
2
The JM Smucker Company, Orrville 44677, OH, USA
3
BioActive Food GmbH, Bad Segeberg 23795, Germany
4
Klosterfrau Berlin GmbH, Berlin 10117, Germany
5
Laser-und Medizin-Technologie GmbH, Berlin 10117, Germany
6
Privatinstitut Galenus GmbH, Berlin 10117, German
7
Institute of Food Chemistry, Hamburg School of Food Science, University of Hamburg, Hamburg 20146, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Enzo Berardesca
Received: 15 July 2015 / Revised: 6 August 2015 / Accepted: 10 August 2015 / Published: 19 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Antioxidant Potential of the Skin)
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Abstract

Organisms produce free radicals which are essential for various metabolic processes (enzymatic oxidation, cellular respiration, signaling). Antioxidants are important chemical compounds that specifically prevent the oxidation of substances by scavenging radicals, especially reactive oxygen species (ROS). Made up of one or two unpaired electrons, ROS are free radicals that are highly reactive and can attack other metabolites. By using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, it is possible to measure paramagnetic substances such as free radicals. Therefore the dermal antioxidant activity can be determined by applying semi-stable radicals onto the skin and measuring the antioxidant-induced radical scavenging activity in the skin. In recent years, EPR has been developed as a spectroscopic method for determining the antioxidant status in vivo. Several studies have shown that an additional uptake of dietary supplements, such as carotenoids or vitamin C in physiological concentrations, provide a protective effect against free radicals. Using the EPR technique it could be demonstrated that the radical production in stress situations, such as irradiation with infrared and visible light, was reduced with time. However, not only the oral uptake of antioxidants, but also the topical application of antioxidants, e.g., a hyperforin-rich cream, is very useful against the development of oxidative stress. Regular application of a hyperforin-rich cream reduced radical formation. The skin lipids, which are very important for the barrier function of the skin, were also stabilized. View Full-Text
Keywords: electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR); free radicals; reactive oxygen species (ROS); antioxidants; carotenoids electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR); free radicals; reactive oxygen species (ROS); antioxidants; carotenoids
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lohan, S.B.; Lauer, A.-C.; Arndt, S.; Friedrich, A.; Tscherch, K.; Haag, S.F.; Darvin, M.E.; Vollert, H.; Kleemann, A.; Gersonde, I.; Groth, N.; Lademann, J.; Rohn, S.; Meinke, M.C. Determination of the Antioxidant Status of the Skin by In Vivo-Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Spectroscopy. Cosmetics 2015, 2, 286-301.

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