Determination of the Antioxidant Status of the Skin by In Vivo-Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Spectroscopy
AbstractOrganisms produce free radicals which are essential for various metabolic processes (enzymatic oxidation, cellular respiration, signaling). Antioxidants are important chemical compounds that specifically prevent the oxidation of substances by scavenging radicals, especially reactive oxygen species (ROS). Made up of one or two unpaired electrons, ROS are free radicals that are highly reactive and can attack other metabolites. By using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, it is possible to measure paramagnetic substances such as free radicals. Therefore the dermal antioxidant activity can be determined by applying semi-stable radicals onto the skin and measuring the antioxidant-induced radical scavenging activity in the skin. In recent years, EPR has been developed as a spectroscopic method for determining the antioxidant status in vivo. Several studies have shown that an additional uptake of dietary supplements, such as carotenoids or vitamin C in physiological concentrations, provide a protective effect against free radicals. Using the EPR technique it could be demonstrated that the radical production in stress situations, such as irradiation with infrared and visible light, was reduced with time. However, not only the oral uptake of antioxidants, but also the topical application of antioxidants, e.g., a hyperforin-rich cream, is very useful against the development of oxidative stress. Regular application of a hyperforin-rich cream reduced radical formation. The skin lipids, which are very important for the barrier function of the skin, were also stabilized. View Full-Text
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Lohan, S.B.; Lauer, A.-C.; Arndt, S.; Friedrich, A.; Tscherch, K.; Haag, S.F.; Darvin, M.E.; Vollert, H.; Kleemann, A.; Gersonde, I.; Groth, N.; Lademann, J.; Rohn, S.; Meinke, M.C. Determination of the Antioxidant Status of the Skin by In Vivo-Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Spectroscopy. Cosmetics 2015, 2, 286-301.
Lohan SB, Lauer A-C, Arndt S, Friedrich A, Tscherch K, Haag SF, Darvin ME, Vollert H, Kleemann A, Gersonde I, Groth N, Lademann J, Rohn S, Meinke MC. Determination of the Antioxidant Status of the Skin by In Vivo-Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Spectroscopy. Cosmetics. 2015; 2(3):286-301.Chicago/Turabian Style
Lohan, Silke B.; Lauer, Anna-Christina; Arndt, Sophia; Friedrich, Annette; Tscherch, Kathrin; Haag, Stefan F.; Darvin, Maxim E.; Vollert, Henning; Kleemann, Anke; Gersonde, Ingo; Groth, Norbert; Lademann, Jürgen; Rohn, Sascha; Meinke, Martina C. 2015. "Determination of the Antioxidant Status of the Skin by In Vivo-Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Spectroscopy." Cosmetics 2, no. 3: 286-301.