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Cosmetics 2016, 3(1), 9; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3010009

Rutin—Increased Antioxidant Activity and Skin Penetration by Nanocrystal Technology (smartCrystals)

1
Institute of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutics, Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology & NutriCosmetics, Kelchstr. 31, Berlin 12169, Germany
2
Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, Berlin 10117, Germany
3
Applied Pharmacy, University of Applied Sciences Kaiserslautern, Carl-Schurz-Str. 10-16, Pirmasens 66953, Germany
4
PharmaSol GmbH, Stubenrauchstr. 66, Berlin 12161, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Enzo Berardesca
Received: 25 November 2015 / Revised: 5 February 2016 / Accepted: 14 February 2016 / Published: 29 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Antioxidant Potential of the Skin)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1382 KB, uploaded 29 February 2016]   |  

Abstract

Rutin is a well-known antioxidant from the group of flavonoids. Its use in cosmetic dermal products is, however, limited due to its poor water solubility. In order to increase rutin saturation solubility and improve the diffusion to the skin, rutin nanocrystals were produced by the smartCrystal process, e.g., bead milling followed by high pressure homogenization. Rutin nanocrystals were further incorporated into hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) gel and its long-term stability was assessed. Determination of the antioxidant activity was made by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay for these formulations: rutin nanocrystals (mean size 300 nm), rutin raw drug powder (mean size 33 μm) and commercial product. Furthermore, the skin penetration profile of rutin was investigated by the tape-stripping method on porcine skin. This study demonstrated that rutin nanocrystal gel had the highest neutralizing activity (90%), followed by a commercial product and rutin raw drug powder. According to the skin study, rutin nanocrystals penetrated to the deeper layers of the stratum corneum, the horny layer of the skin. View Full-Text
Keywords: rutin; nanocrystals; smartCrystals; poor solubility; in vitro antioxidant activity; DPPH assay; radical scavenging; ex vivo penetration study; tape stripping; bioactivity rutin; nanocrystals; smartCrystals; poor solubility; in vitro antioxidant activity; DPPH assay; radical scavenging; ex vivo penetration study; tape stripping; bioactivity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pyo, S.M.; Meinke, M.; Keck, C.M.; Müller, R.H. Rutin—Increased Antioxidant Activity and Skin Penetration by Nanocrystal Technology (smartCrystals). Cosmetics 2016, 3, 9.

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