Skin Redox Balance Maintenance: The Need for an Nrf2-Activator Delivery System
AbstractThe skin, being the largest organ of the body, functions as a barrier between our body and the environment. It is consistently exposed to various exogenous and endogenous stressors (e.g., air pollutants, ionizing and non-ionizing irradiation, toxins, mitochondrial metabolism, enzyme activity, inflammatory process, etc.) producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and physical damage (e.g., wounds, sunburns) also resulting in reactive oxygen species production. Although skin is equipped with an array of defense mechanisms to counteract reactive oxygen species, augmented exposure and continued reactive oxygen species might result in excessive oxidative stress leading to many skin disorders including inflammatory diseases, pigmenting disorders and some types of cutaneous malignancy. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an emerging regulator of cellular resistance and of defensive enzymes such as the phase II enzymes. Induction of the Keap1–Nrf2 pathway may have a beneficial effect in the treatment of a large number of skin disorders by stimulating an endogenous defense mechanism. However, prolonged and enhanced activation of this pathway is detrimental and, thus, limits the therapeutic potential of Keap1–Nrf2 modulators. Here, we review the consequences of oxidative stress to the skin, and the defense mechanisms that skin is equipped with. We describe the challenges of maintaining skin redox balance and its impact on skin status and function. Finally, we suggest a novel strategy for maintenance of skin redox homeostasis by modulating the Keap1–Nrf2 pathway using nanotechnology-based delivery systems. View Full-Text
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Ben-Yehuda Greenwald, M.; Ben-Sasson, S.; Bianco-Peled, H.; Kohen, R. Skin Redox Balance Maintenance: The Need for an Nrf2-Activator Delivery System. Cosmetics 2016, 3, 1.
Ben-Yehuda Greenwald M, Ben-Sasson S, Bianco-Peled H, Kohen R. Skin Redox Balance Maintenance: The Need for an Nrf2-Activator Delivery System. Cosmetics. 2016; 3(1):1.Chicago/Turabian Style
Ben-Yehuda Greenwald, Maya; Ben-Sasson, Shmuel; Bianco-Peled, Havazelet; Kohen, Ron. 2016. "Skin Redox Balance Maintenance: The Need for an Nrf2-Activator Delivery System." Cosmetics 3, no. 1: 1.