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Cosmetics 2016, 3(1), 1; doi:10.3390/cosmetics3010001

Skin Redox Balance Maintenance: The Need for an Nrf2-Activator Delivery System

1
The David and Ines Myers Skin Research Laboratory, The Institute for Drug Research, School of Pharmacy, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 9112100, Israel
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Technion City, Haifa 3200003, Israel
3
The Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel
4
Department of Developmental Biology and Cancer Research, The Hebrew University Medical School, Ein-Karem Campus, Jerusalem 9112100, Israel
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Martina Meinke
Received: 8 November 2015 / Revised: 7 January 2016 / Accepted: 7 January 2016 / Published: 15 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Antioxidant Potential of the Skin)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3104 KB, uploaded 15 January 2016]   |  

Abstract

The skin, being the largest organ of the body, functions as a barrier between our body and the environment. It is consistently exposed to various exogenous and endogenous stressors (e.g., air pollutants, ionizing and non-ionizing irradiation, toxins, mitochondrial metabolism, enzyme activity, inflammatory process, etc.) producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and physical damage (e.g., wounds, sunburns) also resulting in reactive oxygen species production. Although skin is equipped with an array of defense mechanisms to counteract reactive oxygen species, augmented exposure and continued reactive oxygen species might result in excessive oxidative stress leading to many skin disorders including inflammatory diseases, pigmenting disorders and some types of cutaneous malignancy. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an emerging regulator of cellular resistance and of defensive enzymes such as the phase II enzymes. Induction of the Keap1–Nrf2 pathway may have a beneficial effect in the treatment of a large number of skin disorders by stimulating an endogenous defense mechanism. However, prolonged and enhanced activation of this pathway is detrimental and, thus, limits the therapeutic potential of Keap1–Nrf2 modulators. Here, we review the consequences of oxidative stress to the skin, and the defense mechanisms that skin is equipped with. We describe the challenges of maintaining skin redox balance and its impact on skin status and function. Finally, we suggest a novel strategy for maintenance of skin redox homeostasis by modulating the Keap1–Nrf2 pathway using nanotechnology-based delivery systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: skin; reactive oxygen species; Nrf2; delivery system; homeostasis skin; reactive oxygen species; Nrf2; delivery system; homeostasis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Ben-Yehuda Greenwald, M.; Ben-Sasson, S.; Bianco-Peled, H.; Kohen, R. Skin Redox Balance Maintenance: The Need for an Nrf2-Activator Delivery System. Cosmetics 2016, 3, 1.

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