Special Issue "Changes in Precipitation and Impacts on Regional Water Resources"

Quicklinks

A special issue of Climate (ISSN 2225-1154).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2014)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Heejun Chang (Website)

Department of Geography Institute for Sustainable Solutions Portland State University Portland, OR 97201, USA
Interests: hydrology and water resources; climate change impacts on hydrology and water resources; spatial hydrology; water-related ecosystem services; integrated water resource management
Guest Editor
Dr. Yonas B. Dibike (Website)

EC / W-CIRC, University of Victoria, PO BOX 3060 STN CSC, Victoria, British Columbia, V8W 3R4, Canada
Interests: climate change impacts in hydrology and water resources; hydro-climate analysis; statistical downscaling of hydro-climate variables
Guest Editor
Dr. Monica Ionita-Scholz (Website)

Alfred Wegener Institut für Polar und Meeresforschung - AWI, (Institute for Polar and Marine Research), Bussestrasse 24, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany
Interests: climate variability; hydroclimatology; streamflow variability and predictability; climate reconstructions from proxy data

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Changes to regional water availability will affect many aspects of human society, from agricultural productivity and energy use to flood control, municipal and industrial water supply, and fisheries and wildlife management. Water is tremendously important for both society and nature, and analyzing recent changes in precipitation regimes is a very important step towards understanding how such changes could affect regional water availability.

This special issue is looking for papers that examine the various aspects of spatial and temporal changes in precipitation and related parameters [e.g Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Standardized Precipitation and Evaporation Index (SPEI)] at all temporal and spatial scales. Studies may include analysis of changes in observed trends and variability in precipitation and related parameters, variability in precipitation and changes in atmospheric teleconnection patterns, changes in precipitation recycling, changes in extreme precipitation events that are associated with extreme hydrologic events (e.g., floods and droughts), and changes in the monsoon with climate change and regional impacts on water resources. Both empirical data analysis and regional climate modeling studies as they relate to changes in precipitation regimes are considered.

Prof. Dr. Heejun Chang
Dr. Yonas Dibike
Dr. Monica Ionita-Scholz
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Climate is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. For the first couple of issues the Article Processing Charge (APC) will be waived for well-prepared manuscripts. English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.


Keywords

  • precipitation changes
  • precipitation pattern
  • trends in precipitation
  • water availability
  • climate change
  • monsoon climate
  • extreme precipitation
  • atmospheric teleconnections
  • drought indices

Published Papers (12 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-12
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle Climate Change Induced Precipitation Effects on Water Resources in the Peace Region of British Columbia, Canada
Climate 2015, 3(2), 264-282; doi:10.3390/cli3020264
Received: 1 December 2014 / Revised: 4 March 2015 / Accepted: 4 March 2015 / Published: 26 March 2015
PDF Full-text (3391 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Climate change would significantly affect the temporal pattern and amount of annual precipitation at the regional level, which in turn would affect the regional water resources and future water availability. The Peace Region is a critical region for northern British Columbia’s social, [...] Read more.
Climate change would significantly affect the temporal pattern and amount of annual precipitation at the regional level, which in turn would affect the regional water resources and future water availability. The Peace Region is a critical region for northern British Columbia’s social, environmental, and economic development, due to its potential in various land use activities. This study investigated the impacts of future climate change induced precipitation on water resources under the A2 and B1 greenhouse gas emission scenarios for 2020–2040 in a study area along the main river of the Kiskatinaw River watershed in the Peace Region as a case study using the Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) modeling system. The simulation results showed that climate change induced precipitation changes significantly affect monthly, seasonal and annual stream flows. With respect to the mean annual stream flow of the reference period (2000–2011), the mean annual stream flow from 2020 to 2040 under the A2 and B1 scenarios is expected to increase by 15.5% and 12.1%, respectively, due to the increased precipitation (on average 5.5% in the A2 and 3.5% in the B1 scenarios) and temperature (on average 0.76 °C in the A2 and 0.57 °C in the B1 scenarios) predicted, with respect to that under the reference period. From the seasonal point of view, the mean seasonal stream flow during winter, spring, summer and fall from 2020 to 2040 under the A2 scenario is expected to increase by 10%, 16%, 11%, and 11%, respectively. On the other hand, under the B1 scenario these numbers are 6%, 15%, 6%, and 8%, respectively. Increased precipitation also resulted in increased groundwater discharge and surface runoff. The obtained results from this study will provide valuable information for the study area in the long-term period for seasonal and annual water extractions from the river and allocation to the stakeholders for future water supply, and help develop a regional water resources management plan for climate change induced precipitation changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changes in Precipitation and Impacts on Regional Water Resources)
Open AccessArticle Characterizing the Water Balance of the Sooke Reservoir, British Columbia over the Last Century
Climate 2015, 3(1), 241-263; doi:10.3390/cli3010241
Received: 8 October 2014 / Revised: 3 February 2015 / Accepted: 27 February 2015 / Published: 13 March 2015
PDF Full-text (3613 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Infrastructure such as dams and reservoirs are critical water-supply features in several regions of the world. However, ongoing population growth, increased demand and climate variability/change necessitate the better understanding of these systems, particularly in terms of their long-term trends. The Sooke Reservoir [...] Read more.
Infrastructure such as dams and reservoirs are critical water-supply features in several regions of the world. However, ongoing population growth, increased demand and climate variability/change necessitate the better understanding of these systems, particularly in terms of their long-term trends. The Sooke Reservoir (SR) of British Columbia, Canada is one such reservoir that currently supplies water to ~300,000 people, and is subject to considerable inter and intra-annual climatic variations. The main objectives of this study are to better understand the characteristics of the SR through an in-depth assessment of the contemporary water balance when the basin was intensively monitored (1996–2005), to use standardized runoff to select the best timescale to compute the Standard Precipitation (SPI) and Standard Precipitation Evaporation Indices (SPEI) to estimate trends in water availability over 1919 to 2005. Estimates of runoff and evaporation were validated by comparing simulated change in storage, computed by adding inputs and subtracting outputs from the known water levels by month, to observed change in storage. Water balance closure was within ±11% of the monthly change in storage on average when excluding months with spill pre-2002. The highest evaporation, dry season (1998) and lowest precipitation, wet season (2000/2001) from the intensively monitored period were used to construct a worst-case scenario to determine the resilience of the SR to drought. Under such conditions, the SR could support Greater Victoria until the start of the third wet season. The SPEI and SPI computed on a three-month timescale had the highest correlation with the standardized runoff, R2 equaled 0.93 and 0.90, respectively. A trend toward drier conditions was shown by SPEI over 1919 to 2005, while moistening over the same period was shown by SPI, although trends were small in magnitude. This study contributes a validated application of SPI and SPEI, giving more credit to their trends and estimated changes in drought. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changes in Precipitation and Impacts on Regional Water Resources)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Urban-Induced Mechanisms for an Extreme Rainfall Event in Beijing China: A Satellite Perspective
Climate 2015, 3(1), 193-209; doi:10.3390/cli3010193
Received: 3 September 2014 / Revised: 30 January 2015 / Accepted: 3 February 2015 / Published: 4 March 2015
PDF Full-text (2756 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Using 1 km satellite remote sensing observations, this paper examines the clouds, aerosols, water vapor and surface skin temperature over Beijing to understand the possible urban system contributions to the extreme rainfall event on 21 July 2012 (i.e., 721 event). [...] Read more.
Using 1 km satellite remote sensing observations, this paper examines the clouds, aerosols, water vapor and surface skin temperature over Beijing to understand the possible urban system contributions to the extreme rainfall event on 21 July 2012 (i.e., 721 event). Remote sensing measurements, with the advantage of high spatial resolution and coverage, reveal three key urban-related mechanisms: (a) the urban heat island effect (UHI) resulted in strong surface convection and high level cloud cover over Beijing; (b) urban aerosol amount peaked before the rainfall, which “seeded” the clouds and invigorated precipitation; and (c) urban tall buildings provided additional lift for the air mass and provided heat at the underlying boundary to keep the rainfall system alive for a long duration precipitation (>10 hours). With the existing rainfall system moving from the northwest and abundant water vapor was transported from the southeast into Beijing, the urban canyon-lifting, aerosol, and UHI effects all enhanced this extreme rainfall event. This work proves that urban system is responsible, at least partly, for urban rainfall extremes and thus should be considered for urban extreme rainfall prediction in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changes in Precipitation and Impacts on Regional Water Resources)
Open AccessArticle Regional Observed Trends in Daily Rainfall Indices of Extremes over the Indochina Peninsula from 1960 to 2007
Climate 2015, 3(1), 168-192; doi:10.3390/cli3010168
Received: 23 September 2014 / Revised: 26 January 2015 / Accepted: 10 February 2015 / Published: 17 February 2015
PDF Full-text (8081 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study analyzed the trends of extreme daily rainfall indices over the Indochina Peninsula from 1960 to 2007. The trends were obtained from high-resolution gridded daily rainfall data compiled by APHRODITE with coordinates of 4°N–25°N and 90E°–112°E. The indices were selected from [...] Read more.
This study analyzed the trends of extreme daily rainfall indices over the Indochina Peninsula from 1960 to 2007. The trends were obtained from high-resolution gridded daily rainfall data compiled by APHRODITE with coordinates of 4°N–25°N and 90E°–112°E. The indices were selected from the list of climate change indices recommended by ETCCDI, which is a joint group of WMO CCl, CLIVAR and JCOMM. The indices are based on the number of heavy rainfall days (≥10 mm), number of very heavy rainfall days (≥20 mm), number of extremely heavy rainfall days (≥25 mm), consecutive dry days (<1 mm), consecutive wet days (≥1 mm), daily maximum rainfall, five-day maximum rainfall, annual wet-day rainfall total, Simple Daily Intensity Index, very wet days, and extremely wet days. The indices were simulated by calculating different extreme characteristics according to wet and dry conditions, frequency, and intensity. Linear trends were calculated by using a least squares fit and significant or non-significant trends were identified using the Mann–Kendall test. The results of this study revealed contrasting trends in extreme rainfall in eastern and western Indochina Peninsula. The changes in extreme rainfall events in the east primarily indicate positive trends in the number of heavy rainfall days, very heavy rainfall days, extremely heavy rainfall days, consecutive wet days and annual wet-day rainfall total, with significant trends at times. These events correlated with the northeastern monsoon that influences the Indochina Peninsula from October to February annually. The results in the west primarily indicate negative trends in consecutive wet days, where significant trends were correlated with decreasing number of annual wet-day rainfall total, heavy rainfall days, very heavy rainfall days, and extremely heavy rainfall days. Daily maximum rainfall, five-day maximum rainfall, very wet days, and extremely wet days show random positive (negative) significant (non-significant) trends, while the simple daily intensity index shows positive trends that dominate the southern part of the Indochina Peninsula, with some grids show significant trends. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changes in Precipitation and Impacts on Regional Water Resources)
Open AccessArticle Changes in Average Annual Precipitation in Argentina’s Pampa Region and Their Possible Causes
Climate 2015, 3(1), 150-167; doi:10.3390/cli3010150
Received: 9 October 2014 / Revised: 4 January 2015 / Accepted: 12 January 2015 / Published: 20 January 2015
PDF Full-text (1896 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Changes in annual rainfall in five sub-regions of the Argentine Pampa Region (Rolling, Central, Mesopotamian, Flooding and Southern) were examined for the period 1941 to 2010 using data from representative locations in each sub-region. Dubious series were adjusted by means of a [...] Read more.
Changes in annual rainfall in five sub-regions of the Argentine Pampa Region (Rolling, Central, Mesopotamian, Flooding and Southern) were examined for the period 1941 to 2010 using data from representative locations in each sub-region. Dubious series were adjusted by means of a homogeneity test and changes in mean value were evaluated using a hydrometeorological time series segmentation method. In addition, an association was sought between shifts in mean annual rainfall and changes in large-scale atmospheric pressure systems, as measured by the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). The results indicate that the Western Pampas (Central and Southern) are more vulnerable to abrupt changes in average annual rainfall than the Eastern Pampas (Mesopotamian, Rolling and Flooding). Their vulnerability is further increased by their having the lowest average rainfall. The AMO showed significant negative correlations with all sub-regions, while the PDO and SOI showed significant positive and negative correlations respectively with the Central, Flooding and Southern Pampa. The fact that the PDO and AMO are going through the phases of their cycles that tend to reduce rainfall in much of the Pampas helps explain the lower rainfall recorded in the Western Pampas sub-regions in recent years. This has had a significant impact on agriculture and the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changes in Precipitation and Impacts on Regional Water Resources)
Open AccessArticle Fluctuation of Groundwater Levels and Recharge Patterns in Northern Ghana
Climate 2015, 3(1), 1-15; doi:10.3390/cli3010001
Received: 5 September 2014 / Accepted: 25 November 2014 / Published: 23 December 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1848 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Evaluating groundwater levels and recharge patterns is part of sustainably managing the water supply and predicting the possibility of water shortages, especially in light of climate change, extreme events (floods/droughts), increasing population and development. In the northern region of Ghana, groundwater is [...] Read more.
Evaluating groundwater levels and recharge patterns is part of sustainably managing the water supply and predicting the possibility of water shortages, especially in light of climate change, extreme events (floods/droughts), increasing population and development. In the northern region of Ghana, groundwater is increasingly relied upon as a source of potable water for rural populations, but seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations of groundwater levels and recharge patterns are not always known. The fluctuation of groundwater levels on a seasonal basis shows that groundwater levels at all sites increase in response to seasonal precipitation. On an annual basis, all sites show an overall net decline of groundwater levels over the study period, which may be associated with below-average departures of precipitation during five of the seven study years. The variability of recharge patterns among five sites is attributed to the spatio-temporal variability of precipitation and hydrogeologic site uniqueness. The overarching potential benefit of this study is to facilitate closing knowledge gaps and contribute to a foundation for a more robust evaluation of groundwater resources in the area, especially as more data become available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changes in Precipitation and Impacts on Regional Water Resources)
Open AccessArticle Climate Change Impacts on Streamflow Drought: A Case Study in Tseng-Wen Reservoir Catchment in Southern Taiwan
Climate 2015, 3(1), 42-62; doi:10.3390/cli3010042
Received: 6 June 2014 / Accepted: 11 December 2014 / Published: 23 December 2014
PDF Full-text (2337 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The study aims to assess climate change impacts on streamflow drought in a catchment upstream of Tseng-Wen Reservoir which is the main water supplier in southern Taiwan. A singular-value-decomposition statistical downscaling method and a stochastic weather generator were applied to six different [...] Read more.
The study aims to assess climate change impacts on streamflow drought in a catchment upstream of Tseng-Wen Reservoir which is the main water supplier in southern Taiwan. A singular-value-decomposition statistical downscaling method and a stochastic weather generator were applied to six different general circulation models for rainfall and temperature downscaling. Two emission climate change scenarios (A1B and B1) were used for rainfall and temperature projections during the two periods, 2010–2045 and 2081–2100. After rainfall and temperature projections, the HBV-based hydrological model was used to simulate future streamflows. By using the threshold level method, the characteristics of streamflow drought during the baseline period (1975–2000) and the future periods were calculated and compared. Important findings include: (1) the start and end times of scenario droughts occur earlier than those of baseline droughts; (2) streamflow under future scenarios during the dry period tends to decrease in January and February, but to increase in March and April; and (3) most of general circulation models’ results support that the drought duration and magnitude tend to decrease for a given return period in the future, and the occurrence probability of severer drought tends to decrease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changes in Precipitation and Impacts on Regional Water Resources)
Open AccessArticle Water Resource Management in Dry Zonal Paddy Cultivation in Mahaweli River Basin, Sri Lanka: An Analysis of Spatial and Temporal Climate Change Impacts and Traditional Knowledge
Climate 2014, 2(4), 329-354; doi:10.3390/cli2040329
Received: 28 July 2014 / Revised: 21 October 2014 / Accepted: 30 October 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
PDF Full-text (2202 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lack of attention to spatial and temporal cross-scale dynamics and effects could be understood as one of the lacunas in scholarship on river basin management. Within the water-climate-food-energy nexus, an integrated and inclusive approach that recognizes traditional knowledge about and experiences of [...] Read more.
Lack of attention to spatial and temporal cross-scale dynamics and effects could be understood as one of the lacunas in scholarship on river basin management. Within the water-climate-food-energy nexus, an integrated and inclusive approach that recognizes traditional knowledge about and experiences of climate change and water resource management can provide crucial assistance in confronting problems in megaprojects and multipurpose river basin management projects. The Mahaweli Development Program (MDP), a megaproject and multipurpose river basin management project, is demonstrating substantial failures with regards to the spatial and temporal impacts of climate change and socioeconomic demands for water allocation and distribution for paddy cultivation in the dry zone area, which was one of the driving goals of the project at the initial stage. This interdisciplinary study explores how spatial and temporal climatic changes and uncertainty in weather conditions impact paddy cultivation in dry zonal areas with competing stakeholders’ interest in the Mahaweli River Basin. In the framework of embedded design in the mixed methods research approach, qualitative data is the primary source while quantitative analyses are used as supportive data. The key findings from the research analysis are as follows: close and in-depth consideration of spatial and temporal changes in climate systems and paddy farmers’ socioeconomic demands altered by seasonal changes are important factors. These factors should be considered in the future modification of water allocation, application of distribution technologies, and decision-making with regards to water resource management in the dry zonal paddy cultivation of Sri Lanka. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changes in Precipitation and Impacts on Regional Water Resources)
Figures

Open AccessArticle The Impact of the East Atlantic/Western Russia Pattern on the Hydroclimatology of Europe from Mid-Winter to Late Spring
Climate 2014, 2(4), 296-309; doi:10.3390/cli2040296
Received: 20 May 2014 / Revised: 22 September 2014 / Accepted: 28 September 2014 / Published: 15 October 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (10170 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, the influence of the East Atlantic/Western Russia teleconnection pattern on the hydroclimatology of Europe, from mid-winter to late spring, is investigated. The influence of EAWR on the variability of precipitation (PP), temperature (TT) and standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) is [...] Read more.
In this study, the influence of the East Atlantic/Western Russia teleconnection pattern on the hydroclimatology of Europe, from mid-winter to late spring, is investigated. The influence of EAWR on the variability of precipitation (PP), temperature (TT) and standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) is investigated on the base of correlation and stability maps. It is shown that EAWR has a strong impact on the coupling between the sub-tropical Atlantic Jet and the African Jet, which in turn affects the climate variability over Europe from mid-winter to late spring. The strongest impact of the mid-winter EAWR over the European precipitation is found to be in mid-winter and early spring over the northern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula and the central and eastern part of Europe; while the influence of the mid-winter EAWR on European temperature persists from mid-winter to late spring, giving the possibility of a potential predictability for spring temperature over extended European regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changes in Precipitation and Impacts on Regional Water Resources)
Open AccessArticle Trends and Spatial Patterns of Drought Affected Area in Southern South America
Climate 2014, 2(4), 264-278; doi:10.3390/cli2040264
Received: 10 April 2014 / Revised: 5 September 2014 / Accepted: 17 September 2014 / Published: 26 September 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3134 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Based on 56 rainfall stations, which cover the period 1961–2008, we analyzed the presence of trends in the drought-affected area over southern South America (SSA) at different time scales. In order to define drought conditions, we used the standardized precipitation index, which [...] Read more.
Based on 56 rainfall stations, which cover the period 1961–2008, we analyzed the presence of trends in the drought-affected area over southern South America (SSA) at different time scales. In order to define drought conditions, we used the standardized precipitation index, which was calculated on time scales of 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. The trends were estimated following both a linear and a non-linear approach. The non-linear approach was based on the residual of the empirical mode decomposition, a recently proposed methodology, which is robust in presence of non-stationary data. This assessment indicates the existence of reversals in the trends of the drought affected, area around the 1990s, from decreasing trends during the first period to increasing trends during the recent period. This is indicative of the existence of a low-frequency variability that modulates regional precipitation patterns at different temporal scales, and warns about possible future consequences in the social and economic sectors if trends towards an increase in the drought affected area continue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changes in Precipitation and Impacts on Regional Water Resources)
Open AccessArticle Spatial-Temporal Variation and Prediction of Rainfall in Northeastern Nigeria
Climate 2014, 2(3), 206-222; doi:10.3390/cli2030206
Received: 17 April 2014 / Revised: 1 September 2014 / Accepted: 3 September 2014 / Published: 17 September 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (867 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In Northeastern Nigeria seasonal rainfall is critical for the availability of water for domestic use through surface and sub-surface recharge and agricultural production, which is mostly rain fed. Variability in rainfall over the last 60 years is the main cause for crop [...] Read more.
In Northeastern Nigeria seasonal rainfall is critical for the availability of water for domestic use through surface and sub-surface recharge and agricultural production, which is mostly rain fed. Variability in rainfall over the last 60 years is the main cause for crop failure and water scarcity in the region, particularly, due to late onset of rainfall, short dry spells and multi-annual droughts. In this study, we analyze 27 years (1980–2006) of gridded daily rainfall data obtained from a merged dataset by the National Centre for Environmental Prediction and Climate Research Unit reanalysis data (NCEP-CRU) for spatial-temporal variability of monthly amounts and frequency in rainfall and rainfall trends. Temporal variability was assessed using the percentage coefficient of variation and temporal trends in rainfall were assessed using maps of linear regression slopes for the months of May through October. These six months cover the period of the onset and cessation of the wet season throughout the region. Monthly rainfall amount and frequency were then predicted over a 24-month period using the Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) Model. The predictions were evaluated using NCEP-CRU data for the same period. Kolmogorov Smirnov test results suggest that despite there are some months during the wet season (May–October) when there is no significant agreement (p < 0.05) between the monthly distribution of the values of the model and the corresponding 24-month NCEP-CRU data, the model did better than simply replicating the long term mean of the data used for the prediction. Overall, the model does well in areas and months with lower temporal rainfall variability. Maps of the coefficient of variation and regression slopes are presented to indicate areas of high rainfall variability and water deficit over the period under study. The implications of these results for future policies on Agriculture and Water Management in the region are highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changes in Precipitation and Impacts on Regional Water Resources)
Open AccessArticle Spatial and Temporal Variability of Rainfall over the South-West Coast of Bangladesh
Climate 2014, 2(2), 28-46; doi:10.3390/cli2020028
Received: 6 January 2014 / Revised: 27 February 2014 / Accepted: 26 March 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (903 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examined the spatial and temporal rainfall variability from the 1940s to 2007 in the south west coastal region of Bangladesh. Time series statistical tests were applied to examine the spatial and temporal trends in three time segments (1948–1970, 1971–1990 and [...] Read more.
This study examined the spatial and temporal rainfall variability from the 1940s to 2007 in the south west coastal region of Bangladesh. Time series statistical tests were applied to examine the spatial and temporal trends in three time segments (1948–1970, 1971–1990 and 1991–2007) and four seasons (Pre-monsoon; Monsoon; Post-Monsoon and Winter), during the period 1948–2007. Eight weather stations were divided into two zones: exposed (exposed to sea) and interior (distant to sea). Overall, rainfall increased during the period 1948–2007, while the trends intensified during post-1990s. Post-monsoon and winter rainfall was observed to follow significant positive trends at most weather stations during the time period 1948–2007. The rate of change was found in exposed zone and interior zone are +12.51 and +4.86 mm/year, respectively, over post monsoon and +0.9 and +1.86 mm/year, respectively, over winter. These trends intensified both in the exposed zone (+45.81 mm/year) and the interior zone (+27.09 mm/year) 1990 onwards. Winter rainfall does not exhibit significant change (p > 0.1) over the exterior or interior zone, though individual stations like Jessore, Satkhira and Bhola show significant negative trends after 1990s. Although the trends were observed to weaken in the monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons, they are not significant. Moreover, an 11-year cyclicity was found within these two seasons, whilst no cyclicity was observed in the post-monsoon and winter seasons. Sequential Mann Kendal test reveals that the changes in two zones rainfall trends are started around mid-80s, where step change found only for fours season in Khulna stations and also for winter seasons in all weather stations. These changes may have a detrimental effect on rain-fed agriculture in Bangladesh. The application of palaeo-environmental techniques, threshold determination and rainfall analysis across the whole country could be useful to support adaptation planning of the rain-fed agro-economy in Bangladesh. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changes in Precipitation and Impacts on Regional Water Resources)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Climate Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
climate@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Climate
Back to Top