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Climate 2015, 3(1), 168-192; doi:10.3390/cli3010168

Regional Observed Trends in Daily Rainfall Indices of Extremes over the Indochina Peninsula from 1960 to 2007

1
Department of Mathematics, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140, Thailand
2
Environmental Science, Graduate Program of Mulawarman University, Samarinda 75123, Indonesia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Monica Ionita-Scholz
Received: 23 September 2014 / Revised: 26 January 2015 / Accepted: 10 February 2015 / Published: 17 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changes in Precipitation and Impacts on Regional Water Resources)

Abstract

This study analyzed the trends of extreme daily rainfall indices over the Indochina Peninsula from 1960 to 2007. The trends were obtained from high-resolution gridded daily rainfall data compiled by APHRODITE with coordinates of 4°N–25°N and 90E°–112°E. The indices were selected from the list of climate change indices recommended by ETCCDI, which is a joint group of WMO CCl, CLIVAR and JCOMM. The indices are based on the number of heavy rainfall days (≥10 mm), number of very heavy rainfall days (≥20 mm), number of extremely heavy rainfall days (≥25 mm), consecutive dry days (<1 mm), consecutive wet days (≥1 mm), daily maximum rainfall, five-day maximum rainfall, annual wet-day rainfall total, Simple Daily Intensity Index, very wet days, and extremely wet days. The indices were simulated by calculating different extreme characteristics according to wet and dry conditions, frequency, and intensity. Linear trends were calculated by using a least squares fit and significant or non-significant trends were identified using the Mann–Kendall test. The results of this study revealed contrasting trends in extreme rainfall in eastern and western Indochina Peninsula. The changes in extreme rainfall events in the east primarily indicate positive trends in the number of heavy rainfall days, very heavy rainfall days, extremely heavy rainfall days, consecutive wet days and annual wet-day rainfall total, with significant trends at times. These events correlated with the northeastern monsoon that influences the Indochina Peninsula from October to February annually. The results in the west primarily indicate negative trends in consecutive wet days, where significant trends were correlated with decreasing number of annual wet-day rainfall total, heavy rainfall days, very heavy rainfall days, and extremely heavy rainfall days. Daily maximum rainfall, five-day maximum rainfall, very wet days, and extremely wet days show random positive (negative) significant (non-significant) trends, while the simple daily intensity index shows positive trends that dominate the southern part of the Indochina Peninsula, with some grids show significant trends. View Full-Text
Keywords: extreme rainfall events; frequency; indices; Indochina Peninsula; intensity extreme rainfall events; frequency; indices; Indochina Peninsula; intensity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yazid, M.; Humphries, U. Regional Observed Trends in Daily Rainfall Indices of Extremes over the Indochina Peninsula from 1960 to 2007. Climate 2015, 3, 168-192.

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