Special Issue "Climate Impacts on Health"

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A special issue of Climate (ISSN 2225-1154).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Alessandro Pezzoli

World Habitat Cooperation Centre - WHCC Dipartimento Interateneo di Scienze, Progetto e Politiche del Territorio, Politecnico di Torino, e Università di Torino Viale Mattioli 39 10125 Turin, Italy
Website1 | Website2 | E-Mail
Phone: +393472221638
Fax: +39 0110433536
Interests: impact of the climate change on the human health; climate, weather and sports; climate change and society; climate change adaptation; sports engineering; sports performance analysis; environmental and weather effect on the sports performance; environmental ergonomics and sports

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is widely known in the scientific community that the world has begun to warm as a result of human influence. The accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, arising from the combustion of carbon fossil fuel, generates changing in the climate.
Indeed most studies have assessed the potential impacts of climate change on the health through the increased frequency and intensity of health waves, reduction in cold-related deaths, increased floods and droughts, changes in the distribution of vector-borne disease and effects on the risk of disasters and malnutrition.
However, the climate change differs from many other environmental health problems because of its gradual onset, widespread rather than localized effect and the fact that the most important effects will probably be indirect.
Some recent and important publications, as the “Atlas of Health and Climate” published jointly by the World Health Organization and the World Meteorological Organization, show that only the collaboration between the meteorological and the public health communities can help us to thoroughly study this link between climate and health.
In this special issue we welcome papers that examine the various aspects of the climate impact on health and we will use a multidisciplinary approach combining the research generated by both the meteorological scientific community and the health community.

Prof. Dr. Alessandro Pezzoli
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Climate is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. For the first couple of issues the Article Processing Charge (APC) will be waived for well-prepared manuscripts. English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.


Keywords

  • climate change, infections and diffusion of diseases
  • climate change, natural hazard and emergencies
    • floods and cyclone
    • drought
    • airborne dispersion of hazardous materials
    • smog (from wildfires or other causes) impacts on the health
  • air pollution related to health issues (e.g. VOCs, ozone, PM2.5, etc…)
  • health stress
  • UV radiation
  • pollen related allergies

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Climate and Human Health: Relations, Projections, and Future Implementations
Climate 2016, 4(2), 18; doi:10.3390/cli4020018
Received: 13 March 2016 / Accepted: 15 March 2016 / Published: 25 March 2016
PDF Full-text (189 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is widely accepted by the scientific community that the world has begun to warm as a result of human influence. The accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, arising primarily from the combustion of carbon fossil fuels and agricultural activities, generates changes
[...] Read more.
It is widely accepted by the scientific community that the world has begun to warm as a result of human influence. The accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, arising primarily from the combustion of carbon fossil fuels and agricultural activities, generates changes in the climate. Indeed various studies have assessed the potential impacts of climate change on human health (both negative and positive). The increased frequency and intensity of heat waves, the reduction in cold-related deaths, the increased floods and droughts, and the changes in the distribution of vector-borne diseases are among the most frequently studied effects. On the other hand, climate change differs from many other environmental health problems because of its gradual onset, widespread rather than localized effect, and the fact that the most important effects will probably be indirect. Some recent and important publications show that only the collaboration between the meteorological and the public health communities can help us to thoroughly study the link between climate and health, thus improving our ability to adapt to these future changes. The aim of this editorial is to give different perspectives on a widely discussed topic, which is still too complicated to be addressed to a satisfactory extent. Moreover, it is necessary to underline the importance of using new biometeorological indices (i.e. thermal indexes, etc.) for future projections, in order to reduce the impacts of negative outcomes, protecting the population through adaptation measures and public awareness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Impacts on Health)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Processes Prior and during the Early 18th Century Irish Famines—Weather Extremes and Migration
Climate 2015, 3(4), 1035-1056; doi:10.3390/cli3041035
Received: 8 September 2015 / Revised: 3 November 2015 / Accepted: 25 November 2015 / Published: 10 December 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (870 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper advances the current debates on famine and famine history, with a focus on the first half of the 18th century in Ireland. Ireland was often hit by severe famines and two of them, specifically the famines of 1728–1729 and 1740–1741, are
[...] Read more.
This paper advances the current debates on famine and famine history, with a focus on the first half of the 18th century in Ireland. Ireland was often hit by severe famines and two of them, specifically the famines of 1728–1729 and 1740–1741, are at the center of this article. The analysis of those famines will show the relevance of weather extremes as one driver in the functional chain of famines. Analyzing the linkage between weather extremes and social, political and economic vulnerabilities of the society further enhances the debate on past famines. Additionally, this paper focuses on the migration flows in the context of both Irish famines. These migration flows lay the foundation for the migration patterns during the “Great Irish Famine” of 1845–1852. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Impacts on Health)
Open AccessArticle Urban Extreme Weather: A Challenge for a Healthy Living Environment in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria
Climate 2015, 3(4), 775-791; doi:10.3390/cli3040775
Received: 21 May 2015 / Revised: 11 September 2015 / Accepted: 15 September 2015 / Published: 30 September 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1279 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The increasing rate of heat in the climate in urban areas has become one of the striking problems in many developing countries. This study examined the relationships between the monthly temperature, rainfall and incidence of heat-rash between 2003 and 2012 in order to
[...] Read more.
The increasing rate of heat in the climate in urban areas has become one of the striking problems in many developing countries. This study examined the relationships between the monthly temperature, rainfall and incidence of heat-rash between 2003 and 2012 in order to determine the impact of climate on occurrence of heat-rash in Akure, Ondo state, Nigeria. Data were obtained from Ondo State Specialist Hospital and Ondo State Meteorological Center. A line graph analysis was employed to identify the trend of the temperature, rainfall and incidence of this weather-based disease. Correlation analysis determined the relationship existing between the monthly temperature and the heat-rash. Tables and graphs were generally used for data presentation. The result shows that; the monthly temperature is low between the month of May and October when the minimum and maximum temperature is at 20.6 °C and 34.1 °C respectively; high temperature was recorded during the month of January, February, March and slightly different in April, November and December ranging from 24.6 °C to 35.1 °C.; the monthly temperature descends sharply during the month of March and remains low in April, May, June and July that characterized with high peak of rainfall; heat-rash has significant increase in 2003 (September), 2004 (September), 2007 (December), 2011 (November) and 2012 (October). The study recommends that people in this area and other related environments should engage in sensitizing the public on awareness of temperature—rash relationship and put up a measure of avoiding the heat effect during the periods of high temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Impacts on Health)
Open AccessArticle What Butterfly Effect? The Contextual Differences in Public Perceptions of the Health Risk Posed by Climate Change
Climate 2015, 3(3), 668-688; doi:10.3390/cli3030668
Received: 17 June 2015 / Revised: 11 August 2015 / Accepted: 13 August 2015 / Published: 19 August 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (360 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
One of the most difficult aspects of persuading the public to support climate change policy is the lack of recognition that climate change will likely have a direct impact on an individual’s life. Anecdotal evidence and arguments within the media suggest that those
[...] Read more.
One of the most difficult aspects of persuading the public to support climate change policy is the lack of recognition that climate change will likely have a direct impact on an individual’s life. Anecdotal evidence and arguments within the media suggest that those who are skeptical of climate change are more likely to believe that the negative externalities associated with climate change will be experienced by others, and, therefore, are not a concern to that individual. This project examines public perceptions of the health risk posed by climate change. Using a large national public opinion survey of adults in the United States, respondents were asked to evaluate the health risk for themselves, their community, the United States, and the world. The results suggest that individuals evaluate the risk for each of these contexts differently. Statistical analyses are estimated to identify the determinants of each risk perception to identify their respective differences. The implications of these findings on support for climate change policy are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Impacts on Health)
Open AccessCommunication Air Temperature and Death Rates in the Continental U.S., 1968–2013
Climate 2015, 3(2), 435-441; doi:10.3390/cli3020435
Received: 21 May 2015 / Revised: 12 June 2015 / Accepted: 15 June 2015 / Published: 18 June 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (91 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A previous test of global warming theory, on a local level, for Texas revealed inverse correlations between air temperature and death rates. The present study expands the test field to the continental U.S. Using an ecological design, mean daily maximum air temperature (“temperature”)
[...] Read more.
A previous test of global warming theory, on a local level, for Texas revealed inverse correlations between air temperature and death rates. The present study expands the test field to the continental U.S. Using an ecological design, mean daily maximum air temperature (“temperature”) in the 48 contiguous states plus the District of Columbia by year from 1968–2013 was compared to age-adjusted all-cause mortality (“deaths”) in these same jurisdictions for the same years using Pearson correlation (n = 46 years). The comparison was made for three race categories, white, black, and all races, where each category included all ages and both genders. There was 5.0 degree F range for the years studied (62.7–67.7 degrees F). Correlations were moderate strength, inverse, and statistically significant, as follows. Whites: r = −0.576, p < 0.0001; Blacks: r = −0.556, p = 0.0001; and all races: r = −0.577, p < 0.0001. These correlations are consistent with the Texas study, both of which indicated that warmer years tended to correlate with decreased death rates. A limitation to this research is its (ecological) design, but is an initial step towards further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Impacts on Health)
Open AccessArticle Heat Wave Events over Georgia Since 1961: Climatology, Changes and Severity
Climate 2015, 3(2), 308-328; doi:10.3390/cli3020308
Received: 27 February 2015 / Revised: 24 March 2015 / Accepted: 30 March 2015 / Published: 16 April 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2276 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Caucasus Region has been affected by an increasing number of heat waves during the last decades, which have had serious impacts on human health, agriculture and natural ecosystems. A dataset of 22 homogenized, daily maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin
[...] Read more.
The Caucasus Region has been affected by an increasing number of heat waves during the last decades, which have had serious impacts on human health, agriculture and natural ecosystems. A dataset of 22 homogenized, daily maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) air temperature series is developed to quantify climatology and summer heat wave changes for Georgia and Tbilisi station between 1961 and 2010 using the extreme heat factor (EHF) as heat wave index. The EHF is studied with respect to eight heat wave aspects: event number, duration, participating heat wave days, peak and mean magnitude, number of heat wave days, severe and extreme heat wave days. A severity threshold for each station was determined by the climatological distribution of heat wave intensity. Moreover, heat wave series of two indices focusing on the 90th percentile of daily minimum temperature (CTN90p) and the 90th percentile of daily maximum temperature (CTX90p) were compared. The spatial distribution of heat wave characteristics over Georgia showed a concentration of high heat wave amplitudes and mean magnitudes in the Southwest. The longest and most frequently occurring heat wave events were observed in the Southeast of Georgia. Most severe heat wave events were found in both regions. Regarding the monthly distribution of heat waves, the largest proportion of severe events and highest intensities are measured during May. Trends for all Georgia-averaged heat wave aspects demonstrate significant increases in the number, intensity and duration of low- and high-intensity heat waves. However, for the heat wave mean magnitude no change was observed. Heat wave trend magnitudes for Tbilisi mainly exceed the Georgia-averages and its surrounding stations, implying urban heat island (UHI) effects and synergistic interactions between heat waves and UHIs. Comparing heat wave aspects for CTN90p and CTX90p, all trend magnitudes for CTN90p were larger, while the correlation between the annual time-series was very high among all heat wave indices analyzed. This finding reflects the importance of integrating the most suitable heat wave index into a sector-specific impact analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Impacts on Health)
Open AccessArticle Climate Change Effects on Heat Waves and Future Heat Wave-Associated IHD Mortality in Germany
Climate 2015, 3(1), 100-117; doi:10.3390/cli3010100
Received: 26 November 2014 / Accepted: 17 December 2014 / Published: 26 December 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (5326 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The influence of future climate change on the occurrence of heat waves and its implications for heat wave-related mortality due to ischemic heart diseases (IHD) in Germany is studied. Simulations of 19 regional climate models with a spatial resolution of 0.25° × 0.25°
[...] Read more.
The influence of future climate change on the occurrence of heat waves and its implications for heat wave-related mortality due to ischemic heart diseases (IHD) in Germany is studied. Simulations of 19 regional climate models with a spatial resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° forced by the moderate climate change scenario A1B are analyzed. Three model time periods of 30 years are evaluated, representing present climate (1971–2000), near future climate (2021–2050), and remote future climate (2069–2098). Heat waves are defined as periods of at least three consecutive days with daily mean air temperature above the 97.5th percentile of the all-season temperature distribution. Based on the model simulations, future heat waves in Germany will be significantly more frequent, longer lasting and more intense. By the end of the 21st century, the number of heat waves will be tripled compared to present climate. Additionally, the average duration of heat waves will increase by 25%, accompanied by an increase of the average temperature during heat waves by about 1 K. Regional analyses show that stronger than average climate change effects are observed particularly in the southern regions of Germany. Furthermore, we investigated climate change impacts on IHD mortality in Germany applying temperature projections from 19 regional climate models to heat wave mortality relationships identified in a previous study. Future IHD excess deaths were calculated both in the absence and presence of some acclimatization (i.e., that people are able to physiologically acclimatize to enhanced temperature levels in the future time periods by 0% and 50%, respectively). In addition to changes in heat wave frequency, we incorporated also changes in heat wave intensity and duration into the future mortality evaluations. The results indicate that by the end of the 21st century the annual number of IHD excess deaths in Germany attributable to heat waves is expected to rise by factor 2.4 and 5.1 in the acclimatization and non-acclimatization approach, respectively. Even though there is substantial variability across the individual model simulations, it is most likely that the future burden of heat will increase considerably. The obtained results point to public health interventions to reduce the vulnerability of the population to heat waves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Impacts on Health)
Open AccessArticle A Survey of Dutch Expert Opinion on Climatic Drivers of Infectious Disease Risk in Western Europe
Climate 2014, 2(4), 310-328; doi:10.3390/cli2040310
Received: 30 June 2014 / Revised: 6 November 2014 / Accepted: 7 November 2014 / Published: 17 November 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (963 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Climate change is considered to be a significant influence for infectious disease risk in Western Europe. Climatic and non-climatic developments act together resulting in current and future infectious disease risk. This study uses a survey to explore Dutch expert perspectives on climate change
[...] Read more.
Climate change is considered to be a significant influence for infectious disease risk in Western Europe. Climatic and non-climatic developments act together resulting in current and future infectious disease risk. This study uses a survey to explore Dutch expert perspectives on climate change induced infectious disease risk. The results show that the experts consider temperature change, precipitation change, humidity change, and climate change induced habitat change to be relatively important for water-related infectious disease risk, vector-borne disease risk excluding zoonoses, and the risk of zoonoses. The climatic drivers are seen as relatively less important for food-related infectious disease risk. The experts rate many non-climatic drivers to be highly important for infectious disease risk. Comparatively, the majority of the non-climatic drivers assessed are seen as more important than climate change drivers. The degree of uncertainty in the future development of climatic drivers is viewed as moderate to high, and for non-climatic drivers mostly as moderate. An analysis of subsamples based on professional backgrounds reveals differences in experts’ opinions for e.g., socio-cultural drivers, and similarities. Diversity and consensus amongst expert perspectives on climate change and infectious diseases can have implications for policy. Further research to uncover and compare prevailing perspectives is necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Impacts on Health)
Open AccessArticle Influence of Heat Waves on Ischemic Heart Diseases in Germany
Climate 2014, 2(3), 133-152; doi:10.3390/cli2030133
Received: 4 May 2014 / Revised: 16 June 2014 / Accepted: 18 June 2014 / Published: 26 June 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (621 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The impact of heat waves on ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality and morbidity in Germany during 2001–2010 is analyzed. Heat waves are defined as periods of at least three consecutive days with daily mean temperature above the 97.5th percentile of the temperature distribution.
[...] Read more.
The impact of heat waves on ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality and morbidity in Germany during 2001–2010 is analyzed. Heat waves are defined as periods of at least three consecutive days with daily mean temperature above the 97.5th percentile of the temperature distribution. Daily excess mortality and morbidity rates are used. All calculations were performed separately for 19 regions to allow for the investigation of regional differences. The results show that IHD mortality during heat waves is significantly increased (+15.2% more deaths on heat wave days). In stark contrast, no heat wave influence on hospital admissions due to IHD could be observed. Regional differences in heat wave IHD mortality are present, with the strongest impact in Western Germany and weaker than average effects in the Southeastern and Northwestern regions. The increase in mortality during heat waves is generally stronger for females (+18.7%) than for males (+11.4%), and for chronic ischemic diseases (+18.4%) than for myocardial infarctions (+12.2%). Longer and more intense heat waves feature stronger effects on IHD mortality, while timing in season seems to be less important. Since climate change will most likely enhance the number and intensity of heat waves, the obtained results point to public adaptation strategies to reduce the future heat wave impact on mortality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Impacts on Health)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Open AccessReview The Health Effects of Climate Change in the WHO European Region
Climate 2015, 3(4), 901-936; doi:10.3390/cli3040901
Received: 30 June 2015 / Revised: 27 October 2015 / Accepted: 29 October 2015 / Published: 16 November 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (720 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The evidence of observed health effects as well as projections of future health risks from climate variability and climate change is growing. This article summarizes new knowledge on these health risks generated since the IPCC fourth assessment report (AR4) was published in 2007,
[...] Read more.
The evidence of observed health effects as well as projections of future health risks from climate variability and climate change is growing. This article summarizes new knowledge on these health risks generated since the IPCC fourth assessment report (AR4) was published in 2007, with a specific focus on the 53 countries comprising the WHO European Region. Many studies on the effects of weather, climate variability, and climate change on health in the European Region have been published since 2007, increasing the level of certainty with regard to already known health threats. Exposures to temperature extremes, floods, storms, and wildfires have effects on cardiovascular and respiratory health. Climate- and weather-related health risks from worsening food and water safety and security, poor air quality, and ultraviolet radiation exposure as well as increasing allergic diseases, vector- and rodent-borne diseases, and other climate-sensitive health outcomes also warrant attention and policy action to protect human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Impacts on Health)
Open AccessReview Emerging Environmental and Weather Challenges in Outdoor Sports
Climate 2015, 3(3), 492-521; doi:10.3390/cli3030492
Received: 25 March 2015 / Revised: 2 July 2015 / Accepted: 6 July 2015 / Published: 14 July 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (433 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Given the climatic changes around the world and the growing outdoor sports participation, existing guidelines and recommendations for exercising in naturally challenging environments such as heat, cold or altitude, exhibit potential shortcomings. Continuous efforts from sport sciences and exercise physiology communities aim at
[...] Read more.
Given the climatic changes around the world and the growing outdoor sports participation, existing guidelines and recommendations for exercising in naturally challenging environments such as heat, cold or altitude, exhibit potential shortcomings. Continuous efforts from sport sciences and exercise physiology communities aim at minimizing the risks of environmental-related illnesses during outdoor sports practices. Despite this, the use of simple weather indices does not permit an accurate estimation of the likelihood of facing thermal illnesses. This provides a critical foundation to modify available human comfort modeling and to integrate bio-meteorological data in order to improve the current guidelines. Although it requires further refinement, there is no doubt that standardizing the recently developed Universal Thermal Climate Index approach and its application in the field of sport sciences and exercise physiology may help to improve the appropriateness of the current guidelines for outdoor, recreational and competitive sports participation. This review first summarizes the main environmental-related risk factors that are susceptible to increase with recent climate changes when exercising outside and offers recommendations to combat them appropriately. Secondly, we briefly address the recent development of thermal stress models to assess the thermal comfort and physiological responses when practicing outdoor activities in challenging environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Impacts on Health)
Open AccessReview The Economics of Health Damage and Adaptation to Climate Change in Europe: A Review of the Conventional and Grey Literature
Climate 2015, 3(3), 522-541; doi:10.3390/cli3030522
Received: 13 April 2015 / Revised: 1 July 2015 / Accepted: 7 July 2015 / Published: 14 July 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (646 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Economic evidence is a key component of public policy responses to complex societal and health problems, including climate change. Activities to protect human health from climate change should routinely be evaluated not only in terms of their effectiveness or unintended consequences, but also
[...] Read more.
Economic evidence is a key component of public policy responses to complex societal and health problems, including climate change. Activities to protect human health from climate change should routinely be evaluated not only in terms of their effectiveness or unintended consequences, but also in terms of the health damage cost of inaction, the cost of health adaptation, and the monetized benefits of different alternatives. In this paper we reviewed the economic evidence on the health impacts of climate change and health-relevant adaptation within the 53 Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region, including grey literature and conventional scientific literature. We found that the evidence base on the health economics of climate change is scarce, incomplete and inconsistent. Despite these shortcomings, the existing evidence clearly indicates that adaptation to avert the health impacts of climate change could provide substantial economic benefits, particularly in the poorer areas of the Region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Impacts on Health)

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Type of Paper: Article
Title:
What Butterfly Effect? The Contextual Differences in Public Perceptions of the Health Risk Posed by Climate Change
Authors:
James W. Stoutenborough, Kellee J. Kirkpatrick and Arnold Vedlitz
Affiliation:

1Idaho State University
2Texas A&M University
Abstract: One of the most difficult aspects of persuading the public to support climate change policy is the lack of recognition that climate change will likely have a direct impact on an individual’s life. Anecdotal evidence and arguments within the media suggest that those who are skeptical of climate change are more likely to believe that the negative externalities associated with climate change are to be experienced by others and therefore, are not a concern to that individual. This project examines public perceptions of the health risk posed by climate change. Using a large national public opinion survey of adults in the United States, respondents were asked to evaluate the health risk for themselves, their community, the United States, and the world. The results suggest that individuals evaluate the risk for each of these contexts differently. Statistical analyses are estimated to identify the determinants of each risk perception to identify their respective differences. The implications of these findings on support for climate change policy are discussed.

 

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