Special Issue "Environment and Sport Performance"

A special issue of Sports (ISSN 2075-4663).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Alessandro Pezzoli

Universita degli Studi di Torino, Interuniversity Department of Regional and Urban Studies and Planning (DIST), Torino, Italy
Website1 | Website2 | E-Mail
Interests: climate; meteorology; hydrology; physical geography; risk assessment; risk management
Guest Editor
Dr. Christian Finnsgard

Chalmers Sports & Technology Centre, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden
Website | E-Mail
Interests: sports technology; applying technology in sport; performance in sports; hydrodynamics; composites; sailing; maritime; logistics; supply chain management
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Paolo de Girolamo

Maritime Constructions, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (DICEA), University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Via Eudossiana, 18 00184, Rome, Italy
E-Mail
Phone: +39063269461
Fax: +390632694634
Interests: wind waves mechanics; induced wave forces on structures and floating bodies; detection, generation and propagation of tsunami waves; effect of climate change in oceans and along the coasts; meteo-oceanographic parameters

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Performance analysis is an objective way of recording performance so that key elements of a performance can be quantified in a valid and consistent manner (Hughes and Franck, 2008).

The effect of environmental conditions on sports has been extensively studied over the last few years. Most outdoor sports activities, and endurance sports in particular, are strongly influenced by variations of meteorological parameters.

Notwithstanding, the conditions of the outdoor environment are often not considered when evaluating sport performance, as if they were not important. Sport performance is strongly related to environmental conditions.

Moreover, environmental conditions affect the measurement’s processes of sport performance more in indoor sports than in outdoor sports (i.e., swimming, rowing, sailing, etc.).

The aim of this Special Issue is to assess how it is possible to integrate the different measures used to evaluate sport performance, looking at performance analysis in a holistic vision.

Is it possible to consider the timing analysis of a rowing regatta, avoiding weather data? Is it possible to consider a performance as a notational and strategic analysis of a sailing regatta while neglecting the weather and the environmental data? Is it possible to analyze the performance of the endurance of athletes, disregarding the weather and environmental data? It is possible to develop materials for outdoor sports without taking into account the effects of the environment?

Finally, how is it possible to integrate different measures (position, environment, weather, performance data, such as Heart Rate Frequencies (HRF), power expressed by the athletes, etc.) without interfering with the athlete’s performance and without a disturbance of the measurement processes from the environment?

To address these and related questions is the aim for this Special Issue.

Dr.-Ing. Alessandro Pezzoli
Dr.-Ing. Christian Finnsgard
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Paolo de Girolamo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sports is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Environment
  • Sport Performance
  • Measurement’s Processes
  • Thermal Comfort
  • Sport Material
  • Wind
  • Waves

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Does Avalanche Shovel Shape Affect Excavation Time: A Pilot Study
Received: 10 April 2017 / Revised: 17 May 2017 / Accepted: 19 May 2017 / Published: 23 May 2017
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Abstract
In Europe and North America, approximately 150 fatalities occur as a result of avalanches every year. However, it is unclear whether certain shovel shapes are more effective than others in snow removal during avalanche victim recovery. The objective was to determine the performance
[...] Read more.
In Europe and North America, approximately 150 fatalities occur as a result of avalanches every year. However, it is unclear whether certain shovel shapes are more effective than others in snow removal during avalanche victim recovery. The objective was to determine the performance parameters with a developed standardized test using different shovel shapes and to determine sex-specific differences. Hence, several parameters were determined for clearing the snow from a snow filled box (15 men, 14 women). A flat (F) and a deep (D) shovel blade with the shaft connected straight (S) or in clearing mode (C) were used for the investigation of the shovel shapes FS, DC and the subsequent use of DC&DS. Mean snow mass shifted per unit time increased significantly from 1.50 kg/s with FS to 1.71 kg/s (14%) with DS and further to 1.79 kg/s (4%) with DC&DS for all participants. Snow mass shifted per unit time was 44% higher (p < 0.05) for men than for women. In excavation operations, the sex-specific physical performance should be taken into account. The results were limited to barely binding snow, because only with this snow did the tests show a high reliability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment and Sport Performance)
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Open AccessArticle Airflow-Restricting Mask Reduces Acute Performance in Resistance Exercise
Received: 3 August 2016 / Revised: 12 September 2016 / Accepted: 18 September 2016 / Published: 23 September 2016
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Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to compare the number of repetitions to volitional failure, the blood lactate concentration, and the perceived exertion to resistance training with and without an airflow-restricting mask. Methods: Eight participants participated in a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover study.
[...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to compare the number of repetitions to volitional failure, the blood lactate concentration, and the perceived exertion to resistance training with and without an airflow-restricting mask. Methods: Eight participants participated in a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover study. Participants were assigned to an airflow-restricting mask group (MASK) or a control group (CONT) and completed five sets of chest presses and parallel squats until failure at 75% one-repetition-maximum test (1RM) with 60 s of rest between sets. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs), blood lactate concentrations (Lac), and total repetitions were taken after the training session. Results: MASK total repetitions were lower than those of the CONT, and (Lac) and MASK RPEs were higher than those of the CONT in both exercises. Conclusions: We conclude that an airflow-restricting mask in combination with resistance training increase perceptions of exertion and decrease muscular performance and lactate concentrations when compared to resistance training without this accessory. This evidence shows that the airflow-restricting mask may change the central nervous system and stop the exercise beforehand to prevent some biological damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment and Sport Performance)
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Open AccessArticle Type of Ground Surface during Plyometric Training Affects the Severity of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage
Received: 17 January 2016 / Revised: 15 February 2016 / Accepted: 22 February 2016 / Published: 1 March 2016
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to compare the changes in the symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage from a bout of plyometric exercise (PE; 10 × 10 vertical jumps) performed in aquatic, sand and firm conditions. Twenty-four healthy college-aged men were randomly assigned
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to compare the changes in the symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage from a bout of plyometric exercise (PE; 10 × 10 vertical jumps) performed in aquatic, sand and firm conditions. Twenty-four healthy college-aged men were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Aquatic (AG, n = 8), Sand (SG, n = 8) and Firm (FG, n = 8). The AG performed PE in an aquatic setting with a depth of ~130 cm. The SG performed PE on a dry sand surface at a depth of 20 cm, and the FG performed PE on a 10-cm-thick wooden surface. Plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), knee range of motion (KROM), maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC) of the knee extensors, vertical jump (VJ) and 10-m sprint were measured before and 24, 48 and 72 h after the PE. Compared to baseline values, FG showed significantly (p < 0.05) greater changes in CK, DOMS, and VJ at 24 until 48 h. The MIVC decreased significantly for the SG and FG at 24 until 48 h post-exercise in comparison to the pre-exercise values. There were no significant (p > 0.05) time or group by time interactions in KROM. In the 10-m sprint, all the treatment groups showed significant (p < 0.05) changes compared to pre-exercise values at 24 h, and there were no significant (p > 0.05) differences between groups. The results indicate that PE in an aquatic setting and on a sand surface induces less muscle damage than on a firm surface. Therefore, training in aquatic conditions and on sand may be beneficial for the improvement of performance, with a concurrently lower risk of muscle damage and soreness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment and Sport Performance)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Topical and Ingested Cooling Methodologies for Endurance Exercise Performance in the Heat
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 30 January 2018 / Accepted: 31 January 2018 / Published: 2 February 2018
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Abstract
This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess studies which have investigated cooling methodologies, their timing and effects, on endurance exercise performance in trained athletes (Category 3; VO2max ≥ 55 mL·kg·min−1) in hot environmental conditions (≥28 °C). Meta-analyses were performed
[...] Read more.
This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess studies which have investigated cooling methodologies, their timing and effects, on endurance exercise performance in trained athletes (Category 3; VO2max ≥ 55 mL·kg·min−1) in hot environmental conditions (≥28 °C). Meta-analyses were performed to quantify the effects of timings and methods of application, with a narrative review of the evidence also provided. A computer-assisted database search was performed for articles investigating the effects of cooling on endurance performance and accompanying physiological and perceptual responses. A total of 4129 results were screened by title, abstract, and full text, resulting in 10 articles being included for subsequent analyses. A total of 101 participants and 310 observations from 10 studies measuring the effects of differing cooling strategies on endurance exercise performance and accompanying physiological and perceptual responses were included. With respect to time trial performance, cooling was shown to result in small beneficial effects when applied before and throughout the exercise bout (Effect Size: −0.44; −0.69 to −0.18), especially when ingested (−0.39; −0.60 to −0.18). Current evidence suggests that whilst other strategies ameliorate physiological or perceptual responses throughout endurance exercise in hot conditions, ingesting cooling aids before and during exercise provides a small benefit, which is of practical significance to athletes’ time trial performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environment and Sport Performance)
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