Special Issue "Chemical Vapor Sensing"

A special issue of Chemosensors (ISSN 2227-9040).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Russell Binions

School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: chemical vapour deposition; functional metal oxide films; metal oxide semiconductor; gas sensors; chromogenic materials; photocatalysis; nanocomposite thin films

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The ability to sense chemical vapors is of increasing importance in a highly technological world. Whether it be in environmental monitoring networks, breath analysis and health diagnostics, industrial process monitoring and control or fire detection, there is an increasing push for more sensitive, selective and stable sensors. This special issue on chemical vapor sensing seeks to bring together industrialists and academics working in this area to publish the latest and highest impact results.

Manuscripts from all areas of chemical vapor detection technology are welcome, including, but not limited to:

  • Optical sensors
  • electrochemical sensors
  • metal oxide semiconductor sensors
  • carbon materials based sensors

All aspects of chemical sensors are to be included from novel materials synthesis, sensor device preparation and processing and, of course, chemical sensor device performance.

Dr. Russell Binions
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Chemosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle A Double Layer Sensing Electrode “BaTi(1-X)RhxO3/Al-Doped TiO2” for NO2 Detection above 600 °C
Chemosensors 2016, 4(2), 8; doi:10.3390/chemosensors4020008
Received: 8 December 2015 / Revised: 8 April 2016 / Accepted: 15 April 2016 / Published: 29 April 2016
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Abstract
NO2 emission is mostly related to combustion processes, where gas temperatures exceed far beyond 500 °C. The detection of NO2 in combustion and exhaust gases at elevated temperatures requires sensors with high NO2 selectivity. The thermodynamic equilibrium for NO2
[...] Read more.
NO2 emission is mostly related to combustion processes, where gas temperatures exceed far beyond 500 °C. The detection of NO2 in combustion and exhaust gases at elevated temperatures requires sensors with high NO2 selectivity. The thermodynamic equilibrium for NO2/NO ≥ 500 °C lies on the NO side. High temperature stability of TiO2 makes it a promising material for elevated temperature towards CO, H2, and NO2. The doping of TiO2 with Al3+ (Al:TiO2) increases the sensitivity and selectivity of sensors to NO2 and results in a relatively low cross-sensitivity towards CO. The results indicate that NO2 exposure results in a resistance decrease of the sensors with the single Al:TiO2 layers at 600 °C, with a resistance increase at 800 °C. This alteration in the sensor response in the temperature range of 600 °C and 800 °C may be due to the mentioned thermodynamic equilibrium changes between NO and NO2. This work investigates the NO2-sensing behavior of duplex layers consisting of Al:TiO2 and BaTi(1-x)RhxO3 catalysts in the temperature range of 600 °C and 900 °C. Al:TiO2 layers were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering on interdigitated sensor platforms, while a catalytic layer, which was synthesized by wet chemistry in the form of BaTi(1-x)RhxO3 powders, were screen-printed as thick layers on the Al:TiO2-layers. The use of Rh-incorporated BaTiO3 perovskite (BaTi(1-x)RhxO3) as a catalytic filter stabilizes the sensor response of Al-doped TiO2 layers yielding more reliable sensor signal throughout the temperature range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Vapor Sensing)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Gas Sensing Studies of an n-n Hetero-Junction Array Based on SnO2 and ZnO Composites
Chemosensors 2016, 4(1), 3; doi:10.3390/chemosensors4010003
Received: 23 November 2015 / Revised: 13 January 2016 / Accepted: 26 January 2016 / Published: 4 February 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2683 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A composite metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensor array based on tin dioxide (SNO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) has been fabricated using a straight forward mechanical mixing method. The array was characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and
[...] Read more.
A composite metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensor array based on tin dioxide (SNO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) has been fabricated using a straight forward mechanical mixing method. The array was characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The array was evaluated against a number of environmentally important reducing and oxidizing gases across a range of operating temperatures (300–500 °C). The highest response achieved was against 100 ppm ethanol by the 50 wt% ZnO–50 wt% SnO2 device, which exhibited a response of 109.1, a 4.5-fold increase with respect to the pure SnO2 counterpart (which displayed a response of 24.4) and a 12.3-fold enhancement with respect to the pure ZnO counterpart (which was associated with a response of 8.9), towards the same concentration of the analyte. Cross sensitivity studies were also carried out against a variety of reducing gases at an operating temperature of 300 °C. The sensors array showed selectivity towards ethanol. The enhanced behaviour of the mixed oxide materials was influenced by junction effects, composition, the packing structure and the device microstructure. The results show that it is possible to tune the sensitivity and selectivity of a composite sensor, through a simple change in the composition of the composite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Vapor Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Building Selectivity for NO Sensing in a NOx Mixture with Sonochemically Prepared CuO Structures
Chemosensors 2016, 4(1), 1; doi:10.3390/chemosensors4010001
Received: 28 August 2015 / Revised: 11 November 2015 / Accepted: 24 November 2015 / Published: 23 December 2015
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Abstract
Several technologies are available for decreasing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from combustion sources, including selective catalytic reduction methods. In this process, ammonia reacts with nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). As the stoichiometry of the two reactions is different, electrochemical sensor systems
[...] Read more.
Several technologies are available for decreasing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from combustion sources, including selective catalytic reduction methods. In this process, ammonia reacts with nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). As the stoichiometry of the two reactions is different, electrochemical sensor systems that can distinguish between NO and NO2 in a mixture of these two gases are of interest. Since NO and NO2 can be brought to equilibrium, depending on the temperature and the surfaces that they are in contact with, the detection of NO and NO2 independently is a difficult problem and has not been solved to date. In this study, we explore a high surface area sonochemically prepared CuO as the resistive sensing medium. CuO is a poor catalyst for NOx equilibration, and requires temperatures of 500 C to bring about equilibration. Thus, at 300 C, NO and NO2 retain their levels after interaction with CuO surface. In addition, NO adsorbs more strongly on the CuO over NO2. Using these two concepts, we can detect NO with minimal interference from NO2, if the latter gas concentration does not exceed 20% in a NOx mixture over a range of 100–800 ppm. Since this range constitutes most of the range of total NOx concentrations in diesel and other lean burn engines, this sensor should find application in selective detection of NO in this combustion application. A limitation of this sensor is the interference with CO, but with combustion in excess air, this problem should be alleviated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Vapor Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Selectivity of Catalytically Modified Tin Dioxide to CO and NH3 Gas Mixtures
Chemosensors 2015, 3(4), 241-252; doi:10.3390/chemosensors3040241
Received: 2 September 2015 / Revised: 25 September 2015 / Accepted: 28 September 2015 / Published: 9 October 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (836 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper is aimed at selectivity investigation of gas sensors, based on chemically modified nanocrystalline tin dioxide in the detection of CO and ammonia mixtures in air. Sol-gel prepared tin dioxide was modified by palladium and ruthenium oxides clusters via an impregnation technique.
[...] Read more.
This paper is aimed at selectivity investigation of gas sensors, based on chemically modified nanocrystalline tin dioxide in the detection of CO and ammonia mixtures in air. Sol-gel prepared tin dioxide was modified by palladium and ruthenium oxides clusters via an impregnation technique. Sensing behavior to CO, NH3 and their mixtures in air was studied by in situ resistance measurements. Using the appropriate match of operating temperatures, it was shown that the reducing gases mixed in a ppm-level with air could be discriminated by the noble metal oxide-modified SnO2. Introducing palladium oxide provided high CO-sensitivity at 25–50 °C. Tin dioxide modified by ruthenium oxide demonstrated increased sensor signals to ammonia at 150–200 °C, and selectivity to NH3 in presence of higher CO concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Vapor Sensing)
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Review

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Open AccessReview ZnO Quasi-1D Nanostructures: Synthesis, Modeling, and Properties for Applications in Conductometric Chemical Sensors
Chemosensors 2016, 4(2), 6; doi:10.3390/chemosensors4020006
Received: 25 November 2015 / Revised: 18 January 2016 / Accepted: 16 March 2016 / Published: 23 March 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (3080 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
One-dimensional metal oxide nanostructures such as nanowires, nanorods, nanotubes, and nanobelts gained great attention for applications in sensing devices. ZnO is one of the most studied oxides for sensing applications due to its unique physical and chemical properties. In this paper, we provide
[...] Read more.
One-dimensional metal oxide nanostructures such as nanowires, nanorods, nanotubes, and nanobelts gained great attention for applications in sensing devices. ZnO is one of the most studied oxides for sensing applications due to its unique physical and chemical properties. In this paper, we provide a review of the recent research activities focused on the synthesis and sensing properties of pure, doped, and functionalized ZnO quasi-one dimensional nanostructures. We describe the development prospects in the preparation methods and modifications of the surface structure of ZnO, and discuss its sensing mechanism. Next, we analyze the sensing properties of ZnO quasi-one dimensional nanostructures, and summarize perspectives concerning future research on their synthesis and applications in conductometric sensing devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Vapor Sensing)
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Open AccessReview Chemical Vapour Deposition of Gas Sensitive Metal Oxides
Chemosensors 2016, 4(1), 4; doi:10.3390/chemosensors4010004
Received: 17 November 2015 / Revised: 26 January 2016 / Accepted: 5 February 2016 / Published: 1 March 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1942 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article presents a review of recent research efforts and developments for the fabrication of metal-oxide gas sensors using chemical vapour deposition (CVD), presenting its potential advantages as a materials synthesis technique for gas sensors along with a discussion of their sensing performance.
[...] Read more.
This article presents a review of recent research efforts and developments for the fabrication of metal-oxide gas sensors using chemical vapour deposition (CVD), presenting its potential advantages as a materials synthesis technique for gas sensors along with a discussion of their sensing performance. Thin films typically have poorer gas sensing performance compared to traditional screen printed equivalents, attributed to reduced porosity, but the ability to integrate materials directly with the sensor platform provides important process benefits compared to competing synthetic techniques. We conclude that these advantages are likely to drive increased interest in the use of CVD for gas sensor materials over the next decade, whilst the ability to manipulate deposition conditions to alter microstructure can help mitigate the potentially reduced performance in thin films, hence the current prospects for use of CVD in this field look excellent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Vapor Sensing)
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