Special Issue "Magnetic Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Properties and Applications"

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A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanotechnology and Applied Nanosciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 February 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Raed Abu-Reziq (Website)

Institute of Chemistry and Casali Center of Applied Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Edmond J. Safra Campus, Givat Ram, 91904 Jerusalem, Israel
Fax: +972 2 6585469
Interests: nanochemistry; sol-gel chemistry; organometallic chemistry; catalysis; green chemistry; micro- and nanoencapsulation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanotechnology deals with engineering and creating new materials in the dimension of up to 100 nm that can have new and unique physical or chemical properties differ significantly from the bulk materials. This revolutionary technology is already applied in many fields and it is expected to be dominant in numerous industrial processes. One of the most interesting classes of materials that nanotechnology deals with belongs to nanoparticles possessing magnetic properties. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) such as iron oxides are investigated intensively during the last two decades in different aspects: preparation, physical properties and applications. Several methods are utilized to prepare magnetic nanoparticles with different morphologies that can affect their properties. These methods include thermal decomposition of organic precursors in organic solvent, microemulsion route, reduction of metallic salts in polyols, spray and laser pyrolysis and co-precipitation in aqueous media. Magnetic nanoparticles can interact with external magnetic field, which facilitate their separation and direct their transport. This is very interesting property of these materials that leads to different applications in various fields. Indeed, magnetic nanoparticles are utilized for biomedical applications such as drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging, biomolecular sensors, bioseparations, and magneto-thermal therapy. In addition, magnetic nanoparticles are now used widely in organic synthesis as excellent supports for catalysts. The supporting of catalysts on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles can lead to effective, selective and easily separable catalysts. The special issue of the journal Applied Sciences aims to cover recent advances in the investigation of magnetic nanoparticles and their applications.

Dr. Raed Abu-Reziq
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 800 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • magnetic nanoparticles
  • super paramagnetism
  • surface functionalization
  • synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles
  • biomedical applications
  • magnetic drug targeting
  • information storage
  • magnetically separable catalysts
  • magnetic resonance image
  • energy materials

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessCommunication Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Coating onto Magnetic Nanoparticles Induced by Attractive Electrostatic Interaction
Appl. Sci. 2012, 2(2), 485-495; doi:10.3390/app2020485
Received: 16 March 2012 / Revised: 7 May 2012 / Accepted: 21 May 2012 / Published: 29 May 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (742 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this article, we present an efficient synthesis pathway of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated magnetic nanoparticles from hydrophilic polyacrylate coated ferrofluids (NPPAA). A block copolymer based on polydimethylsiloxane is selected for its propensity to interact with the carboxylate functions on the NPPAA. The [...] Read more.
In this article, we present an efficient synthesis pathway of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated magnetic nanoparticles from hydrophilic polyacrylate coated ferrofluids (NPPAA). A block copolymer based on polydimethylsiloxane is selected for its propensity to interact with the carboxylate functions on the NPPAA. The interaction is due to negative charges on NPPAA and positive ones on the amphiphilic copolymer. The synthesis is achieved by interfacial interaction, simplifying the purification of the PDMS-coated nanoparticles (NPPDMS) from subproducts such as ions and water. NPPDMS are well dispersed in hydrophobic solvents (toluene, diethyl ether) and can then be embedded into a curable PDMS polymer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Properties and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Magnetic Amphiphilic Composites Applied for the Treatment of Biodiesel Wastewaters
Appl. Sci. 2012, 2(2), 513-524; doi:10.3390/app2020513
Received: 20 April 2012 / Revised: 4 May 2012 / Accepted: 18 May 2012 / Published: 29 May 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (858 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, new magnetic amphiphilic composites were prepared by chemical vapor deposition with ethanol on the surface of hydrophilic natural chrysotile matrix containing Fe catalyst. XRD, Raman, Mössbauer and SEM analyses suggest the formation of a complex nanostructured material composed of [...] Read more.
In this work, new magnetic amphiphilic composites were prepared by chemical vapor deposition with ethanol on the surface of hydrophilic natural chrysotile matrix containing Fe catalyst. XRD, Raman, Mössbauer and SEM analyses suggest the formation of a complex nanostructured material composed of hydrophobic carbon nanotubes/nanofibers grown on the hydrophilic surface of the MgSi fiber mineral and the presence of Fe metallic nanoparticles coated by carbon. These nanostructured particles show amphiphilic properties and interact very well with both oil and aqueous phases. When added to emulsions the amphiphilic particles locate on the oil/water interface and, under a magnetic field, the oil droplets collapsed leading to the separation of the aqueous and oil phases. Preliminary work showed excellent results on the use of these particles to break wastewater emulsions in the biodiesel process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Properties and Applications)
Open AccessCommunication A Dual PET/MR Imaging Nanoprobe: 124I Labeled Gd3N@C80
Appl. Sci. 2012, 2(2), 465-478; doi:10.3390/app2020465
Received: 9 February 2012 / Revised: 2 May 2012 / Accepted: 3 May 2012 / Published: 10 May 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1516 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The current report describes the development of a dual modality tomographic agent for both positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI). The dual-modality agent in this study was based on a 124I (PET) radiolabeled tri-gadolinium endohedral metallofullerene Gd3N@C [...] Read more.
The current report describes the development of a dual modality tomographic agent for both positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI). The dual-modality agent in this study was based on a 124I (PET) radiolabeled tri-gadolinium endohedral metallofullerene Gd3N@C80 (MRI) nanoprobe platform. The outer surface of the fullerene cage of the Gd3N@C80 metallofullerenes was surface functionalized with carboxyl and hydroxyl groups (f-Gd3N@C80) using previously developed procedures and subsequently iodinated with 124I to produce 124I-f-Gd3N@C80 nanoprobe. Orthotopic tumor-bearing rats were infused intratumorally by convection-enhanced delivery (CED) with the 124I-f-Gd3N@C80 agent and imaged by MRI or micro PET. The anatomical positioning and distribution of the 124I-f-Gd3N@C80 agent were comparable between the MRI and PET scans. The 124I-f-Gd3N@C80­ dual-agent distribution and infusion site within the tumor was clearly evident in both T1- and T2-weighted MR images. The results demonstrate the successful preparation of a dual-modality imaging agent, 124I-f-Gd3N@C80, which could ultimately be used for simultaneous PET/MR imaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Properties and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Superparamagnetic Nanoparticle Clusters on the Polymerase Chain Reaction
Appl. Sci. 2012, 2(2), 303-314; doi:10.3390/app2020303
Received: 16 February 2012 / Revised: 19 March 2012 / Accepted: 23 March 2012 / Published: 2 April 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3244 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method is widely used for the reproduction and amplification of specific DNA segments, and a novel PCR method using nanomaterials such as gold nanoparticles has recently been reported. This paper reports on the effects of superparamagnetic nanoparticles [...] Read more.
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method is widely used for the reproduction and amplification of specific DNA segments, and a novel PCR method using nanomaterials such as gold nanoparticles has recently been reported. This paper reports on the effects of superparamagnetic nanoparticles on PCR amplification without an external magnetic field, and clarifies the mechanism behind the effects of superparamagnetic particle clusters on PCR efficiency by estimating the structures of such clusters in PCR. It was found that superparamagnetic nanoparticles tend to inhibit PCR amplification depending on the structure of the magnetic nanoparticle clusters. The paper also clarifies that Taq polymerase is captured in the spaces formed among magnetic nanoparticle clusters, and that it is captured more efficiently as a result of their motion from heat treatment in PCR thermal cycles. Consequently, Taq polymerase that should be used in PCR is reduced in the PCR solution. These outcomes will be applied to novel PCR techniques using magnetic particles in an external magnetic field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Properties and Applications)
Open AccessArticle Anomalous Magnetization Enhancement and Frustration in the Internal Magnetic Order on (Fe0.69Co0.31)B0.4 Nanoparticles
Appl. Sci. 2012, 2(2), 315-326; doi:10.3390/app2020315
Received: 14 February 2012 / Revised: 19 March 2012 / Accepted: 23 March 2012 / Published: 2 April 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (396 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have studied the internal magnetic order of 3-nm (Fe0.69Co0.31)0.6B0.4 amorphous nanoparticles. These nanoparticles were dispersed in a non-magnetic matrix (non-interacting nanoparticles) to contrast them with the powder samples, where strong interparticle interactions are present. [...] Read more.
We have studied the internal magnetic order of 3-nm (Fe0.69Co0.31)0.6B0.4 amorphous nanoparticles. These nanoparticles were dispersed in a non-magnetic matrix (non-interacting nanoparticles) to contrast them with the powder samples, where strong interparticle interactions are present. In similar fashion to the bulk alloy, this system exhibits a saturation magnetization maximum as a function of Fe composition near 69 at% Fe for the powder and dispersed samples at all temperatures. The saturation magnetization (MS) of the dispersed sample shows anomalous behavior, revealing frustration in the internal magnetic order of the particles. Unexpectedly, the MS of the non-interacting sample at low temperatures is larger than the corresponding bulk alloy or the calculated value of MS for the same Fe-Co composition. By contrast, the powder sample has low MS values and it is approximately constant in temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Properties and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Magnetically Separable Base Catalysts: Heterogeneous Catalysis vs. Quasi-Homogeneous Catalysis
Appl. Sci. 2012, 2(2), 260-276; doi:10.3390/app2020260
Received: 21 February 2012 / Revised: 12 March 2012 / Accepted: 15 March 2012 / Published: 26 March 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1377 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The synthesis of magnetically separable quasi-homogeneous base catalyst and heterogeneous base catalyst is described. The quasi-homogeneous catalyst is achieved by supporting silane monomers functionalized with different amine groups directly on the surface of magnetite nanoparticles. The heterogeneous catalyst is prepared [...] Read more.
The synthesis of magnetically separable quasi-homogeneous base catalyst and heterogeneous base catalyst is described. The quasi-homogeneous catalyst is achieved by supporting silane monomers functionalized with different amine groups directly on the surface of magnetite nanoparticles. The heterogeneous catalyst is prepared via a sol-gel process in which silane monomers containing different amine groups are copolymerized with tetraethoxysilane in the presence of magnetite nanoparticles functionalized with ionic liquid moieties. The reactivity of the quasi-homogeneous and the heterogeneous base catalysts is compared in the nitroaldol condensation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Properties and Applications)
Open AccessArticle 2D Spin-Dependent Diffraction of Electrons From Periodical Chains of Nanomagnets
Appl. Sci. 2012, 2(1), 220-232; doi:10.3390/app2010220
Received: 15 January 2012 / Revised: 27 February 2012 / Accepted: 27 February 2012 / Published: 6 March 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (574 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The scattering of the unpolarized beams of electrons by nanomagnets in the vicinity of some scattering angles leads to complete spin polarized electrons. This result is obtained with the help of the perturbation theory. The dipole-dipole interaction between the magnetic moment of [...] Read more.
The scattering of the unpolarized beams of electrons by nanomagnets in the vicinity of some scattering angles leads to complete spin polarized electrons. This result is obtained with the help of the perturbation theory. The dipole-dipole interaction between the magnetic moment of the nanomagnet and the magnetic moment of electron is treated as perturbation. This interaction is not spherically symmetric. Rather it depends on the electron spin variables. It in turn results in spinor character of the scattering amplitudes. Due to the smallness of the magnetic interactions, the scattering length of this process is very small to be proved experimentally. To enhance the relevant scattering lengths, we considered the diffraction of unpolarized beams of electrons by linear chains of nanomagnets. By tuning the distance between the scatterers it is possible to obtain the diffraction maximum of the scattered electrons at scattering angles which corresponds to complete spin polarization of electrons. It is shown that the total differential scattering length is proportional to N2 (N is a number of scatterers). Even small number of nanomagnets in the chain helps to obtain experimentally visible enhancement of spin polarization of the scattered electrons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Properties and Applications)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Magnetic Nanoparticles in the Imaging of Tumor Angiogenesis
Appl. Sci. 2012, 2(2), 525-534; doi:10.3390/app2020525
Received: 12 April 2012 / Revised: 11 May 2012 / Accepted: 16 May 2012 / Published: 29 May 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1278 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Angiogenesis, the growth of new capillary blood vessels, is central to the growth of tumors. Non-invasive imaging of tumor angiogenesis will allow for earlier detection of tumors and also the development of surrogate markers for assessing response to treatment. Steady state magnetic [...] Read more.
Angiogenesis, the growth of new capillary blood vessels, is central to the growth of tumors. Non-invasive imaging of tumor angiogenesis will allow for earlier detection of tumors and also the development of surrogate markers for assessing response to treatment. Steady state magnetic resonance imaging with magnetic nanoparticles is one method to assess angiogenesis. In this article we explain the theory behind steady state magnetic resonance imaging and review the available literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Properties and Applications)
Open AccessReview Ion Beam Formation and Modification of Cobalt Nanoparticles
Appl. Sci. 2012, 2(2), 396-442; doi:10.3390/app2020396
Received: 7 March 2012 / Revised: 9 April 2012 / Accepted: 20 April 2012 / Published: 27 April 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (6427 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article reviews the size-dependent structural properties of ion beam synthesized Co nanoparticles (NPs) and the influence of ion irradiation on the size, shape, phase and structure. The evolution of the aforementioned properties were determined using complementary laboratory- and advanced synchrotron-based techniques, [...] Read more.
This article reviews the size-dependent structural properties of ion beam synthesized Co nanoparticles (NPs) and the influence of ion irradiation on the size, shape, phase and structure. The evolution of the aforementioned properties were determined using complementary laboratory- and advanced synchrotron-based techniques, including cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Combining such techniques reveals a rich array of transformations particular to Co NPs. This methodology highlights the effectiveness of ion implantation and ion irradiation procedures as a means of fine tuning NP properties to best suit specific technological applications. Furthermore, our results facilitate a better understanding and aid in identifying the underlying physics particular to this potentially technologically important class of nanomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Properties and Applications)
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