Special Issue "Antibiotics and Urinary Tract Infections"

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A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 January 2014)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Kurt G. Naber
Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
Website: http://www.urology-hub.com/authors/kurt-g-naber
E-Mail: kurt@nabers.de
Interests: urogenital infections; clinical studies; microbiology of uropathogens; PK/PD of antimicrobials; treatment of UTI; prostatitis

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Truls E. Bjerklund Johansen
Department of Urology, Århus University Hospital, Skejby, Århus University, Brendstrupgårdvej 100, DK-8200 Århus, Denmark
E-Mail: tebj@ki.au.dk
Interests: community and hospital acquired urinary tract infections; urosepsis; complications after prostate biopsies; focal treatment of prostate cancer

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most frequently occurring infections, not only community acquired, but also hospital acquired infections. An increase of resistant uropathogens against commonly used antibiotics can be observed worldwide, a subject of great concern.

Several strategies are discussed how to cope with this problem:
i) not to use antibiotics, when not indicated, e.g. asymptomatic bacteriuria, or when non-antimicrobial measures are available, e.g. for prophylaxis of recurrent UTI;
ii) to prefer even old antibiotics, which still have preserved their antibacterial activity against uropathogens;
iii) if broad spectrum antibiotics are needed for empiric therapy of severe infections, to use the right and high enough dosages to reduce selection of resistant pathogens, and to step down to a more tailored antibiotic therapy as soon as possible;
iv) to control and try to avoid health care associated UTI by optimal hygienic and interventional strategies; and last but not least
v) to stimulate development of new antibiotics, especially when new bacterial targets can be approached

"Antibiotics" will publish a special issue focusing on prevention, treatment and controlling UTI in the community, but also in health care institutions. It is our pleasure to invite submissions of high quality research based papers related to the topics mentioned above.

Dr. Kurt G. Naber
Dr. Truls E. Bjerklund Johansen
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antibiotics is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 300 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.

Keywords

  • epidemiology, classification and risk factors of urinary tract infections (UTI)
  • diagnostics, treatment and prevention of UTI
  • antibiotic resistance of uropathogens
  • suitable old and new antibiotics for treatment of UTI
  • non-antimicrobial management of UTI

Published Papers (9 papers)

Antibiotics 2014, 3(2), 155-162; doi:10.3390/antibiotics3020155
Received: 16 January 2014; in revised form: 11 March 2014 / Accepted: 17 March 2014 / Published: 14 April 2014
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Antibiotics 2014, 3(2), 143-154; doi:10.3390/antibiotics3020143
Received: 27 January 2014; in revised form: 19 March 2014 / Accepted: 24 March 2014 / Published: 3 April 2014
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Antibiotics 2014, 3(2), 121-127; doi:10.3390/antibiotics3020121
Received: 3 February 2014; in revised form: 4 March 2014 / Accepted: 5 March 2014 / Published: 2 April 2014
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Antibiotics 2014, 3(2), 109-120; doi:10.3390/antibiotics3020109
Received: 10 February 2014; in revised form: 26 February 2014 / Accepted: 4 March 2014 / Published: 2 April 2014
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Antibiotics 2014, 3(1), 98-108; doi:10.3390/antibiotics3010098
Received: 6 January 2014; in revised form: 14 February 2014 / Accepted: 21 February 2014 / Published: 19 March 2014
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Antibiotics 2014, 3(1), 87-97; doi:10.3390/antibiotics3010087
Received: 6 February 2014; in revised form: 1 March 2014 / Accepted: 4 March 2014 / Published: 10 March 2014
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Antibiotics 2014, 3(1), 64-84; doi:10.3390/antibiotics3010064
Received: 13 January 2014; in revised form: 31 January 2014 / Accepted: 7 February 2014 / Published: 17 February 2014
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Antibiotics 2014, 3(1), 39-48; doi:10.3390/antibiotics3010039
Received: 16 January 2014; in revised form: 24 January 2014 / Accepted: 26 January 2014 / Published: 10 February 2014
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Antibiotics 2014, 3(1), 29-38; doi:10.3390/antibiotics3010029
Received: 23 December 2013; in revised form: 10 January 2014 / Accepted: 15 January 2014 / Published: 22 January 2014
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Type of the Paper: Article
Title: Adult and Pediatric Intra-institutional Trends of Ciprofloxacin E. coli Susceptibility in Urinary Cultures.
Authors: Owumi, WA, Banaei,N, MD and Shortliffe, LD,
Affiliation: Stanford University, CA, USA
Abstract:
INTRODUCTION: Fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance is rising worldwide with life-threatening consequences. As FQ usage is limited in children, we examined patterns of ciprofloxacin resistance to E. coli in adults and children at a single institution to observe whether population based differences could be seen. We also examined whether ambulatory urology specimens were more likely to demonstrate resistance as urologists represent high FQ prescribers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With IRB approval retrospective review of urinary cultures from 2002 to 2011 at Stanford University Medical Center Microbiology Laboratory’s (including Stanford University Hospital & Clinics, SUH--adult and Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, LPCH), was performed. Data included both inpatient and outpatient specimens; LPCH data included women admitted to Labor and Delivery, L&D. L&D specimens composed 14.5% of LPCH data. All urinary specimens culturing E. coli for which sensitivities were performed were examined for reported ciprofloxacin resistance (CP ≥ 4 μg/ml). Data was then segregated for SUH, LPCH and ambulatory SUH and LPCH urology clinics. RESULTS: During the study period about 3500 urine specimens yearly were E. coli positive [690 (19.8%)] from LPCH. Approximately 3,190 (91.3%) had susceptibility to CP reported. Overall, there was a trend towards decreased sensitivity. Over the last 8 years at SUH alone, CP sensitivity in all specimens decreased from 88% to 74%. The LPCH primarily pediatric sensitivity level remained at 89.8% or higher during this same period. Notably CP resistance of urine specimens from the urology ambulatory settings at both SUH and LPCH was higher than the respective hospitals, with rates in SUH urology even higher than LPCH urology at 44.2% and 27% in 2011 respectively. CONCLUSION: These data reflect the trend of increasing E. coli resistance to FQ and CP specifically, and confirm this occurs in select pediatric populations. While the general pediatric population may have lower levels of baseline CP resistance, this level is higher in the urology ambulatory setting, suggesting that the resistance is associated with FQ prescribing patterns. Further investigation of these data is being performed to examine other risk factors for FQ resistance.

Type of Paper: Review
Title: Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections: Diagnosis and Treatment
Authors: Fahad Alyami and Martin A. Koyle
Affiliation: The Hospital of Sick Children, University of Toronto, Canada
Abstract: Urinary tract infection (UTI) represents the most common serious bacterial infection in infancy and early childhood. Appropriate diagnostic measures and treatment can prevent inappropriate labelling of patients and may prevent or minimize secondary morbidity. Many recent guidelines have changed the understanding of UTI, although they are not devoid of controversy. Other factors, besides the uropathogen itself need to be considered when approaching a child with a UTI. These include: gender, presence of fever, number of UTIs, presence of bladder and bowel dysfunction (BBD) and circumsion status in boys. Moreover, the decision for further diagnostic imaging studies, especially the voiding cystogram (VCUG), have been called into question. Family issues, level of understanding and education, proximity to appropriate medical care, all must be considered when the child with UTI is being evalauted. In this review we explore the current conundrum on diagnosis and treatment of childhood UTI, based on present guidelines. UTI, like so many other diseases, represents a spectrum. As such, each child with a UTI is unique, and requires an individualized approach to their diagnosis.

Type of Paper: Article
Title: Anti-adhesion activity of A2-type cranberry proanthocyanidins on uropathogenic E. coli and P. mirabilis strains
Authors: Gianna Tempera 1,*, Daria Nicolosi 1, Carlo Genovese 1 and Pio Maria Furneri 1
Affiliation: Department of  Biomedical Sciences, Section of Microbiology, University of Catania, Via Androne 81, 95124 Catania, Italy; E-Mails: tempera@unict.it (Gianna Tempera); carlo.genovese@studium.unict.it (Carlo Genovese); dnicolosi@unict.it (Daria Nicolosi); furneri@unict.it (Pio Maria Furneri)
Abstract: Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are relatively common in women and they may be classified as uncomplicated or complicated, depending upon the anatomy and physiology of the urinary tract. Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis (AUC) occurs when urinary pathogens from the bowel or vagina colonize the periurethral mucosa and travel to the bladder. The vast majority of episodes in healthy women involving the same bacterial strain that caused the initial infection are thought to be reinfections. More than 80% of AUC are caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), but also Proteus Mirabilis plays an important role. Several studies support the importance of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) proanthocyanidins in preventing adhesion of P-fimbriated UPEC to uroepithelial cells. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro anti-adhesion activity of A2-linked proanthocyanidins from cranberry on UPEC strain and Proteus mirabilis and their possible influence on urease activity of the latter. Significant reduction of UPEC adhesion (50.9%) on HT1376 cell line were observed vs control (0.29%). At this moment,  not all data on Proteus mirabilis are available. However, preliminary results suggest that A2-type cranberry proanthocyanidins could aid in prevention maintaining urinary tract health.
Keywords: Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis; cranberry; A2-type proanthocyanidins

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Last update: 22 November 2013

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