Special Issue "Antibiotics and Urinary Tract Infections"

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A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 January 2014)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Kurt G. Naber

Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +49 9421 33369
Interests: urogenital infections; clinical studies; microbiology of uropathogens; PK/PD of antimicrobials; treatment of UTI; prostatitis
Guest Editor
Professor Truls E. E. Bjerklund Bjerklund Johansen

Department of Urology, Oslo University Hospital, 0424 Oslo, Norway
E-Mail
Phone: 4791841063
Interests: community and hospital acquired urinary tract infections; urosepsis; complications after prostate biopsies; focal treatment of prostate cancer

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most frequently occurring infections, not only community acquired, but also hospital acquired infections. An increase of resistant uropathogens against commonly used antibiotics can be observed worldwide, a subject of great concern.

Several strategies are discussed how to cope with this problem:
i) not to use antibiotics, when not indicated, e.g. asymptomatic bacteriuria, or when non-antimicrobial measures are available, e.g. for prophylaxis of recurrent UTI;
ii) to prefer even old antibiotics, which still have preserved their antibacterial activity against uropathogens;
iii) if broad spectrum antibiotics are needed for empiric therapy of severe infections, to use the right and high enough dosages to reduce selection of resistant pathogens, and to step down to a more tailored antibiotic therapy as soon as possible;
iv) to control and try to avoid health care associated UTI by optimal hygienic and interventional strategies; and last but not least
v) to stimulate development of new antibiotics, especially when new bacterial targets can be approached

"Antibiotics" will publish a special issue focusing on prevention, treatment and controlling UTI in the community, but also in health care institutions. It is our pleasure to invite submissions of high quality research based papers related to the topics mentioned above.

Dr. Kurt G. Naber
Dr. Truls E. Bjerklund Johansen
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antibiotics is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 300 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.

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Keywords

  • epidemiology, classification and risk factors of urinary tract infections (UTI)
  • diagnostics, treatment and prevention of UTI
  • antibiotic resistance of uropathogens
  • suitable old and new antibiotics for treatment of UTI
  • non-antimicrobial management of UTI

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Urinary Tract Infections
Antibiotics 2014, 3(3), 375-377; doi:10.3390/antibiotics3030375
Received: 16 July 2014 / Accepted: 23 July 2014 / Published: 14 August 2014
PDF Full-text (295 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most frequently acquired infections in the community, but also in hospitals and other health care institutions, causing a huge amount of antibiotic consumption. During the last decade we have seen significant changes in the field of
[...] Read more.
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most frequently acquired infections in the community, but also in hospitals and other health care institutions, causing a huge amount of antibiotic consumption. During the last decade we have seen significant changes in the field of urinary tract infections regarding causative pathogens and antibiotic treatment calling for an update of current trends. The worldwide increase of uropathogens resistant to former first line antibiotics, such as cotrimoxazole, fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins, has had detrimental consequences not only for treatment but also for prophylaxis of infectious complications after urological interventions. A paradigm shift concerning asymptomatic bacteriuria has had a great impact on the definition and management of UTIs today [1–4]. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Urinary Tract Infections) Print Edition available

Research

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Open AccessArticle Adult and Pediatric Intra-Institutional Trends of Ciprofloxacin Susceptibility in E. coli Positive Urinary Cultures
Antibiotics 2014, 3(2), 163-173; doi:10.3390/antibiotics3020163
Received: 13 February 2014 / Revised: 3 April 2014 / Accepted: 4 April 2014 / Published: 21 April 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (969 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Antimicrobial drug resistance in treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) continues to rise worldwide. To examine contributions of physician prescribing patterns to fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin, CP) resistance, we examined Escherichia coli (E. coli) resistance patterns in urinary cultures. Since CP usage is
[...] Read more.
Antimicrobial drug resistance in treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) continues to rise worldwide. To examine contributions of physician prescribing patterns to fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin, CP) resistance, we examined Escherichia coli (E. coli) resistance patterns in urinary cultures. Since CP usage is limited in children, we compared CP resistance trends in adults and children to those of more commonly used trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and nitrofurantoin (NF). Our data show that although the general pediatric population has lower resistance to ciprofloxacin, resistance levels are rising with increased usage. While NF susceptibility is historically stable, TMP-SMX resistance is slightly higher in children compared to adults. In both adults and children, antimicrobial resistance patterns vary according to clinical practice site, with ambulatory urology patients showing the highest resistance. This suggests that physician’s prescribing patterns contribute to antimicrobial resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Urinary Tract Infections) Print Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Value of Provoked or Spontaneous Flank Pain in Men with Febrile Urinary Tract Infections
Antibiotics 2014, 3(2), 155-162; doi:10.3390/antibiotics3020155
Received: 16 January 2014 / Revised: 11 March 2014 / Accepted: 17 March 2014 / Published: 14 April 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (479 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Our objective was to identify the clinical, laboratory and radiological characteristics of febrile urinary tract infections (UTI) in men and to focus on the value of flank pain in these men managed in an ambulatory care system. Methods: A network was designed
[...] Read more.
Background: Our objective was to identify the clinical, laboratory and radiological characteristics of febrile urinary tract infections (UTI) in men and to focus on the value of flank pain in these men managed in an ambulatory care system. Methods: A network was designed to manage men with febrile UTI without hospitalization according to an algorithm designed with different specialists. The patients’ characteristics were prospectively recorded and each patient was followed up until completely cured. We artificially divided patients into two groups. Group 1: men without flank pain diagnosed as prostatitis and a second group (Group 2) of men with flank pain or provoked flank pain more likely to have a pyelonephritis. Groups were compared to find arguments to differentiate prostatitis to pyelonephritis. Results: 350 men were included in the study, half of these men reported urinary symptoms (dysuria, urgency and burning urination). The negative predictive values of the nitrite and leukocytes test were poor alone or in combination. The renal ultrasound was never informative. None of the patients failed to respond to the treatment. No difference was found between groups. Conclusions: Laboratory test results and radiological features had a poor predictive value. Men with suspected pyelonephritis did not evolve differently from those with suspected prostatitis. Monitoring and treatment of men with febrile UTI does not seem to depend on the existence of a pyelonephritis suspected after the presence of a lumbar pain. Ambulatory management of febrile UTI is feasible and safe, requiring an efficient network for patient’s surveillance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Urinary Tract Infections) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Anti-Adhesion Activity of A2-type Proanthocyanidins (a Cranberry Major Component) on Uropathogenic E. coli and P. mirabilis Strains
Antibiotics 2014, 3(2), 143-154; doi:10.3390/antibiotics3020143
Received: 27 January 2014 / Revised: 19 March 2014 / Accepted: 24 March 2014 / Published: 3 April 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2099 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are relatively common in women and may be classified as uncomplicated or complicated, depending upon the urinary tract anatomy and physiology. Acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) occurs when urinary pathogens from the bowel or vagina colonize the periurethral mucosa and
[...] Read more.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are relatively common in women and may be classified as uncomplicated or complicated, depending upon the urinary tract anatomy and physiology. Acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) occurs when urinary pathogens from the bowel or vagina colonize the periurethral mucosa and reach the bladder. The vast majority of episodes in healthy women involving the same bacterial strain that caused the initial infection are thought to be reinfections. About 90% of AUC are caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), but Proteus mirabilis also plays an important role. Several studies support the importance of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) proanthocyanidins in preventing adhesion of P-fimbriated UPEC to uroepithelial cells. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro anti-adhesion activity of A2-linked proanthocyanidins from cranberry on a UPEC and Proteus mirabilis strains and their possible influence on urease activity of the latter. A significant reduction of UPEC adhesion (up to 75%) on the HT1376 cell line was observed vs. control. For the strains of P. mirabilis there was also a reduction of adhesion (up to 75%) compared to controls, as well as a reduction in motility and urease activity. These results suggest that A2-type cranberry proanthocyanidins could aid in maintaining urinary tract health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Urinary Tract Infections) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Clinical Efficacy of a Single Two Gram Dose of Azithromycin Extended Release for Male Patients with Urethritis
Antibiotics 2014, 3(2), 109-120; doi:10.3390/antibiotics3020109
Received: 10 February 2014 / Revised: 26 February 2014 / Accepted: 4 March 2014 / Published: 2 April 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (601 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To clarify the clinical efficacy of a single oral 2 g dose of azithromycin extended-release for heterosexual male patients with urethritis, and the current antimicrobial sensitivity of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to azithromycin, a prospective clinical trial was conducted from 2011–2013. In patients with gonococcal
[...] Read more.
To clarify the clinical efficacy of a single oral 2 g dose of azithromycin extended-release for heterosexual male patients with urethritis, and the current antimicrobial sensitivity of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to azithromycin, a prospective clinical trial was conducted from 2011–2013. In patients with gonococcal urethritis, the eradication rate was 90.9% (30 of 33). The susceptibility rates of isolated Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains to ceftriaxone, spectinomycin, cefixime and azithromycin were 100%, 100%, 95.3% (41/43) and 37.2% (16/43), respectively. In the patients with nongonococcal urethritis, the eradication rate was 90.0% (45 of 50). The microbiological eradication rates for the pathogens were 90.9% (30/33) for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 91.5% (43/47) for Chlamydia trachomatis, 71.4% (5/7) for Mycoplasma genitalium, and 100% (13/13) for Ureaplasma urealyticum. The main adverse event was diarrhea and its manifestation rate was 35.2% (32 of 120). The symptom of diarrhea was mostly temporary and resolved spontaneously. The conclusion was that the treatment regimen with a single oral 2 g dose of azithromycin extended-release would be effective for patients with urethritis. However, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Mycoplasma genitalium should be carefully monitored because of possible treatment failure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Urinary Tract Infections) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections in Women in a Sao Paulo Quaternary Care Hospital: Bacterial Spectrum and Susceptibility Patterns
Antibiotics 2014, 3(1), 98-108; doi:10.3390/antibiotics3010098
Received: 6 January 2014 / Revised: 14 February 2014 / Accepted: 21 February 2014 / Published: 19 March 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (562 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI) in women are very common. Regular analysis of bacterial flora is important to formulate updated guidelines. The objective of this study is to determine and compare the microbiology of UTIs and their susceptibility patterns in a quaternary care
[...] Read more.
Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI) in women are very common. Regular analysis of bacterial flora is important to formulate updated guidelines. The objective of this study is to determine and compare the microbiology of UTIs and their susceptibility patterns in a quaternary care hospital. In a seven-year review, the urine culture results of 480 female patients with uncomplicated UTIs were analyzed. Patients were divided into three groups according to their diagnosis and treatment characteristics: Group 1, cystitis at outpatient basis; group 2, cystitis at the Emergency Unit; and group 3, pyelonephritis. Group 1 included older patients, with a higher incidence of concomitant diabetes mellitus and recurrent UTIs. E. coli was the most common pathogen, responsible for 75.1% of cases, mainly for pyelonephritis (87.3%). Of the oral antimicrobials tested for cystitis, amoxicillin/clavulanate and nitrofurantoin had the highest susceptibility profiles (84.4% and 87.3%, respectively). For E. coli only, their susceptibility profiles were as high as 90.8% and 97.4%, respectively. For pyelonephritis treatment, fluoroquinoles had a susceptibility profile <90%, while ceftriaxone and gentamicin had susceptibility >90%. Uncomplicated UTI treatment is becoming more challenging because the susceptibility profiles of oral antimicrobials are increasingly resistant. In our environment, cystitis can still be managed with nitrofurantoin. Uncomplicated pyelonephritis should be managed with ceftriaxone or gentamicin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Urinary Tract Infections) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle In Vitro Antibiofilm Efficacies of Different Antibiotic Combinations with Zinc Sulfate against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Recovered from Hospitalized Patients with Urinary Tract Infection
Antibiotics 2014, 3(1), 64-84; doi:10.3390/antibiotics3010064
Received: 13 January 2014 / Revised: 31 January 2014 / Accepted: 7 February 2014 / Published: 17 February 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1219 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a serious healthcare dilemma influencing millions of patients every year and represent the second most frequent type of body infection. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a multidrug-resistant pathogen causing numerous chronic biofilm-associated infections including urinary tract, nosocomial, and medical
[...] Read more.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a serious healthcare dilemma influencing millions of patients every year and represent the second most frequent type of body infection. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a multidrug-resistant pathogen causing numerous chronic biofilm-associated infections including urinary tract, nosocomial, and medical devices-related infections. In the present study, the biofilm of P. aeruginosa CCIN34519, recovered from inpatients with UTIs, was established on polystyrene substratum and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and was utilized for visualization of the biofilm. A previously described in vitro system for real-time monitoring of biofilm growth/inhibition was utilized to assess the antimicrobial effects of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin, ertapenem, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, and tobramycin as single antibiotics as well as in combinations with zinc sulfate (2.5 mM) against P. aeruginosa CCIN34519 biofilm. Meanwhile, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) at 24 h and mutant prevention concentrations (MPCs) at 96 h were determined for the aforementioned antibiotics. The real-time monitoring data revealed diverse responses of P. aeruginosa CCIN34519 biofilm to the tested antibiotic-zinc sulfate combinations with potential synergisms in cases of fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and norfloxacin) and carbapenem (ertapenem) as demonstrated by reduced MIC and MPC values. Conversely, considerable antagonisms were observed with cephalosporin (ceftriaxone) and aminoglycosides (gentamicin, and tobramycin) as shown by substantially increased MICs and MPCs values. Further deliberate in vivo investigations for the promising synergisms are required to evaluate their therapeutic potentials for treatment of UTIs caused by P. aeruginosa biofilms as well as for developing preventive strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Urinary Tract Infections) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Antibiotic Prescribing in Primary Care and Antimicrobial Resistance in Patients Admitted to Hospital with Urinary Tract Infection: A Controlled Observational Pilot Study
Antibiotics 2014, 3(1), 29-38; doi:10.3390/antibiotics3010029
Received: 23 December 2013 / Revised: 10 January 2014 / Accepted: 15 January 2014 / Published: 22 January 2014
PDF Full-text (679 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is growing evidence that primary care prescribed antibiotics lead to antibiotic resistance in bacteria causing minor infections or being carried by asymptomatic adults, but little research to date has investigated links between primary care prescribed antibiotics and resistance among more serious infections
[...] Read more.
There is growing evidence that primary care prescribed antibiotics lead to antibiotic resistance in bacteria causing minor infections or being carried by asymptomatic adults, but little research to date has investigated links between primary care prescribed antibiotics and resistance among more serious infections requiring hospital care. Knowledge of these effects is likely to have a major influence on public expectations for, and primary care use of, antibiotics. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of recruiting symptomatic adult patients admitted to hospital with urinary infections and to link primary and secondary data information to investigate the relationship between primary care prescribed antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance in these patients. A microbiology database search of in patients who had submitted a urine sample identified 740 patients who were potentially eligible to take part in the study. Of these, 262 patients did not meet the eligibility criteria, mainly due to use of a urinary catheter (40%). Two-hundred and forty three patients could not be recruited as the nurse was unable to visit the patients prior to discharge, as they were too unwell. Eighty patients provided complete information. Results indicate that there is evidence that prior antibiotic use is associated with resistant infections in hospital patients. A fully powered study, conducted using routinely collected data is proposed to fully clarify the precision of the association. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Urinary Tract Infections) Print Edition available

Review

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Open AccessReview Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections and Antibiotic Resistance—Epidemiological and Mechanistic Aspects
Antibiotics 2014, 3(3), 341-352; doi:10.3390/antibiotics3030341
Received: 23 April 2014 / Revised: 11 July 2014 / Accepted: 14 July 2014 / Published: 22 July 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (594 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Uncomplicated urinary tract infections are typically monobacterial and are predominantly caused by Escherichia coli. Although several effective treatment options are available, the rates of antibiotic resistance in urinary isolates of E. coli have increased during the last decade. Knowledge of the actual
[...] Read more.
Uncomplicated urinary tract infections are typically monobacterial and are predominantly caused by Escherichia coli. Although several effective treatment options are available, the rates of antibiotic resistance in urinary isolates of E. coli have increased during the last decade. Knowledge of the actual local rates of antibiotic resistant pathogens as well as the underlying mechanisms are important factors in addition to the geographical location and the health state of the patient for choosing the most effective antibiotic treatment. Recommended treatment options include trimethoprim alone or in combination with sulfamethoxazol, fluoroquinolones, β-lactams, fosfomycin-trometamol, and nitrofurantoin. Three basic mechanisms of resistance to all antibiotics are known, i.e., target alteration, reduced drug concentration and inactivation of the drug. These mechanisms—alone or in combination—contribute to resistance against the different antibiotic classes. With increasing prevalence, combinations of resistance mechanisms leading to multiple drug resistant (mdr) pathogens are being detected and have been associated with reduced fitness under in vitro situations. However, mdr clones among clinical isolates such as E. coli sequence type 131 (ST131) have successfully adapted in fitness and growth rate and are rapidly spreading as a worldwide predominating clone of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Urinary Tract Infections) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Antimicrobial Stewardship and Urinary Tract Infections
Antibiotics 2014, 3(2), 174-192; doi:10.3390/antibiotics3020174
Received: 14 March 2014 / Revised: 10 April 2014 / Accepted: 21 April 2014 / Published: 5 May 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (597 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infections encountered in ambulatory and long-term care settings in the United States. Urine samples are the largest single category of specimens received by most microbiology laboratories and many such cultures are collected from patients who
[...] Read more.
Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infections encountered in ambulatory and long-term care settings in the United States. Urine samples are the largest single category of specimens received by most microbiology laboratories and many such cultures are collected from patients who have no or questionable urinary symptoms. Unfortunately, antimicrobials are often prescribed inappropriately in such patients. Antimicrobial use, whether appropriate or inappropriate, is associated with the selection for antimicrobial-resistant organisms colonizing or infecting the urinary tract. Infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant organisms are associated with higher rates of treatment failures, prolonged hospitalizations, increased costs and mortality. Antimicrobial stewardship consists of avoidance of antimicrobials when appropriate and, when antimicrobials are indicated, use of strategies to optimize the selection, dosing, route of administration, duration and timing of antimicrobial therapy to maximize clinical cure while limiting the unintended consequences of antimicrobial use, including toxicity and selection of resistant microorganisms. This article reviews successful antimicrobial stewardship strategies in the diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Urinary Tract Infections) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Ureteral Stents and Foley Catheters-Associated Urinary Tract Infections: The Role of Coatings and Materials in Infection Prevention
Antibiotics 2014, 3(1), 87-97; doi:10.3390/antibiotics3010087
Received: 6 February 2014 / Revised: 1 March 2014 / Accepted: 4 March 2014 / Published: 10 March 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (92 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Urinary tract infections affect many patients, especially those who are admitted to hospital and receive a bladder catheter for drainage. Catheter associated urinary tract infections are some of the most common hospital infections and cost the health care system billions of dollars. Early
[...] Read more.
Urinary tract infections affect many patients, especially those who are admitted to hospital and receive a bladder catheter for drainage. Catheter associated urinary tract infections are some of the most common hospital infections and cost the health care system billions of dollars. Early removal is one of the mainstays of prevention as 100% of catheters become colonized. Patients with ureteral stents are also affected by infection and antibiotic therapy alone may not be the answer. We will review the current evidence on how to prevent infections of urinary biomaterials by using different coatings, new materials, and drug eluting technologies to decrease infection rates of ureteral stents and catheters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Urinary Tract Infections) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Role of Old Antibiotics in the Era of Antibiotic Resistance. Highlighted Nitrofurantoin for the Treatment of Lower Urinary Tract Infections
Antibiotics 2014, 3(1), 39-48; doi:10.3390/antibiotics3010039
Received: 16 January 2014 / Revised: 24 January 2014 / Accepted: 26 January 2014 / Published: 10 February 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (422 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bacterial infections caused by antibiotic-resistant isolates have become a major health problem in recent years, since they are very difficult to treat, leading to an increase in morbidity and mortality. Nitrofurantoin is a broad-spectrum bactericidal antibiotic that, through a complex mode of action
[...] Read more.
Bacterial infections caused by antibiotic-resistant isolates have become a major health problem in recent years, since they are very difficult to treat, leading to an increase in morbidity and mortality. Nitrofurantoin is a broad-spectrum bactericidal antibiotic that, through a complex mode of action which is not completely understood, affects both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Nitrofurantoin has been used successfully for a long time for the prophylaxis and treatment of acute lower urinary tract infections in adults, children and pregnant women, but the increased emergence of antibiotic resistance has made nitrofurantoin a suitable candidate for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens. Here, we review the mechanism of action, antimicrobial spectrum, pharmacology and safety profile of nitrofurantoin. We also investigate the therapeutic use of nitrofurantoin, including recent data which highlight its role in the management of community urinary tract infection, especially in cases of multidrug-resistant isolates, in which oral active antimicrobials are limited resources nowadays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Urinary Tract Infections) Print Edition available

Other

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Open AccessMeeting Report International Conference “Urogenital Infections and Tuberculosis” in Novosibirsk, Russia, Has Opened New Perspectives in the Fight against Tuberculosis
Antibiotics 2014, 3(2), 121-127; doi:10.3390/antibiotics3020121
Received: 3 February 2014 / Revised: 4 March 2014 / Accepted: 5 March 2014 / Published: 2 April 2014
PDF Full-text (873 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The first International Conference “Urogenital Infections and Tuberculosis” was held in Novosibirsk 24–26 October 2013. Three hundred and twelve delegates from 73 cities in 16 countries took part in the conference. Actual problems of urogenital tract infection (UTI) including tuberculosis (TB) as a
[...] Read more.
The first International Conference “Urogenital Infections and Tuberculosis” was held in Novosibirsk 24–26 October 2013. Three hundred and twelve delegates from 73 cities in 16 countries took part in the conference. Actual problems of urogenital tract infection (UTI) including tuberculosis (TB) as a specific infection were discussed, including: nosocomial infections in urology, various aspects of prostate biopsy, epidemiology and diagnosis of urogenital tuberculosis, gender and age related characteristics of urinary tract infections, and male infertility, etc. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotics and Urinary Tract Infections) Print Edition available

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