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Foods, Volume 7, Issue 2 (February 2018)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Thyme and Savory Essential Oil Efficacy and Induction of Resistance against Botrytis cinerea through Priming of Defense Responses in Apple
Foods 2018, 7(2), 11; doi:10.3390/foods7020011
Received: 17 November 2017 / Revised: 12 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 23 January 2018
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Abstract
The efficacy of thyme and savory essential oils were investigated against Botrytis cinerea on apple fruit. Apples treated with thyme and savory essential oils showed significantly lower gray mold severity and incidence. Thyme essential oil at 1% concentration showed the highest efficacy, with
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The efficacy of thyme and savory essential oils were investigated against Botrytis cinerea on apple fruit. Apples treated with thyme and savory essential oils showed significantly lower gray mold severity and incidence. Thyme essential oil at 1% concentration showed the highest efficacy, with lower disease incidence and smaller lesion diameter. The expression of specific pathogenesis-related (PR) genes PR-8 and PR-5 was characterized in apple tissues in response to thyme oil application and B. cinerea inoculation. After 6 h of pathogen inoculation, thyme essential oil induced a 2.5-fold increase of PR-8 gene expression compared to inoculated fruits. After 24 h of inoculation, PR-8 was highly induced (7-fold) in both thyme oil-treated and untreated apples inoculated with B. cinerea. After 48 h of inoculation, PR-8 expression in thyme-treated and inoculated apples was 4- and 6-fold higher than in inoculated and water-treated apples. Neither thyme oil application nor B. cinerea inoculation markedly affected PR-5 expression. These results suggest that thyme oil induces resistance against B. cinerea through the priming of defense responses in apple fruit, and the PR-8 gene of apple may play a key role in the mechanism by which thyme essential oil effectively inhibits gray mold in apple fruit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Essential Oils in Food Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Extraction and Optimization of Potato Starch and Its Application as a Stabilizer in Yogurt Manufacturing
Foods 2018, 7(2), 14; doi:10.3390/foods7020014
Received: 30 December 2017 / Revised: 19 January 2018 / Accepted: 26 January 2018 / Published: 29 January 2018
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Abstract
Starch is increasingly used as a functional group in many industrial applications and foods due to its ability to work as a thickener. The experimental values of extracting starch from yellow skin potato indicate the processing conditions at 3000 rpm and 15 min
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Starch is increasingly used as a functional group in many industrial applications and foods due to its ability to work as a thickener. The experimental values of extracting starch from yellow skin potato indicate the processing conditions at 3000 rpm and 15 min as optimum for the highest yield of extracted starch. The effect of adding different concentrations of extracted starch under the optimized conditions was studied to determine the acidity, pH, syneresis, microbial counts, and sensory evaluation in stored yogurt manufactured at 5 °C for 15 days. The results showed that adding sufficient concentrations of starch (0.75%, 1%) could provide better results in terms of the minimum change in the total acidity, decrease in pH, reduction in syneresis, and preferable results for all sensory parameters. The results revealed that the total bacteria count of all yogurt samples increased throughout the storage time. However, adding different concentrations of optimized extracted starch had a significant effect, decreasing the microbial content compared with the control sample (YC). In addition, the results indicated that coliform bacteria were not found during the storage time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality and Consumer Acceptability of Dairy Foods)
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Open AccessArticle Polyphenolic Characterization and Antioxidant Activity of Malus domestica and Prunus domestica Cultivars from Costa Rica
Foods 2018, 7(2), 15; doi:10.3390/foods7020015
Received: 5 December 2017 / Revised: 21 January 2018 / Accepted: 22 January 2018 / Published: 30 January 2018
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Abstract
The phenolic composition of skin and flesh from Malus domestica apples (Anna cultivar) and Prunus domestica plums (satsuma cultivar) commercial cultivars in Costa Rica, was studied using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS) on enriched-phenolic extracts, with particular
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The phenolic composition of skin and flesh from Malus domestica apples (Anna cultivar) and Prunus domestica plums (satsuma cultivar) commercial cultivars in Costa Rica, was studied using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS) on enriched-phenolic extracts, with particular emphasis in proanthocyanidin and flavonoids characterization. A total of 52 compounds were identified, including 21 proanthocyanidins ([(+)-catechin and (−)-epicatechin]) flavan-3-ols monomers, five procyanidin B-type dimers and two procyanidin A-type dimers, five procyanidin B-type trimers and two procyanidin A-type trimers, as well as one procyanidin B-type tetramer, two procyanidin B-type pentamers, and two flavan-3-ol gallates); 15 flavonoids (kaempferol, quercetin and naringenin derivatives); nine phenolic acids (protochatechuic, caffeoylquinic, and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives); five hydroxychalcones (phloretin and 3-hydroxyphloretin derivatives); and two isoprenoid glycosides (vomifoliol derivatives). These findings constitute the first report of such a high number and diversity of compounds in skins of one single plum cultivar and of the presence of proanthocyanidin pentamers in apple skins. Also, it is the first time that such a large number of glycosylated flavonoids and proanthocyanidins are reported in skins and flesh of a single plum cultivar. In addition, total phenolic content (TPC) was measured with high values observed for all samples, especially for fruits skins with a TPC of 619.6 and 640.3 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract respectively for apple and plum. Antioxidant potential using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidrazyl (DPPH) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) methods were evaluated, with results showing also high values for all samples, especially again for fruit skins with IC50 of 4.54 and 5.19 µg/mL (DPPH) and 16.8 and 14.6 mmol TE/g (ORAC) respectively for apple and plum, indicating the potential value of these extracts. Significant negative correlation was found for both apple and plum samples between TPC and DPPH antioxidant values, especially for plum fruits (R = −0.981, p < 0.05) as well as significant positive correlation between TPC and ORAC, also especially for plum fruits (R = 0.993, p < 0.05) and between both, DPPH and ORAC antioxidant methods (R = 0.994, p < 0.05). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Qualitative Analysis of Food Products)
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Open AccessArticle Adoptable Interventions, Human Health, and Food Safety Considerations for Reducing Sodium Content of Processed Food Products
Foods 2018, 7(2), 16; doi:10.3390/foods7020016
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 23 January 2018 / Accepted: 26 January 2018 / Published: 1 February 2018
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Abstract
Although vital for maintaining health when consumed in moderation, various epidemiological studies in recent years have shown a strong association between excess dietary sodium with an array of health complications. These associations are robust and clinically significant for development of hypertension and prehypertension,
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Although vital for maintaining health when consumed in moderation, various epidemiological studies in recent years have shown a strong association between excess dietary sodium with an array of health complications. These associations are robust and clinically significant for development of hypertension and prehypertension, two of the leading causes of preventable mortality worldwide, in adults with a high-sodium diet. Data from developed nations and transition economies show worldwide sodium intake of higher than recommended amounts in various nations. While natural foods typically contain a moderate amount of sodium, manufactured food products are the main contributor to dietary sodium intake, up to 75% of sodium in diet of American adults, as an example. Lower cost in formulation, positive effects on organoleptic properties of food products, effects on food quality during shelf-life, and microbiological food safety, make sodium chloride a notable candidate and an indispensable part of formulation of various products. Although low-sodium formulation of each product possesses a unique set of challenges, review of literature shows an abundance of successful experiences for products of many categories. The current study discusses adoptable interventions for product development and reformulation of products to achieve a modest amount of final sodium content while maintaining taste, quality, shelf-stability, and microbiological food safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Reformulation and Innovation for Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Enrichment of Biscuits with Matcha Green Tea Powder: Its Impact on Consumer Acceptability and Acute Metabolic Response
Foods 2018, 7(2), 17; doi:10.3390/foods7020017
Received: 5 January 2018 / Revised: 22 January 2018 / Accepted: 26 January 2018 / Published: 1 February 2018
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Abstract
Matcha green tea powder (MGTP) is made with finely ground green tea leaves that are rich in phytochemicals, most particularly catechins. Shortbread biscuits were enriched with MGTP and evaluated for consumer acceptability and potential functional health properties. Baking decreased the content of total
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Matcha green tea powder (MGTP) is made with finely ground green tea leaves that are rich in phytochemicals, most particularly catechins. Shortbread biscuits were enriched with MGTP and evaluated for consumer acceptability and potential functional health properties. Baking decreased the content of total catechins by 19% compared to dough, although epimerization increased the amount of (+)-gallocatechin gallate at the expense of other catechins such as (−)-epigallocatechin gallate. Consumer acceptability tests using a 9-point hedonic scale showed that consumers preferred enriched biscuits with low content of MGTP (2 g of MGTP 100 g−1 of flour), and an increase of sugar content did not significantly improve the acceptability of MGTP-enriched biscuits. Overall, enrichment of biscuits with MGTP did not significantly affect the postprandial glucose or triglyceride response (area under curve) compared to non-enriched biscuits consumed with water or MGTP drink. Enriching biscuits with Matcha green tea is acceptable to consumers, but may not bring significant postprandial effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional and Bioactive Properties of Food)
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Open AccessArticle Fermentability of Novel Type-4 Resistant Starches in In Vitro System
Foods 2018, 7(2), 18; doi:10.3390/foods7020018
Received: 14 December 2017 / Revised: 23 January 2018 / Accepted: 26 January 2018 / Published: 1 February 2018
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Abstract
Resistant starches are non-digestible starches that are fermented in the colon by microbiota. These carbohydrates are prebiotic and can be beneficial to consumer health. Many types of resistant starch exist with varying physical properties that may result in differences in fermentability. The objective
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Resistant starches are non-digestible starches that are fermented in the colon by microbiota. These carbohydrates are prebiotic and can be beneficial to consumer health. Many types of resistant starch exist with varying physical properties that may result in differences in fermentability. The objective of this research project was to compare potential prebiotic effects and fermentability of four novel resistant starches using an in vitro fermentation system and measuring changes in total gas production, pH, and formation of SCFAs (short chain fatty acids). Fecal donations were collected from seven healthy volunteers. Four novel resistant starches, modified potato starch (MPS), modified tapioca starch (MTS), and modified maize starches (MMS-1 and MMS-2), were analyzed and compared to polydextrose and short chain fructooligosaccharides (FOS) as controls. After twenty-four hours of fermentation, MPS and MTS responded similarly in gas production (74 mL; 70.6 mL respectively), pH (5.93; 5.93 respectively), and SCFA production (Acetate: 115; 124, Propionate: 21; 26, Butyrate: 29; 31 μmol/mL respectively). While MMS-1 had similar gas production and individual SCFA production, the pH was significantly higher (6.06). The fermentation of MMS-2 produced the least amount of gas (22 mL), with a higher pH (6.34), and lower acetate production (78.4 μmol/mL). All analyzed compounds were fermentable and promoted the formation of beneficial SCFAs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of Essential Oils Obtained from Abruzzo Autochthonous Plants: Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities Assessment for Food Application
Foods 2018, 7(2), 19; doi:10.3390/foods7020019
Received: 21 December 2017 / Revised: 29 January 2018 / Accepted: 30 January 2018 / Published: 2 February 2018
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Abstract
In the present study, the essential oils (EOs) of some officinal plants from Abruzzo territory (Italy) were evaluated for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and their volatile fraction chemical characterization. The EOs were extracted from Rosmarinus officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis
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In the present study, the essential oils (EOs) of some officinal plants from Abruzzo territory (Italy) were evaluated for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and their volatile fraction chemical characterization. The EOs were extracted from Rosmarinus officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Mentha piperita, Allium sativum, Foeniculum vulgare, Satureja montana, Thymus vulgaris and Coriandrum sativum seeds. The antimicrobial activity was screened against thirteen Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains to determine the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The total phenolic content (TPC) and the antioxidant capacity (AOC) were assessed by means of Folin-Ciocâlteu method, and Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity with 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (TEAC/ABTS), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays respectively. Among the nine EOs tested, T. vulgaris, S. montana, O. vulgare and C. sativum EOs showed MIC values ranging from 0.625 to 5 μL/mL. The AOC and TPC results for these species were also interesting. The major components for these EOs were thymol for T. vulgaris (44%) and O. vulgare (40%), linalool (77%) for C. sativum, and carvacrol for S. montana (54%). The results allowed the study to establish that these EOs are good candidates for potential application as biopreservatives in foods and/or food manufacture environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Essential Oils in Food Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and Meso-Zeaxanthin in the Organs of Carotenoid-Supplemented Chickens
Foods 2018, 7(2), 20; doi:10.3390/foods7020020
Received: 4 January 2018 / Revised: 29 January 2018 / Accepted: 30 January 2018 / Published: 3 February 2018
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Abstract
The macular carotenoids (i.e., lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z) and meso-zeaxanthin (MZ)) exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and optical properties that are believed to support human health and function. Studying the accumulation and distribution of these nutrients in tissues and organs, in addition to the
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The macular carotenoids (i.e., lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z) and meso-zeaxanthin (MZ)) exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and optical properties that are believed to support human health and function. Studying the accumulation and distribution of these nutrients in tissues and organs, in addition to the eye, is an important step in understanding how these nutrients might support global human function and health (e.g., heart and brain). Chicken is an appropriate animal model with which to study the accumulation of these carotenoids in organs, as the relevant transport molecules and carotenoid binding proteins for L, Z and MZ are present in both humans and chickens. In this experiment, a sample of 3 chickens that were supplemented with L and MZ diacetate (active group) and a sample of 3 chickens that received a standard diet (control group) were analysed. Both groups were analysed for L, Z and MZ concentrations in the brain, eyes, heart, lung, duodenum/pancreas, jejunum/ileum, kidney and breast tissue. L, Z and MZ were identified in all the organs/tissues analysed from the active group. L and Z were identified in all of the organs/tissues analysed from the control group; while, MZ was identified in the eyes of these animals only. The discovery that MZ is accumulated in the tissues and organs of chickens supplemented with this carotenoid is important, given that it is known that a combination of L, Z and MZ exhibits superior antioxidant capacity when compared to any of these carotenoids in isolation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Overview of Chemical Profiles, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Commercial Vegetable Edible Oils Marketed in Japan
Foods 2018, 7(2), 21; doi:10.3390/foods7020021
Received: 30 December 2017 / Revised: 3 February 2018 / Accepted: 7 February 2018 / Published: 10 February 2018
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Abstract
This study analyzed chemical components and investigated the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of fourteen vegetable edible oils marketed in Japan. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to identify and quantify principal phenolic acids and flavonoids. In the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, sunflower,
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This study analyzed chemical components and investigated the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of fourteen vegetable edible oils marketed in Japan. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to identify and quantify principal phenolic acids and flavonoids. In the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, sunflower, safflower, canola, soybean, Inca inchi, sesame, and rice bran showed markedly greater activity, whilst the percentage of lipid peroxidation inhibition (LPI%) in sunflower, canola, cotton, grape, flax, perilla, Inca inchi, perillartine, and rice bran were significantly higher than other oils. Maximum total phenol content (TPC) was recorded in flax, followed by perillartine, rice bran, and perilla, whereas total flavonoid content (TFC) was the greatest in Inca inchi and sesame. Benzoic acid was the most common constituent, followed by vanillic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid. On the other hand, luteolin was the most abundant flavonoid, followed by esculetin, myricetin, isoquercetin, and kaempferol, while fisetin was detected only in sunflower. In general, all of the edible oils showed antimicrobial activity, but the growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli of cotton, grape, chia, sesame, and rice bran were greater than other oils. Full article
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Open AccessArticle What Are the Main Drivers of Young Consumers Purchasing Traditional Food Products? European Field Research
Foods 2018, 7(2), 22; doi:10.3390/foods7020022
Received: 5 January 2018 / Revised: 8 February 2018 / Accepted: 10 February 2018 / Published: 12 February 2018
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Abstract
In this research, the attitude of European young adults (age 18 to 30 years) regarding their consumption of local and traditional products was examined. The survey was conducted on a sample of 836 consumers from seven European countries (Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Slovenia, Croatia,
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In this research, the attitude of European young adults (age 18 to 30 years) regarding their consumption of local and traditional products was examined. The survey was conducted on a sample of 836 consumers from seven European countries (Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Slovenia, Croatia, Denmark and France). Data collection was made by distributing a developed questionnaire through social media and university mail services. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to identify consumer perception comparing the overall sample with two subsets (consumers from Eastern and Western European countries). Six major factors were revealed: consumer behavior, uncertainty about health issues, cost, influence of media and friends and availability in store. Young adults had a positive attitude to local and traditional food products, but they expressed insecurity about health issues. Cost factor had less of an influence on interviewees from Eastern European countries than those from the overall sample (3rd and 5th factor accordingly). Influence of close environment was a different factor in Eastern countries compared to Western ones, for which it was common to see an influence from media. Females and older people (25–30 years old) have fewer doubts about Traditional Food Products, while media have a high influence on consumers’ decisions. The aim of this survey was to identify the consumer profiles of young adults and create different promotion strategies of local and traditional products among the two groups of countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Function and Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Characterization and Determination of Interesterification Markers (Triacylglycerol Regioisomers) in Confectionery Oils by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Foods 2018, 7(2), 23; doi:10.3390/foods7020023
Received: 15 January 2018 / Revised: 5 February 2018 / Accepted: 12 February 2018 / Published: 16 February 2018
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Abstract
Interesterification is an industrial transformation process aiming to change the physico-chemical properties of vegetable oils by redistributing fatty acid position within the original constituent of the triglycerides. In the confectionery industry, controlling formation degree of positional isomers is important in order to obtain
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Interesterification is an industrial transformation process aiming to change the physico-chemical properties of vegetable oils by redistributing fatty acid position within the original constituent of the triglycerides. In the confectionery industry, controlling formation degree of positional isomers is important in order to obtain fats with the desired properties. Silver ion HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) is the analytical technique usually adopted to separate triglycerides (TAGs) having different unsaturation degrees. However, separation of TAG positional isomers is a challenge when the number of double bonds is the same and the only difference is in their position within the triglyceride molecule. The TAG positional isomers involved in the present work have a structural specificity that require a separation method tailored to the needs of confectionery industry. The aim of this work was to obtain a chromatographic resolution that might allow reliable qualitative and quantitative evaluation of TAG positional isomers within reasonably rapid retention times and robust in respect of repeatability and reproducibility. The resulting analytical procedure was applied both to confectionery raw materials and final products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Liquid Chromatography in Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle Italian Opuntia ficus-indica Cladodes as Rich Source of Bioactive Compounds with Health-Promoting Properties
Foods 2018, 7(2), 24; doi:10.3390/foods7020024
Received: 13 January 2018 / Revised: 13 February 2018 / Accepted: 16 February 2018 / Published: 18 February 2018
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Abstract
Natural by-products, especially phenolic compounds, are in great demand by the nutra-pharmaceutical and biomedical industries. An analytical study was performed to investigate, for the first time, the presence of antioxidant constituents and the corresponding in vitro antioxidant activity in the extract of cladodes
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Natural by-products, especially phenolic compounds, are in great demand by the nutra-pharmaceutical and biomedical industries. An analytical study was performed to investigate, for the first time, the presence of antioxidant constituents and the corresponding in vitro antioxidant activity in the extract of cladodes from Ficodindia di San Cono (Opuntia ficus-indica) protected designation of origin (PDO). The cladode extracts were analysed for target determination of selected constituents, i.e., β-polysaccharides and total phenolic content. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of hydro-alcoholic extracts was assessed by means of two different methods: α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. An untargeted UHPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS profiling approach was used to depict the phenolic profile of hydro-alcoholic cladode extracts. Interestingly, over 2 g/kg of polyphenols were detected in this matrix, and these compounds were mainly responsible for the antioxidant properties, as shown by the strong correlation between phenolic classes and antioxidant scores. Finally, this study provides basic information on the presence of bioactive compounds and in vitro antioxidant activities in cladode extracts from cactus that might recommend their novel applications at the industrial level in the field of nutraceutical products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals: The New Frontier)
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Open AccessArticle Physicochemical and Rheological Properties of a Dairy Dessert, Enriched with Chickpea Flour
Foods 2018, 7(2), 25; doi:10.3390/foods7020025
Received: 31 January 2018 / Revised: 13 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 18 February 2018
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Abstract
Dairy desserts are complex mixtures and matrices including main components such as milk, sugar, starch, hydrocolloids, colorants and flavors, with a proteinaceous structure; they are widely consumed and present a semisolid consistency. In this work, the physicochemical and rheological properties of a dairy
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Dairy desserts are complex mixtures and matrices including main components such as milk, sugar, starch, hydrocolloids, colorants and flavors, with a proteinaceous structure; they are widely consumed and present a semisolid consistency. In this work, the physicochemical and rheological properties of a dairy dessert with the addition of chickpea flour (raw and cooked, at four concentrations) were studied to determine the effect of the flour. The results indicated that luminosity (L*: 62.75–83.29), pH (6.35–7.11) and acidity (1.56–3.56) changed with the type of flour. The flow properties of the custards exhibited a non-Newtonian behavior that was well fitted by three flow models. The studied custard systems were stored for twelve days at 4 °C. The physicochemical and flow properties of the custards changed notably as a function of flour addition and storage time. From all samples, only four were analyzed with oscillatory tests, showing their mechanical spectra with elastic behavior. The dessert texture was also measured, founding that those formulated with Blanco Noroeste chickpea flour exhibited the highest values of hardness (0.356–0.391 Newton (N)) through the twelve days. It can be concluded that those custard systems with the highest content of flour presented a very good response as a potential new dairy product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality and Consumer Acceptability of Dairy Foods)
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Open AccessArticle Serve Size and Estimated Energy and Protein Contents of Meals Prepared by ‘Meals on Wheels’ South Australia Inc.: Findings from a Meal Audit Study
Foods 2018, 7(2), 26; doi:10.3390/foods7020026
Received: 21 December 2017 / Revised: 9 February 2018 / Accepted: 12 February 2018 / Published: 20 February 2018
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Abstract
An audit of ‘standard’ (STD) and ‘energy and protein fortified’ (HEHP) meals from Meals on Wheels (MOW) South Australia’s summer menu was conducted to evaluate the consistency, and serve size and nutrient contents, of their menu items. Twenty soups, 20 mains and 20
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An audit of ‘standard’ (STD) and ‘energy and protein fortified’ (HEHP) meals from Meals on Wheels (MOW) South Australia’s summer menu was conducted to evaluate the consistency, and serve size and nutrient contents, of their menu items. Twenty soups, 20 mains and 20 desserts from each of the STD and HEHP menus were prepared at the MOW South Australia’s kitchen and delivered to three ‘sham(dummy)-clients’ over a 5-week period. Each meal component was weighed in triplicate, to the nearest gram, the variation within the serve weight was calculated, and the overall energy and protein content of each meal was determined using FoodWorks (Xyris Software, Highgate Hill, Queensland, Australia). On average, the variability for soups and mains was ≤6% and for desserts was ≤10% and although the measured serve sizes of the MOW meals were consistently smaller than prescribed serve size, the differences were minor. As a percentage of recommended daily intakes (RDIs) for adults aged over 60 years, we calculated that the STD meals contained 21–39% for energy and 42–63% for protein while the HEHP meals contained 29–55% for energy and 46–69% for protein. These findings demonstrate that MOW meals currently meet the voluntary meal guidelines for energy and protein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Function and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle Free Monoterpene Isomer Profiles of Vitis Vinifera L. cv. White Wines
Foods 2018, 7(2), 27; doi:10.3390/foods7020027
Received: 26 January 2018 / Revised: 13 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 21 February 2018
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Abstract
Monoterpene compounds contribute floral and fruity characters to wine and are desired by grape growers and winemakers for many white wines. However, monoterpene isomers, especially monoterpene enantiomers, have been little explored. It is possible to identify and quantitate 17 monoterpene isomers in 148
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Monoterpene compounds contribute floral and fruity characters to wine and are desired by grape growers and winemakers for many white wines. However, monoterpene isomers, especially monoterpene enantiomers, have been little explored. It is possible to identify and quantitate 17 monoterpene isomers in 148 varietal wines from eight grape varieties; Chardonnay, Gewürztraminer, Muscat, Pinot gris, Riesling, Sauvignon blanc, Torrontes, and Viognier in two vintages by Headspace solidphase microextraction multidimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-MDGC-MS). Results obtained from general linear models and discriminant analysis showed significant differences for the isomer profiles and enantiomer fractions among the eight grape varieties and four wine styles. The high R2 values from the fitted line show low variation in enantiomeric differences based on variety. These results provide an overview of the monoterpene isomers of wide varietal wines, and support that isomer profiles and enantiomer fractions could differentiate our wines by varietal and wine style. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Composition and Quality Analysis)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Carbon Monoxide in Meat and Fish Packaging: Advantages and Limits
Foods 2018, 7(2), 12; doi:10.3390/foods7020012
Received: 23 November 2017 / Revised: 29 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 23 January 2018
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Abstract
Due to increased demands for greater expectation in relation to quality, convenience, safety and extended shelf-life, combined with growing demand from retailers for cost-effective extensions of fresh muscle foods’ shelf-life, the food packaging industry quickly developed to meet these expectations. During the last
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Due to increased demands for greater expectation in relation to quality, convenience, safety and extended shelf-life, combined with growing demand from retailers for cost-effective extensions of fresh muscle foods’ shelf-life, the food packaging industry quickly developed to meet these expectations. During the last few decades, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) of foods has been a promising area of research, but much remains to be known regarding the use of unconventional gases such carbon monoxide (CO). The use of CO for meat and seafood packaging is not allowed in most countries due to the potential toxic effect, and its use is controversial in some countries. The commercial application of CO in food packaging was not then considered feasible because of possible environmental hazards for workers. CO has previously been reported to mask muscle foods’ spoilage, and this was the primary concern raised for the prohibition, as this may mislead consumers. This review was undertaken to present the most comprehensive and current overview of the widely-available, scattered information about the use of CO in the preservation of muscle foods. The advantages of CO and its industrial limits are presented and discussed. The most recent literature on the consumer safety issues related to the use of CO and consumer acceptance of CO especially in meat packaging systems were also discussed. Recommendations and future prospects were addressed for food industries, consumers and regulators on what would be a “best practice” in the use of CO in food packaging. All this promotes high ethical standards in commercial communications by means of effective regulation, for the benefit of consumers and businesses in the world, and this implies that industrialized countries and members of their regulatory agencies must develop a coherent and robust systems of regulation and control that can respond effectively to new challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality and Safety of Meat Products)
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Open AccessReview The Role of Bacteria, Probiotics and Diet in Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Foods 2018, 7(2), 13; doi:10.3390/foods7020013
Received: 31 December 2017 / Revised: 18 January 2018 / Accepted: 24 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
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Abstract
Irritable bowel syndrome is a highly prevalent gastrointestinal disorder that threatens the quality of life of millions and poses a substantial financial burden on healthcare systems around the world. Intense research into the human microbiome has led to fascinating discoveries which directly and
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Irritable bowel syndrome is a highly prevalent gastrointestinal disorder that threatens the quality of life of millions and poses a substantial financial burden on healthcare systems around the world. Intense research into the human microbiome has led to fascinating discoveries which directly and indirectly implicate the diversity and function of this occult organ in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) pathophysiology. The benefit of manipulating the gastrointestinal microbiota with diet and probiotics to improve symptoms has been demonstrated in a wealth of both animal and human studies. The positive and negative mechanistic roles bacteria play in IBS will be explored and practical probiotic and dietary choices offered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Probiotics and Prebiotics in Human Health)
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