Special Issue "Functional and Bioactive Properties of Food"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Function and Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Diego A. Moreno

Phytochemistry Laboratory, Department of Food Science and Technology, National Council for Scientfic Research (CEBAS-CSIC), Murcia, Spain
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Phone: +34 968396200 extension 6369
Interests: food science and technology; phytochemistry; bioactive compounds; healthy foods; human nutrition, wellbeing; energy metabolism (obesity, diabetes)
Guest Editor
Dr. Nebojsa Ilic

Institute for Food Technology - Novi Sad (FINS), Bulevar cara Lazara 121000 - Novi Sad, Serbia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Food Science and Technology; Natural Products Chemistry; Bioactive Compounds of Plant-Derived Foods; Structure – Function and Bioactivity of Plant Substances for Health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the last 20 years, many research groups and teams, as well as different projects and resulting publications, have considered as relevant the change in the vision of producing foods, not only for nutrition, but also for health. Diet and nutrition are key tools in promoting health and reducing the comorbidities of chronic diseases. There are thousands of biomolecules in fruits, vegetables, wild and medicinal plants, other land and marine organisms, which can exert functional and health-promoting effects through bioactivity beyond nutrition.

There are many opportunities and challenges in establishing connections between the bioactivity in foods and ingredients with benefits on health. The evidence still is not clearly presented, there are difficulties in demonstrating causality, and the multifactorial conditions of chronic and non-communicable diseases (e.g., obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, etc.), which are not related to a single effect or a single compound. Additionally, the translation from lab to clinical studies still does not give enough support for claims, and more evidence is needed to give recommendations and dietary advice.

From the enormous amount of knowledge generated from different natural bioactive ingredients present in foods, we are aiming to bring together experts working in different fields of food, nutrition, and health, in order to work on this Special Issue, with a comprehensive collection of papers to gain insight into the most promising bioactive compounds in different foods, to improve the preservation of bioactivity during the food processing chain, and to provide scientific evidence of the efficacy of key bioactives in foods in preventing disease and improving health and well being.

Dr. Diego A. Moreno
Dr. Nebojsa Ilic
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 550 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Food
  • Nutrients
  • Bioactives
  • Bioavailability
  • Nutrition and Metabolism
  • Health

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Functional and Bioactive Properties of Food: The Challenges Ahead
Received: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 24 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
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(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional and Bioactive Properties of Food)

Research

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Open AccessArticle Identification of Rice Koji Extract Components that Increase β-Glucocerebrosidase Levels in Human Epidermal Keratinocytes
Received: 21 April 2018 / Revised: 6 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6159 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rice miso contains many ingredients derived from rice koji and has been a valuable source of nutrition since ancient times. We found that the consumption of rice miso led to improvements in the moisture content of cheek stratum corneum, skin viscoelasticity, and skin
[...] Read more.
Rice miso contains many ingredients derived from rice koji and has been a valuable source of nutrition since ancient times. We found that the consumption of rice miso led to improvements in the moisture content of cheek stratum corneum, skin viscoelasticity, and skin texture. Further, rice miso extract was found to increase the mRNA expression and activity of β-glucocerebrosidase (β-GCase), an enzyme involved in ceramide synthesis in the stratum corneum, in cultures. In this study, we identified the lipid-derived components of rice koji that increase the β-GCase activity in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes. The methanol fraction of rice koji extract induced an increase in the mRNA expression and activity of β-GCase in keratinocytes. The active fraction of rice koji was found to contain phosphatidic acid (PA) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). The total PA concentration in rice koji was 973.9 ng/mg dry weight, which was 17.5 times higher than that in steamed rice. Among the molecular species, PA_18:2/18:2 was the most frequently found. The total LPA concentration in rice koji was 29.6 ng/mg dry weight, and 2-LPA_18:2 was the most frequently found LPA. Since PA and LPA increase the mRNA expression and activity of β-GCase in keratinocytes, they are thought to be the active ingredients in rice koji that increase the β-GCase levels in human epidermal keratinocytes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional and Bioactive Properties of Food)
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Open AccessArticle Protective Effect of Selenium-Enriched Ricegrass Juice against Cadmium-Induced Toxicity and DNA Damage in HEK293 Kidney Cells
Received: 12 April 2018 / Revised: 23 May 2018 / Accepted: 24 May 2018 / Published: 28 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2068 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cadmium (Cd) contamination in food is a problem endangering human health. Cd detoxication is an interesting topic particularly using food which provides no side effects. Ricegrass juice is a squeezed juice from young rice leaves which is introduced as a functional drink rich
[...] Read more.
Cadmium (Cd) contamination in food is a problem endangering human health. Cd detoxication is an interesting topic particularly using food which provides no side effects. Ricegrass juice is a squeezed juice from young rice leaves which is introduced as a functional drink rich in polyphenol components. Se-enrichment into ricegrass is initiated to provide extra advantages of their functional properties. The protective role of ricegrass juice (RG) and Se-enriched ricegrass juice (Se-RG) against Cd toxicity during pre-, co- and post-treatment on HEK293 kidney cells were investigated. Results confirmed that RG and Se-RG had very low toxicity for kidney cells. Both extracts showed a protective role during pre-treatment and co-treatment against Cd toxicity by exerting a reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA) content and the percentage of DNA damage in tail and tail length of the comets over the Cd-treated cells. However, the Se-RG indicated additional benefits in all properties over RG. High Se content in Se-RG resulted in more protective effects of the regular ricegrass juice. In summary, this study provides clear evidence that Se-enriched ricegrass juice has potential to be developed as a functional food to protect the human body from Cd contamination via the reduction of oxidative stress and DNA damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional and Bioactive Properties of Food)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity of Eugenia uniflora L. (Pitanga) Samples Collected in Different Uruguayan Locations
Received: 22 March 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1278 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of nutrient-rich foods to enhance the wellness, health and lifestyle habits of consumers is globally encouraged. Native fruits are of great interest as they are grown and consumed locally and take part of the ethnobotanic knowledge of the population. Pitanga is
[...] Read more.
The use of nutrient-rich foods to enhance the wellness, health and lifestyle habits of consumers is globally encouraged. Native fruits are of great interest as they are grown and consumed locally and take part of the ethnobotanic knowledge of the population. Pitanga is an example of a native fruit from Uruguay, consumed as a jelly or an alcoholic beverage. Pitanga has a red-violet pigmentation, which is a common trait for foods that are a good source of antioxidants. Hence, fruits from different Uruguayan regions were analyzed via miniaturized sample preparation method, HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn and RP-HPLC-DAD techniques to identify and quantify phenolic compounds, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was evaluated via DPPH and ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) assays. A multivariate linear regression was applied to correlate the observed antioxidant capacity with the phenolic content. Furthermore, Principal Components Analysis was performed to highlight characteristics between the various samples studied. The main results indicated differences between northern and southern Uruguayan samples. Delphinidin-3-hexoside was present in southern samples (mean of 293.16 µmol/100 g dry weight (DW)) and absent in the sample collected in the north (sample 3). All the samples contain high levels of cyanidin-3-hexoside, but a noticeable difference was found between the northern sample (150.45 µmol/100 g DW) and the southern sample (1121.98 µmol/100 g DW). The antioxidant capacity (mean ORAC of 56370 µmol Trolox®/100 g DW) were high in all the samples compared to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) database of similar berry-fruits. The results of this study highlight the nutraceutical value of a native fruit that has not been exploited until now. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional and Bioactive Properties of Food)
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Open AccessArticle Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of a Proprietary Alpha-Amylase Inhibitor from White Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) on Weight and Fat Loss in Humans
Received: 14 February 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the evidence for the effectiveness of a proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) supplementation interventions in humans on modification of body weight and fat mass. A systematic literature search was performed
[...] Read more.
The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the evidence for the effectiveness of a proprietary alpha-amylase inhibitor from white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) supplementation interventions in humans on modification of body weight and fat mass. A systematic literature search was performed using three databases: PubMed, the Cochrane collaboration, and Google Scholar. In addition, the manufacturer was contacted for internal unpublished data, and finally, the reference section of relevant original research and review papers were mined for additional studies. Eleven studies were selected for the meta-analysis of weight loss (a total of 573 subjects), and three studies for the meta-analysis of body fat reduction (a total of 110 subjects), as they fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Phaseolus vulgaris supplementation showed an average effect on weight loss difference of −1.08 kg (95% CI (confidence interval), −0.42 kg to −1.16 kg, p < 0.00001), and the average effect on body fat reduction was 3.26 kg (95% CI, −2.35 kg to −4.163 kg, p = 0.02). This meta-analysis found statistically significant effects of Phaseolus vulgaris supplementation on body weight and body fat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional and Bioactive Properties of Food)
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Open AccessArticle Lactic Acid Bacteria from Kefir Increase Cytotoxicity of Natural Killer Cells to Tumor Cells
Received: 26 February 2018 / Revised: 23 March 2018 / Accepted: 25 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (11796 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Japanese fermented beverage, homemade kefir, contains six lactic acid bacteria: Lactococcus. lactis subsp. Lactis, Lactococcus. lactis subsp. Cremoris, Lactococcus. Lactis subsp. Lactis biovar diacetylactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc meseuteroides subsp. Cremoris and Lactobacillus casei. In this study,
[...] Read more.
The Japanese fermented beverage, homemade kefir, contains six lactic acid bacteria: Lactococcus. lactis subsp. Lactis, Lactococcus. lactis subsp. Cremoris, Lactococcus. Lactis subsp. Lactis biovar diacetylactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc meseuteroides subsp. Cremoris and Lactobacillus casei. In this study, we found that a mixture of the six lactic acid bacteria from kefir increased the cytotoxicity of human natural killer KHYG-1 cells to human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells and colorectal tumor HCT116 cells. Furthermore, levels of mRNA expression and secretion of IFN-γ (interferon gamma) increased in KHYG-1 cells that had been treated with the six lactic acid bacteria mixture from kefir. The results suggest that the six lactic acid bacteria mixture from kefir has strong effects on natural immunity and tumor cell cytotoxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional and Bioactive Properties of Food)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Two Doses of Curry Prepared with Mixed Spices on Postprandial Ghrelin and Subjective Appetite Responses—A Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial
Received: 23 February 2018 / Revised: 20 March 2018 / Accepted: 25 March 2018 / Published: 26 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1532 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Spices are known to provide orosensory stimulation that can potentially influence palatability, appetite, and energy balance. Previous studies with individual spices have shown divergent effects on appetite and energy intake measures. In a real-life context, however, several spices are consumed in combinations, as
[...] Read more.
Spices are known to provide orosensory stimulation that can potentially influence palatability, appetite, and energy balance. Previous studies with individual spices have shown divergent effects on appetite and energy intake measures. In a real-life context, however, several spices are consumed in combinations, as in various forms of curries. Therefore, we investigated changes in postprandial appetite and plasma ghrelin in response to the intake of two doses of curry prepared with mixed spices. The study was undertaken in healthy Chinese men, between 21 and 40 years of age and body mass index ≤27.5 kg/m2. Appetite was measured using visual analogue scales (VAS) and plasma ghrelin was measured using multiplex assay. Compared with the control meal (Dose 0 Control (D0C), 0 g mixed spices), we found significantly greater suppression in ‘hunger’ (both p < 0.05, after Bonferroni adjustments) as well in ‘desire to eat’ (both p < 0.01) during the Dose 1 Curry (D1C, 6 g mixed spices) and Dose 2 Curry (D2C, 12 g mixed spices) intake. There were no differences, however, in plasma ghrelin or in other appetite measures such as in ‘fullness’ or in ‘prospective eating’ scores. Overall, the results of our study indicate greater inter-meal satiety due to mixed spices consumption, independent of any changes in plasma ghrelin response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional and Bioactive Properties of Food)
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Open AccessArticle Enrichment of Biscuits with Matcha Green Tea Powder: Its Impact on Consumer Acceptability and Acute Metabolic Response
Received: 5 January 2018 / Revised: 22 January 2018 / Accepted: 26 January 2018 / Published: 1 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3283 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Matcha green tea powder (MGTP) is made with finely ground green tea leaves that are rich in phytochemicals, most particularly catechins. Shortbread biscuits were enriched with MGTP and evaluated for consumer acceptability and potential functional health properties. Baking decreased the content of total
[...] Read more.
Matcha green tea powder (MGTP) is made with finely ground green tea leaves that are rich in phytochemicals, most particularly catechins. Shortbread biscuits were enriched with MGTP and evaluated for consumer acceptability and potential functional health properties. Baking decreased the content of total catechins by 19% compared to dough, although epimerization increased the amount of (+)-gallocatechin gallate at the expense of other catechins such as (−)-epigallocatechin gallate. Consumer acceptability tests using a 9-point hedonic scale showed that consumers preferred enriched biscuits with low content of MGTP (2 g of MGTP 100 g−1 of flour), and an increase of sugar content did not significantly improve the acceptability of MGTP-enriched biscuits. Overall, enrichment of biscuits with MGTP did not significantly affect the postprandial glucose or triglyceride response (area under curve) compared to non-enriched biscuits consumed with water or MGTP drink. Enriching biscuits with Matcha green tea is acceptable to consumers, but may not bring significant postprandial effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional and Bioactive Properties of Food)
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Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Fatty Acid Profiles of In Vitro Digested Processed Milk
Received: 30 September 2017 / Revised: 2 November 2017 / Accepted: 3 November 2017 / Published: 9 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Digestion of milkfat releases some long-chain (18-carbon) fatty acids (FAs) that can provide health benefits to the consumer, yet because they are found in small amounts and can be difficult to identify, there is limited information on the effects that common fluid milk
[...] Read more.
Digestion of milkfat releases some long-chain (18-carbon) fatty acids (FAs) that can provide health benefits to the consumer, yet because they are found in small amounts and can be difficult to identify, there is limited information on the effects that common fluid milk processing may have on the digestibility of these FAs. This study provides FA profiles for raw and combinations of homogenized and/or heat-treated (high and ultra-high temperature pasteurization) milk, before and after in vitro digestion, in order to determine the effects of processing on the digestibility of these healthy fatty acids. Use of a highly sensitive separation column resulted in improved FA profiles that showed that, when milk was subjected to both pasteurization and homogenization, the release of the 18-carbon FAs, oleic acid, linoleic acid (an omega-6 FA), rumenic acid (a conjugated linoleic acid, CLA), and linolenic acid (an omega-3 FA) tended to be higher than with either pasteurization or homogenization, or with no treatment. Milk is noted for containing the omega-3 FAs and CLAs, which are associated with positive health benefits. Determining how processing factors may impact the components in milk will aid in understanding the release of healthy FAs when milk and dairy foods are consumed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional and Bioactive Properties of Food)

Review

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Open AccessReview Nanoparticles and Controlled Delivery for Bioactive Compounds: Outlining Challenges for New “Smart-Foods” for Health
Received: 21 March 2018 / Revised: 27 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 May 2018 / Published: 7 May 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (352 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanotechnology is a field of research that has been stressed as a very valuable approach for the prevention and treatment of different human health disorders. This has been stressed as a delivery system for the therapeutic fight against an array of pathophysiological situations.
[...] Read more.
Nanotechnology is a field of research that has been stressed as a very valuable approach for the prevention and treatment of different human health disorders. This has been stressed as a delivery system for the therapeutic fight against an array of pathophysiological situations. Actually, industry has applied this technology in the search for new oral delivery alternatives obtained upon the modification of the solubility properties of bioactive compounds. Significant works have been made in the last years for testing the input that nanomaterials and nanoparticles provide for an array of pathophysiological situations. In this frame, this review addresses general questions concerning the extent to which nanoparticles offer alternatives that improve therapeutic value, while avoid toxicity, by releasing bioactive compounds specifically to target tissues affected by specific chemical and pathophysiological settings. In this regard, to date, the contribution of nanoparticles to protect encapsulated bioactive compounds from degradation as a result of gastrointestinal digestion and cellular metabolism, to enable their release in a controlled manner, enhancing biodistribution of bioactive compounds, and to allow them to target those tissues affected by biological disturbances has been demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional and Bioactive Properties of Food)
Open AccessReview How Safe Is Ginger Rhizome for Decreasing Nausea and Vomiting in Women during Early Pregnancy?
Received: 2 February 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 1 April 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2788 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, is increasingly consumed as a food or in food supplements. It is also recognized as a popular nonpharmacological treatment for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP). However, its consumption is not recommended by all countries for pregnant women. Study
[...] Read more.
Ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, is increasingly consumed as a food or in food supplements. It is also recognized as a popular nonpharmacological treatment for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP). However, its consumption is not recommended by all countries for pregnant women. Study results are heterogeneous and conclusions are not persuasive enough to permit heath care professionals to recommend ginger safely. Some drugs are also contraindicated, leaving pregnant women with NVP with few solutions. We conducted a review to assess effectiveness and safety of ginger consumption during early pregnancy. Systematic literature searches were conducted on Medline (via Pubmed) until the end of December 2017. For the evaluation of efficacy, only double-blind, randomized, controlled trials were included. For the evaluation of the safety, controlled, uncontrolled, and pre-clinical studies were included in the review. Concerning toxicity, none can be extrapolated to humans from in vitro results. In vivo studies do not identify any major toxicities. Concerning efficacy and safety, a total of 15 studies and 3 prospective clinical studies have been studied. For 1 g of fresh ginger root per day for four days, results show a significant decrease in nausea and vomiting and no risk for the mother or her future baby. The available evidence suggests that ginger is a safe and effective treatment for NVP. However, beyond the ginger quantity needed to be effective, ginger quality is important from the perspective of safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional and Bioactive Properties of Food)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Betaine in Cereal Grains and Grain-Based Products
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 20 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (464 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Betaine is a non-essential nutrient which performs several important physiological functions in organisms. Abundant data exist to suggest that betaine has a potential for prevention of chronic diseases and that its dietary intake may contribute to overall health enhancement. Several studies have pointed
[...] Read more.
Betaine is a non-essential nutrient which performs several important physiological functions in organisms. Abundant data exist to suggest that betaine has a potential for prevention of chronic diseases and that its dietary intake may contribute to overall health enhancement. Several studies have pointed out that the betaine status of the general population is inadequate and have suggested nutritional strategies to improve dietary intake of betaine. Cereal-based food has been implicated as the major source of betaine in the Western diet. This review summarizes the results on the betaine content in various cereals and related products. Attention has been given to the betaine content in gluten-free grains and products. It also discusses the stability of betaine during processing (cooking, baking, extrusion) and possibilities to increase betaine content by fortification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional and Bioactive Properties of Food)
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