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Foods 2014, 3(1), 149-159; doi:10.3390/foods3010149
Article

Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient

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Received: 12 November 2013; in revised form: 29 January 2014 / Accepted: 5 February 2014 / Published: 12 February 2014
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Abstract: As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker’s yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to obtain fermented brown rice flour (FBRF). The FBRF was added to white rice flour at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels to prepare steamed rice bread. Based on the sensory evaluation test, steamed rice bread containing 40% FBRF had the highest overall acceptability score. Thus, pasting properties of the composite rice flour, rheological properties of its batter, volume and texture properties of its steamed bread were determined. The results showed that peak viscosity of the rice flour containing 40% FBRF was significantly increased, whereas its breakdown, final viscosity and setback significantly decreased. Viscous, elastic and complex moduli of the batter having 40% FBRF were also significantly reduced. However, volume, specific volume, chewiness, resilience and cohesiveness of its steamed bread were significantly increased, while hardness and springiness significantly reduced in comparison to the control. These results established the effectiveness of yeast fermentation in reducing the detrimental effects of bran on the sensory properties of steamed white rice bread and encourage the usage of brown rice flour to enhance the quality of rice products.
Keywords: fermentation; brown rice flour; pasting properties; rheological properties; bread volume; texture properties fermentation; brown rice flour; pasting properties; rheological properties; bread volume; texture properties
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ilowefah, M.; Chinma, C.; Bakar, J.; Ghazali, H.M.; Muhammad, K.; Makeri, M. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient. Foods 2014, 3, 149-159.

AMA Style

Ilowefah M, Chinma C, Bakar J, Ghazali HM, Muhammad K, Makeri M. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient. Foods. 2014; 3(1):149-159.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M.; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad. 2014. "Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient." Foods 3, no. 1: 149-159.


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