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Foods 2014, 3(1), 94-109; doi:10.3390/foods3010094

Enrichment and Purification of Casein Glycomacropeptide from Whey Protein Isolate Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Processing and Membrane Ultrafiltration

Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit, Eastern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Received: 31 October 2013 / Revised: 18 December 2013 / Accepted: 2 January 2014 / Published: 9 January 2014
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Abstract

Whey protein concentrates (WPC) and isolates (WPI), comprised mainly of β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), α-lactalbumin (α-LA) and casein glycomacropeptide (GMP), are added to foods to boost nutritional and functional properties. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2) has been shown to effectively fractionate WPC and WPI to obtain enriched fractions of α-LA and β-LG, thus creating new whey ingredients that exploit the properties of the individual component proteins. In this study, we used SCO2 to further fractionate WPI via acid precipitation of α-LA, β-LG and the minor whey proteins to obtain GMP-enriched solutions. The process was optimized and α-LA precipitation maximized at low pH and a temperature (T) ≥65 °C, where β-LG with 84% purity and GMP with 58% purity were obtained, after ultrafiltration and diafiltration to separate β-LG from the GMP solution. At 70 °C, β-LG also precipitated with α-LA, leaving a GMP-rich solution with up to 94% purity after ultrafiltration. The different protein fractions produced with the SCO2 process will permit the design of new foods and beverages to target specific nutritional needs.
Keywords: whey proteins; fractionation process; supercritical carbon dioxide; casein glycomacropeptide; β-lactoglobulin; membrane filtration whey proteins; fractionation process; supercritical carbon dioxide; casein glycomacropeptide; β-lactoglobulin; membrane filtration
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bonnaillie, L.M.; Qi, P.; Wickham, E.; Tomasula, P.M. Enrichment and Purification of Casein Glycomacropeptide from Whey Protein Isolate Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Processing and Membrane Ultrafiltration. Foods 2014, 3, 94-109.

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