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Foods, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2013), Pages 282-443

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Hygienic Practices among Food Vendors in Educational Institutions in Ghana: The Case of Konongo
Foods 2013, 2(3), 282-294; doi:10.3390/foods2030282
Received: 23 April 2013 / Revised: 24 May 2013 / Accepted: 24 June 2013 / Published: 9 July 2013
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Abstract
With the booming street food industry in the developing world there is an urgent need to ensure food vendors adhere to hygienic practices to protect public health. This study assessed the adherence to food hygiene practices by food vendors in educational institutions [...] Read more.
With the booming street food industry in the developing world there is an urgent need to ensure food vendors adhere to hygienic practices to protect public health. This study assessed the adherence to food hygiene practices by food vendors in educational institutions in Konongo, Ghana. Structured questionnaires, extensive observation and interviews were used for the study involving 60 food vendors from 20 basic schools. Attributable to the influence of school authorities and the level of in-training of food vendors, the study points out that food vendors in educational institutions generally adhered to good food hygiene practices, namely, regular medical examination (93%), protection of food from flies and dust (55%); proper serving of food (100%); good hand hygiene (63%); and the use of personal protective clothing (52%). The training of food vendors on food hygiene, instead of the level of education had a significant association (p < 0.05) with crucial food hygiene practices such as medical examination, hand hygiene and protection of food from flies and dust. Further, regulatory bodies legally mandated to efficiently monitor the activities of food vendors lacked the adequate capacity to do so. The study proposes that efforts should be geared towards developing training programmes for food vendors as well as capacity building of the stakeholders. Full article
Open AccessArticle Dietary PUFA Intervention Affects Fatty Acid- and Micronutrient Profiles of Beef and Related Beef Products
Foods 2013, 2(3), 295-309; doi:10.3390/foods2030295
Received: 8 May 2013 / Revised: 18 June 2013 / Accepted: 1 July 2013 / Published: 9 July 2013
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Abstract
The study investigated the dietary impact of 18:3n-3 vs. 18:2n-6 on fatty acid- and micronutrient concentration of beef muscle and the extent of diet- and processing-induced changes of lipid- and micronutrient concentrations of beef products made thereof (German [...] Read more.
The study investigated the dietary impact of 18:3n-3 vs. 18:2n-6 on fatty acid- and micronutrient concentration of beef muscle and the extent of diet- and processing-induced changes of lipid- and micronutrient concentrations of beef products made thereof (German Corned beef (GCB), tea sausage spread (TSS), scalded sausage (SS)). Beef and beef products were obtained from German Holstein bulls which either received a control diet consisting of maize silage and concentrate with soybean meal (41%), or an experimental diet of grass silage and concentrate plus rapeseed cake (12%) and linseed oil (3%). The study revealed that upon an 18:3n-3 vs. 18:2n-6 intervention the amounts of 18:3n-3, EPA and Σn-3 LC-PUFA were significantly increased by 2.6, 2.3 and 1.7 fold, respectively. Experimental diet significantly increased β-carotene contents, and the γ-tocopherol contents were decreased. During beef processing, n-3 PUFA from beef were found to be product-specifically transferred into the corresponding beef products. 18:3n-3 and Σn-3 LC-PUFA contents were found to be 1.4 and 1.5 times higher in GCB from grass silage- than maize silage-fed bulls. The trace element contents in GCB (iron, copper, zinc, selenium) were not affected by the diet; however γ-tocopherol contents were decreased by experimental diet. In conclusion, dietary n-3 PUFA were completely transferred into beef products unaffected by beef processing conditions. Full article
Open AccessArticle Microstructure and Composition of Full Fat Cheddar Cheese Made with Ultrafiltered Milk Retentate
Foods 2013, 2(3), 310-331; doi:10.3390/foods2030310
Received: 29 May 2013 / Revised: 18 June 2013 / Accepted: 9 July 2013 / Published: 18 July 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3237 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Milk protein is often standardised prior to cheese-making using low concentration factor ultrafiltration retentate (LCUFR) but the effect of LCUFR addition on the microstructure of full fat gel, curd and Cheddar cheese is not known. In this work, Cheddar cheeses were made [...] Read more.
Milk protein is often standardised prior to cheese-making using low concentration factor ultrafiltration retentate (LCUFR) but the effect of LCUFR addition on the microstructure of full fat gel, curd and Cheddar cheese is not known. In this work, Cheddar cheeses were made from cheese-milk with or without LCUFR addition using a protein concentration of 3.7%–5.8% w/w. The fat lost to sweet whey was higher in cheese made from cheese-milk without LCUFR or from cheese-milk with 5.8% w/w protein. At 5.8% w/w protein concentration, the porosity of the gel increased significantly and the fat globules within the gel and curd tended to pool together, which possibly contributed to the higher fat loss in the sweet whey. The microstructure of cheese from cheese-milk with a higher protein concentration was more compact, consistent with the increased hardness, although the cohesiveness was lower. These results highlight the potential use of LCUFR for the standardization of protein concentration in cheese-milk to 4%–5% w/w (equivalent to a casein to total protein ratio of 77%–79% w/w) to increase yield. Beyond this concentration, significant changes in the gel microstructure, cheese texture and fat loss were observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structure and Flavour of Dairy Products)
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Open AccessArticle Bulgarian Marine and Freshwater Fishes as a Source of Fat-Soluble Vitamins for a Healthy Human Diet
Foods 2013, 2(3), 332-337; doi:10.3390/foods2030332
Received: 28 May 2013 / Revised: 8 July 2013 / Accepted: 12 July 2013 / Published: 19 July 2013
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Abstract
The aim of the present study evaluates the fat-soluble vitamins all-trans retinol (vitamin A), cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and α-tocopherol (vitamin E) content in the fresh edible tissue of Bulgarian fish species: marine—grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) and bonito [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study evaluates the fat-soluble vitamins all-trans retinol (vitamin A), cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and α-tocopherol (vitamin E) content in the fresh edible tissue of Bulgarian fish species: marine—grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) and bonito (Sarda sarda), and freshwater—rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The sample preparation procedure includes alkaline saponification, followed by liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane. All-trans retinol, cholecalciferol and α-tocopherol were analyzed simultaneously using RP-HPLC\UV\FL system with analytical column C18 ODS2 Hypersil™. The fat soluble vitamins content (μg per 100 g wet weight) in the fresh edible fish tissue of analyzed fishes are in the ranges: vitamin A from 2.7 ± 0.4 to 37.5 ± 3.4 μg/100 g ww; vitamin D3 from 1.1 ± 0.1 to 11.4 ± 0.6 μg/100 g ww; vitamin E from 121.4 ± 9.6 to 1274.2 ± 44.1 μg/100 g ww. Three fat-soluble vitamins occur in higher amounts in rainbow trout and grey mullet species. According to recommended daily intake (RDI), they are a good source of cholecalciferol. Full article
Open AccessArticle Nutritional Profile and Carbohydrate Characterization of Spray-Dried Lentil, Pea and Chickpea Ingredients
Foods 2013, 2(3), 338-349; doi:10.3390/foods2030338
Received: 15 May 2013 / Revised: 10 July 2013 / Accepted: 10 July 2013 / Published: 25 July 2013
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Abstract
Although many consumers know that pulses are nutritious, long preparation times are frequently a barrier to consumption of lentils, dried peas and chickpeas. Therefore, a product has been developed which can be used as an ingredient in a wide variety of dishes [...] Read more.
Although many consumers know that pulses are nutritious, long preparation times are frequently a barrier to consumption of lentils, dried peas and chickpeas. Therefore, a product has been developed which can be used as an ingredient in a wide variety of dishes without presoaking or precooking. Dried green peas, chickpeas or lentils were soaked, cooked, homogenized and spray-dried. Proximate analyses were conducted on the pulse powders and compared to an instant mashed potato product. Because the health benefits of pulses may be due in part to their carbohydrate content, a detailed carbohydrate analysis was carried out on the pulse powders. Pulse powders were higher in protein and total dietary fibre and lower in starch than potato flakes. After processing, the pulse powders maintained appreciable amounts of resistant starch (4.4%–5.2%). Total dietary fibre was higher in chickpeas and peas (26.2% and 27.1% respectively) than lentils (21.9%), whereas lentils had the highest protein content (22.7%). Pulse carbohydrates were rich in glucose, arabinose, galactose and uronic acids. Stachyose, a fermentable fibre, was the most abundant oligosaccharide, making up 1.5%–2.4% of the dried pulse powders. Spray-drying of cooked, homogenized pulses produces an easy to use ingredient with strong nutritional profile. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes
Foods 2013, 2(3), 352-363; doi:10.3390/foods2030352
Received: 29 May 2013 / Revised: 18 June 2013 / Accepted: 18 July 2013 / Published: 31 July 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (899 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids—principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; [...] Read more.
Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids—principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in raw tomatoes (11.60 mg/100 g versus 5.12 mg/100 g). Lutein and β-carotene were respectively 0.15 mg/100 g and 0.75 mg/100 g in canned tomatoes versus 0.11 mg/100 g and 1.00 mg/100 g in raw tomatoes. For home-processed tomatoes, β-carotene and lutein showed a content decrease in all thermally treated products. This decrease was more evident for β-carotene in the skin fraction (−17%), while for lutein it was greater in the pulp fraction (−25%). Lycopene presented a different pattern: after heat treatment its concentration increased both in the whole and in pulp fractions, while in the skin fraction it decreased dramatically (−36%). The analysis of the isomers formed during the thermal treatment suggests that lycopene is rather stable inside the tomato matrix. Full article
Open AccessArticle Comparison of Growth Kinetics of Various Pathogenic E. coli on Fresh Perilla Leaf
Foods 2013, 2(3), 364-373; doi:10.3390/foods2030364
Received: 20 May 2013 / Revised: 3 July 2013 / Accepted: 17 July 2013 / Published: 2 August 2013
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Abstract
Growth kinetics for Escherichia coli O157:H7 in perilla leaves were compared to those of pathogenic E. coli strains, including enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enteroinvasive (EIEC) and other enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) at 13, 17, 24, 30 and 36 °C. Models for lag time (LT), [...] Read more.
Growth kinetics for Escherichia coli O157:H7 in perilla leaves were compared to those of pathogenic E. coli strains, including enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enteroinvasive (EIEC) and other enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) at 13, 17, 24, 30 and 36 °C. Models for lag time (LT), specific growth rate (SGR) and maximum population density (MPD) as a function of temperature were developed. The performance of the models was quantified using the ratio method and an acceptable prediction zone method. Significant differences in SGR and LT among the strains were observed at all temperatures. Overall, the shortest LT was observed with E. coli O157:H7, followed by EPEC, other EHEC, EIEC and ETEC, while the fastest growth rates were noted in EPEC, followed by E. coli O157:H7, ETEC, other EHEC and EIEC. The models for E. coli O157:H7 in perilla leaves was suitable for use in making predictions for EPEC and other EHEC strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Microbiology and Safety)
Open AccessArticle Non-Destructive Assessment of Aroma Volatiles from a Climacteric Near-Isogenic Line of Melon Obtained by Headspace Stir-Bar Sorptive Extraction
Foods 2013, 2(3), 401-414; doi:10.3390/foods2030401
Received: 26 April 2013 / Revised: 2 August 2013 / Accepted: 17 August 2013 / Published: 28 August 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (926 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A climacteric aromatic near-isogenic line (NIL) of melon (Cucumis melo L.) SC3-5-1 contained an introgression of the non-climacteric Korean cultivar “Shongwan Charmi” accession PI 161375 (SC) in the genetic background of the non-climacteric cultivar “Piel de Sapo” (PS). The aroma production [...] Read more.
A climacteric aromatic near-isogenic line (NIL) of melon (Cucumis melo L.) SC3-5-1 contained an introgression of the non-climacteric Korean cultivar “Shongwan Charmi” accession PI 161375 (SC) in the genetic background of the non-climacteric cultivar “Piel de Sapo” (PS). The aroma production was monitored during ripening at 21 °C in intact fruit using headspace sorptive bar extraction (HSSE). Bars were composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and aromas were desorbed and analyzed by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry. The aromatic profile was composed of 70 aromatic compounds plus 21 alkanes with a predominance of esters, particularly acetate (2-methylbutyl acetate, 2-methylpropyl acetate, hexyl acetate, and phenylmethyl acetate). Some compounds were severely affected by postharvest time. The acetate esters (3-methylbutyl acetate, butan-2-yl acetate and phenylmethyl acetate) decreased with ripening and sulfur-derived compounds (S-methyl butanethioate and S-methyl 3-methylbutanethioate) increased gradually with ripening. A few compounds increased at the senescence phase (propyl ethanoate). Other compounds such as hexadecanoic acid showed a marked decrease after harvest, some decreasing from a relative maximum at harvest (2-methylpropyl hexanoate; n-hexanoic acid; nonanoic acid). Full article
Open AccessArticle Chemical Composition of Salmon Ovary Outer Membrane and Its Protein Increases Fecal Mucins Content in C57BL/6J and Type 2 Diabetic/Obese KK-Ay Mice
Foods 2013, 2(3), 415-429; doi:10.3390/foods2030415
Received: 8 July 2013 / Revised: 29 July 2013 / Accepted: 20 August 2013 / Published: 6 September 2013
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Abstract
Salmon ovary outer membrane (SOM) is a byproduct of the salmon industry; however, the effective utilization of SOM for food materials and supplements is anticipated as the demand for fish and seafood increases worldwide. The purposes of the present study were to [...] Read more.
Salmon ovary outer membrane (SOM) is a byproduct of the salmon industry; however, the effective utilization of SOM for food materials and supplements is anticipated as the demand for fish and seafood increases worldwide. The purposes of the present study were to assess the chemical composition of SOM, the characteristics of SOM protein (SOMP), and its effects on serum and fecal biochemical parameters in mice. SOM contained high levels of crude protein (61.9 g/100 g) and crude lipid (18.9 g/100 g). The protein pattern of SOMP was different from those of fish muscle protein and roe; it was abundant in collagen, as calculated from the hydroxyproline content. In addition, SOMP exhibited lower protein digestibility during in vitro digestion analyses compared with casein. Male C57BL/6J and KK-Ay mice were fed a casein-based semi-purified diet or a diet with replacement of part of the dietary protein (50%) by SOMP for four weeks. Mice fed the diet containing SOMP showed elevated fecal nitrogen and mucins contents and reduced levels of serum liver injury markers and fecal ammonia. These results show for the first time that chemical composition of SOM, and SOMP, contain a resistant protein fraction and a large amount of collagen. Therefore, SOM is a potential source of marine collagen and functional food material for promoting the health of the liver and colon. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Apple Juice Concentrate, Blackcurrant Concentrate and Pectin Levels on Selected Qualities of Apple-Blackcurrant Fruit Leather
Foods 2013, 2(3), 430-443; doi:10.3390/foods2030430
Received: 19 June 2013 / Revised: 15 August 2013 / Accepted: 23 August 2013 / Published: 12 September 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (736 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of apple juice concentrate (AJC), blackcurrant concentrate (BCC) and pectin on the moisture content, water activity, color, texture and ascorbic acid content of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather using the response surface methodology. [...] Read more.
A study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of apple juice concentrate (AJC), blackcurrant concentrate (BCC) and pectin on the moisture content, water activity, color, texture and ascorbic acid content of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather using the response surface methodology. The results showed the moisture content increased with increasing pectin level and with greater increases at higher AJC and BCC levels while the water activity increased with increasing pectin level and with increasing AJC level, at low pectin levels, but with decreasing AJC, at high pectin levels. The chroma decreased with increasing pectin level and with lower values at the middle AJC level. The puncturing force decreased with increasing AJC level but with a lower value at the middle pectin level. Lastly, the ascorbic acid content increased with increasing BCC level regardless of AJC and pectin levels. There is a need to reduce the drying temperature or time of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather just enough to bring the water activity closer to 0.60, thereby increasing the moisture content resulting in higher product yield. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Common Beans and Their Non-Digestible Fraction: Cancer Inhibitory Activity—An Overview
Foods 2013, 2(3), 374-392; doi:10.3390/foods2030374
Received: 27 April 2013 / Revised: 18 June 2013 / Accepted: 17 July 2013 / Published: 2 August 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1491 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The US Department of Agriculture’s MyPyramid guidelines introduced a near doubling of the dietary recommendations for vegetables including dry beans—an important food staple in many traditional diets that can improve public health and nutrition. Populations with high legume (peas, beans, lentils) consumption [...] Read more.
The US Department of Agriculture’s MyPyramid guidelines introduced a near doubling of the dietary recommendations for vegetables including dry beans—an important food staple in many traditional diets that can improve public health and nutrition. Populations with high legume (peas, beans, lentils) consumption have a low risk of cancer and chronic degenerative diseases. Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are known as a rich, reliable source of non-digested compounds like fiber, phenolics, peptides and phytochemicals that are associated with health benefits. Emerging evidence indicates that common bean consumption is associated with reduced cancer risk in human populations, inhibiting carcinogenesis in animal models and inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cell cultures. Fiber may reduce the risk of premature death from all causes, whereas the whole non-digestible fraction from common beans exhibits anti-proliferative activity and induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo colon cancer. The mechanisms responsible for this apparently protective role may include gene-nutrient interactions and modulation of proteins’ expression. This review investigates the potential health benefits and bioactivity of beans on tumor inhibition, highlighting studies involving functional compounds, mainly non-digestible fractions that modulate genes and proteins, thereby, unraveling their preventive role against the development of cancer. Full article

Other

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Open AccessRetraction Retraction: Adyel et al. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh. Foods 2013, 2, 64–75
Foods 2013, 2(3), 350-351; doi:10.3390/foods2030350
Received: 1 June 2013 / Revised: 22 July 2013 / Accepted: 25 July 2013 / Published: 31 July 2013
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Abstract
The following article [1], doi: 10.3390/foods2010064, website: http://www.mdpi.com/2304-8158/2/1/64, has been retracted by the authors because of some major errors in broad field of pesticide residues identification and concentrations. During random cross check retention time of pesticides by HPLC did not match with [...] Read more.
The following article [1], doi: 10.3390/foods2010064, website: http://www.mdpi.com/2304-8158/2/1/64, has been retracted by the authors because of some major errors in broad field of pesticide residues identification and concentrations. During random cross check retention time of pesticides by HPLC did not match with the standards of detected pesticides. As a result concentration of all detected pesticides, maximum residue limits (MRLs) and health risk assessments were changed. All these errors made the article [1] as a wrong one. All authors have confirmed that the reported results produced using quite inappropriate procedures. As first author herein, I take full responsibility for the retraction of our experiments and any other errors in its contents, and would like to offer my apologies on behalf of my co-authors to the readership of Foods for any inconveniences caused by this retraction. Full article
Open AccessBrief Report Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Tool for Pork Pie Development
Foods 2013, 2(3), 393-400; doi:10.3390/foods2030393
Received: 21 June 2013 / Revised: 15 August 2013 / Accepted: 20 August 2013 / Published: 28 August 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (257 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The traditional British pork pie consists of roughly chopped pork cooked in a hot water pastry crust. Due to shrinkage of the meat during cooking, the gap formed around the meat is usually sealed using a gelatin based jelly to exclude air [...] Read more.
The traditional British pork pie consists of roughly chopped pork cooked in a hot water pastry crust. Due to shrinkage of the meat during cooking, the gap formed around the meat is usually sealed using a gelatin based jelly to exclude air and thus help to preserve the pie. The properties of the jelly are such that it will ingress into the pastry crust causing undesirable softening. The jelly is traditionally produced by simmering pig trotters with seasoning for several hours. In this work we demonstrate the potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool for investigating the conditions required for producing jellies with different properties and present two examples of this use. Firstly we demonstrate that MRI can determine the ability of water to diffuse through the jelly which is critical in minimizing the amount of moisture moving from the jelly to the crust. Secondly, the impact of jelly temperature on the penetration length into the crust is investigated. These examples highlight the power of MRI as a tool for food assessment. Full article
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