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Bulgarian Marine and Freshwater Fishes as a Source of Fat-Soluble Vitamins for a Healthy Human Diet
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Varna, 55 Marin Drinov str., Varna, 9000, Bulgaria
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Received: 28 May 2013; in revised form: 8 July 2013 / Accepted: 12 July 2013 / Published: 19 July 2013
Abstract: The aim of the present study evaluates the fat-soluble vitamins all-trans retinol (vitamin A), cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and α-tocopherol (vitamin E) content in the fresh edible tissue of Bulgarian fish species: marine—grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) and bonito (Sarda sarda), and freshwater—rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The sample preparation procedure includes alkaline saponification, followed by liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane. All-trans retinol, cholecalciferol and α-tocopherol were analyzed simultaneously using RP-HPLC\UV\FL system with analytical column C18 ODS2 Hypersil™. The fat soluble vitamins content (μg per 100 g wet weight) in the fresh edible fish tissue of analyzed fishes are in the ranges: vitamin A from 2.7 ± 0.4 to 37.5 ± 3.4 μg/100 g ww; vitamin D3 from 1.1 ± 0.1 to 11.4 ± 0.6 μg/100 g ww; vitamin E from 121.4 ± 9.6 to 1274.2 ± 44.1 μg/100 g ww. Three fat-soluble vitamins occur in higher amounts in rainbow trout and grey mullet species. According to recommended daily intake (RDI), they are a good source of cholecalciferol.
Keywords: Oncorhynchus mykiss; Cyprinus carpio; Mugil cephalus; Sarda sarda; fat soluble vitamins; HPLC/UV/FL
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Stancheva, M.; Dobreva, D.A. Bulgarian Marine and Freshwater Fishes as a Source of Fat-Soluble Vitamins for a Healthy Human Diet. Foods 2013, 2, 332-337.
Stancheva M, Dobreva DA. Bulgarian Marine and Freshwater Fishes as a Source of Fat-Soluble Vitamins for a Healthy Human Diet. Foods. 2013; 2(3):332-337.
Stancheva, Mona; Dobreva, Diana A. 2013. "Bulgarian Marine and Freshwater Fishes as a Source of Fat-Soluble Vitamins for a Healthy Human Diet." Foods 2, no. 3: 332-337.