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Nutritional Profile and Carbohydrate Characterization of Spray-Dried Lentil, Pea and Chickpea Ingredients
Guelph Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Guelph, ON N1G 5C9, Canada
Food Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC J2S 8E3, Canada
Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
Industrial Systems Optimization, Natural Resources Canada, Varennes, QC J3X 1S6, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 May 2013; in revised form: 10 July 2013 / Accepted: 10 July 2013 / Published: 25 July 2013
Abstract: Although many consumers know that pulses are nutritious, long preparation times are frequently a barrier to consumption of lentils, dried peas and chickpeas. Therefore, a product has been developed which can be used as an ingredient in a wide variety of dishes without presoaking or precooking. Dried green peas, chickpeas or lentils were soaked, cooked, homogenized and spray-dried. Proximate analyses were conducted on the pulse powders and compared to an instant mashed potato product. Because the health benefits of pulses may be due in part to their carbohydrate content, a detailed carbohydrate analysis was carried out on the pulse powders. Pulse powders were higher in protein and total dietary fibre and lower in starch than potato flakes. After processing, the pulse powders maintained appreciable amounts of resistant starch (4.4%–5.2%). Total dietary fibre was higher in chickpeas and peas (26.2% and 27.1% respectively) than lentils (21.9%), whereas lentils had the highest protein content (22.7%). Pulse carbohydrates were rich in glucose, arabinose, galactose and uronic acids. Stachyose, a fermentable fibre, was the most abundant oligosaccharide, making up 1.5%–2.4% of the dried pulse powders. Spray-drying of cooked, homogenized pulses produces an easy to use ingredient with strong nutritional profile.
Keywords: pulses; dietary fibre; peas; chickpeas; lentils
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Tosh, S.M.; Farnworth, E.R.; Brummer, Y.; Duncan, A.M.; Wright, A.J.; Boye, J.I.; Marcotte, M.; Benali, M. Nutritional Profile and Carbohydrate Characterization of Spray-Dried Lentil, Pea and Chickpea Ingredients. Foods 2013, 2, 338-349.
Tosh SM, Farnworth ER, Brummer Y, Duncan AM, Wright AJ, Boye JI, Marcotte M, Benali M. Nutritional Profile and Carbohydrate Characterization of Spray-Dried Lentil, Pea and Chickpea Ingredients. Foods. 2013; 2(3):338-349.
Tosh, Susan M.; Farnworth, Edward R.; Brummer, Yolanda; Duncan, Alison M.; Wright, Amanda J.; Boye, Joyce I.; Marcotte, Michèle; Benali, Marzouk. 2013. "Nutritional Profile and Carbohydrate Characterization of Spray-Dried Lentil, Pea and Chickpea Ingredients." Foods 2, no. 3: 338-349.