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Chemosensors, Volume 5, Issue 2 (June 2017)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Electrochemical Immunosensors and Aptasensors
Chemosensors 2017, 5(2), 13; doi:10.3390/chemosensors5020013
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 30 March 2017 / Accepted: 30 March 2017 / Published: 2 April 2017
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Abstract Since the first electrochemical biosensor for glucose detection, pioneered in 1962 by Clark and Lyons [1], research and application in the field has grown at an impressive rate and we are still witnessing a continuing evolution of research on this topic [2].[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Immunosensors and Aptasensors)

Research

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Open AccessArticle A Chemically-Bound Glutathione Sensor Bioinspired by the Defense of Organisms against Heavy Metal Contamination: Optimization of the Immobilization Conditions
Chemosensors 2017, 5(2), 12; doi:10.3390/chemosensors5020012
Received: 23 February 2017 / Revised: 23 March 2017 / Accepted: 25 March 2017 / Published: 2 April 2017
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Abstract
The influence of the experimental conditions (glutathione concentration and incubation time and temperature) concerning the covalent immobilization of glutathione via carbodiimide coupling on the behavior of a glutathione modified screen-printed carbon electrode obtained by electrografting is evaluated. The optimized parameters fasten the modification
[...] Read more.
The influence of the experimental conditions (glutathione concentration and incubation time and temperature) concerning the covalent immobilization of glutathione via carbodiimide coupling on the behavior of a glutathione modified screen-printed carbon electrode obtained by electrografting is evaluated. The optimized parameters fasten the modification process and improve the performance of the sensor as compared to the usual procedure. This suggests the convenience of a tailored preparation of metal sensors based on metal-binding biomolecules such as glutathione. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioinspired Chemical Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle Microfluidic Electronic Tongue Applied to Soil Analysis
Chemosensors 2017, 5(2), 14; doi:10.3390/chemosensors5020014
Received: 24 February 2017 / Revised: 21 April 2017 / Accepted: 25 April 2017 / Published: 27 April 2017
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Abstract
Precision agriculture is crucial for increasing food output without expanding the cultivable area, which requires sensors to be deployed for controlling the level of nutrients in the soil. In this paper, we report on a microfluidic electronic tongue (e-tongue) based on impedance measurements
[...] Read more.
Precision agriculture is crucial for increasing food output without expanding the cultivable area, which requires sensors to be deployed for controlling the level of nutrients in the soil. In this paper, we report on a microfluidic electronic tongue (e-tongue) based on impedance measurements which is capable of distinguishing soil samples enriched with plant macronutrients. The e-tongue setup consisted of an array of sensing units made with layer-by-layer films deposited onto gold interdigitated electrodes. Significantly, the sensing units could be reused with adequate reproducibility after a simple washing procedure, thus indicating that there is no cross-contamination in three independent sets of measurements. A high performance was achieved by treating the capacitance data with the multidimensional projection techniques Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Interactive Document Map (IDMAP), and Sammon’s Mapping. While an optimized performance was demonstrated with IDMAP and feature selection, during which data of a limited frequency range were used, the distinction of all soil samples was also possible with the well-established PCA analysis for measurements at a single frequency. The successful use of a simple microfluidic e-tongue for soil analysis paves the way for enhanced tools to support precision agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioinspired Chemical Sensing)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Enzymes as Tools in MIP-Sensors
Chemosensors 2017, 5(2), 11; doi:10.3390/chemosensors5020011
Received: 24 December 2016 / Revised: 17 March 2017 / Accepted: 20 March 2017 / Published: 26 March 2017
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Abstract
Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have the potential to complement antibodies in bioanalysis, are more stable under harsh conditions, and are potentially cheaper to produce. However, the affinity and especially the selectivity of MIPs are in general lower than those of their biological pendants.
[...] Read more.
Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have the potential to complement antibodies in bioanalysis, are more stable under harsh conditions, and are potentially cheaper to produce. However, the affinity and especially the selectivity of MIPs are in general lower than those of their biological pendants. Enzymes are useful tools for the preparation of MIPs for both low and high-molecular weight targets: As a green alternative to the well-established methods of chemical polymerization, enzyme-initiated polymerization has been introduced and the removal of protein templates by proteases has been successfully applied. Furthermore, MIPs have been coupled with enzymes in order to enhance the analytical performance of biomimetic sensors: Enzymes have been used in MIP-sensors as “tracers” for the generation and amplification of the measuring signal. In addition, enzymatic pretreatment of an analyte can extend the analyte spectrum and eliminate interferences. Full article
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