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Chemosensors, Volume 5, Issue 3 (September 2017)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Comparison of the Sensing Properties of ZnO Nanowalls-Based Sensors toward Low Concentrations of CO and NO2
Chemosensors 2017, 5(3), 20; doi:10.3390/chemosensors5030020
Received: 22 April 2017 / Revised: 26 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 4 July 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2708 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work focuses on the synthesis and gas sensing properties of ZnO nanowalls (ZnO NWLs) grown by a simple cheap chemical bath deposition method on a thin layer of aluminum (about 20 nm thick) printed on the Pt interdigitated electrodes area of conductometric
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This work focuses on the synthesis and gas sensing properties of ZnO nanowalls (ZnO NWLs) grown by a simple cheap chemical bath deposition method on a thin layer of aluminum (about 20 nm thick) printed on the Pt interdigitated electrodes area of conductometric alumina platforms. Post-deposition annealing in nitrogen atmosphere at 300 °C enabled the formation of a ZnO intertwined 2D foils network. A wide characterization was carried out to investigate the composition, morphology and microstructure of the nanowalls layer formed. The gas sensing properties of the films were studied by measuring the changes of electrical resistance upon exposure to low concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in air. The sensor response to CO or NO2 was found to be strongly dependent on the operating temperature, providing a means to tailor the sensitivity and selectivity toward these selected target gases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel 2D-Inorganic Materials for Gas Sensing)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle vQRS Based on Hybrids of CNT with PMMA-POSS and PS-POSS Copolymers to Reach the Sub-PPM Detection of Ammonia and Formaldehyde at Room Temperature Despite Moisture
Chemosensors 2017, 5(3), 22; doi:10.3390/chemosensors5030022
Received: 11 June 2017 / Revised: 7 July 2017 / Accepted: 10 July 2017 / Published: 12 July 2017
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Abstract
Nanocomposite-based quantum resistive vapour sensors (vQRS) have been developed from the assembly of hybrid copolymers of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) or poly(styrene) (PS) with carbon nanotubes (CNT). The originality of the resulting conducting architecture is expected to be responsible
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Nanocomposite-based quantum resistive vapour sensors (vQRS) have been developed from the assembly of hybrid copolymers of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) or poly(styrene) (PS) with carbon nanotubes (CNT). The originality of the resulting conducting architecture is expected to be responsible for the ability of the transducer to detect sub-ppm concentrations of ammonia and formaldehyde at room temperature despite the presence of humidity. In particular, the boosting effect of POSS is evidenced in CNT-based nanocomposite vQRS. The additive fabrication by spraying layer-by-layer provides (sLbL) is an effective method to control the reproducibility of the transducers’ chemo-resistive responses. In dry atmosphere, the two types of sensors showed a high sensitivity towards both hazardous gases, as they were able to detect 300 ppb of formaldehyde and 500 ppb of ammonia with a sufficiently good signal to noise ratio (SNR > 10). They also exhibited a quick response times less than 5 s for both vapours and, even in the presence of 100 ppm of water, they were able to detect small amounts of gases (1.5 ppm of NH3 and 9 ppm of CH2O). The results suggest promising applications of POSS-based vQRS for air quality or volatolome monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers Based Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Low-Frequency Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy as a Monitoring Tool for Yeast Growth in Industrial Brewing Processes
Chemosensors 2017, 5(3), 24; doi:10.3390/chemosensors5030024
Received: 24 May 2017 / Revised: 21 July 2017 / Accepted: 1 August 2017 / Published: 3 August 2017
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Abstract
Today’s yeast total biomass and viability measurements during the brewing process are dependent on offline methods such as methylene blue or florescence dye-based staining, and/or the usage of flow cytometric measurements. Additionally, microscopic cell counting methods decelerate an easy and quick prediction of
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Today’s yeast total biomass and viability measurements during the brewing process are dependent on offline methods such as methylene blue or florescence dye-based staining, and/or the usage of flow cytometric measurements. Additionally, microscopic cell counting methods decelerate an easy and quick prediction of yeast viability. These processes are time consuming and result in a time-delayed response signal, which not only reduces the knowledge of the performance of the yeast itself, but also impacts the quality of the final product. Novel approaches in process monitoring during the aerobic and anaerobic fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are not only limited to classical pH, dO2 and off-gas analysis, but they also use different in situ and online sensors based on different physical principles to determine the biomass, product quality and cell death. Within this contribution, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to monitor the biomass produced in aerobic and anaerobic batch cultivation approaches, simulating the propagation and fermentation unit operation of industrial brewing processes. Increases in the double-layer capacitance (CDL), determined at frequencies below 1 kHz, were proportional to the increase of biomass in the batch, which was monitored in the online and inline mode. A good correlation of CDL with the cell density was found. In order to prove the robustness and flexibility of this novel method, different state-of-the-art biomass measurements (dry cell weight—DCW and optical density—OD) were performed for comparison. Because measurements in this frequency range are largely determined by the double-layer region between the electrode and media, rather minor interferences with process parameters (aeration and stirring) were to be expected. It is shown that impedance spectroscopy at low frequencies is not only a powerful tool for the monitoring of viable yeast cell concentrations during operation, but it is also perfectly suited to determining physiological states of the cells, and may facilitate biomass monitoring in the brewing and yeast-propagating industry drastically. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors Applications in Food Safety)
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Open AccessArticle Voltammetric Determination of Anti-Hypertensive Drug Hydrochlorothiazide Using Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with L-Glutamic Acid
Chemosensors 2017, 5(3), 25; doi:10.3390/chemosensors5030025
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 17 September 2017
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Abstract
This work deals with the development of screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with L-glutamic acid via two different approaches: electropolymerization (SPCE/PGA) and aryl diazonium electrochemical grafting (SPCE/EGA). SPCE/PGA and SPCE/EGA were analytically compared in the determination of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) by differential pulse voltammetry. Both
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This work deals with the development of screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with L-glutamic acid via two different approaches: electropolymerization (SPCE/PGA) and aryl diazonium electrochemical grafting (SPCE/EGA). SPCE/PGA and SPCE/EGA were analytically compared in the determination of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) by differential pulse voltammetry. Both electrochemical characterization and analytical performance indicate that SPCE/EGA is a much better sensor for HCTZ. The detection and quantification limits were at the level of μmol L−1 with a very good linearity in the studied concentration range. In addition, the proposed SPCE/EGA was successfully applied for the determination of HCTZ in an anti-hypertensive drug with high reproducibility and good trueness. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fluorescence Chemosensory Determination of Cu2+ Using a New Rhodamine–Morpholine Conjugate
Chemosensors 2017, 5(3), 26; doi:10.3390/chemosensors5030026
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 21 August 2017 / Accepted: 23 August 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
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Abstract
A new rhodamine-B carbonyl-morpholine derivative (denoted as RECM) was prepared by a two-step synthesis procedure. The employed method allowed a lactam ring development of rhodamine-B and ethylenediamine to demonstrate a facile amide bond formation. The obtained RECM was confirmed by 1H NMR,
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A new rhodamine-B carbonyl-morpholine derivative (denoted as RECM) was prepared by a two-step synthesis procedure. The employed method allowed a lactam ring development of rhodamine-B and ethylenediamine to demonstrate a facile amide bond formation. The obtained RECM was confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and mass spectrometry analysis. RECM was formed to detect copper ion (Cu2+) due to its problematic toxicity features in aquatic ecosystems. It showed a high selectivity toward Cu2+ in comparison with some environmentally relevant alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metal cations at 50 µM in acetonitrile. Moreover, non-fluorescent RECM showed fluorescence intensity and UV-Vis absorbance increases in the presence of Cu2+ with high linear dependent coefficients (R2 = 0.964 and R2 = 0.982 respectively) as well as a color change from colorless to pink owing to the ring opening of the rhodamine spirolactam form. Binding capability experiments presented a clear 1:1 stoichiometry of RECM–Cu2+ complex with the binding constant (Ka) as 2.25 × 104 M−1. The calculation of limits of detection (LOD) was 0.21 µM based on the linear regression method, which is below the maximum contaminant level goal (MCLG) value of Cu2+ (1.3 ppm equals to 20.46 µM) in drinking water. These characteristics make the RECM a promising candidate for the real-time detection of toxic Cu2+ in environmental monitoring applications. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Thin 2D: The New Dimensionality in Gas Sensing
Chemosensors 2017, 5(3), 21; doi:10.3390/chemosensors5030021
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 20 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 18 July 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (6057 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since the first report of graphene, thin two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials with atomic or molecular thicknesses have attracted great research interest for gas sensing applications. This was due to the distinctive physical, chemical, and electronic properties related to their ultrathin thickness, which positively affect
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Since the first report of graphene, thin two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials with atomic or molecular thicknesses have attracted great research interest for gas sensing applications. This was due to the distinctive physical, chemical, and electronic properties related to their ultrathin thickness, which positively affect the gas sensing performances. This feature article discusses the latest developments in this field, focusing on the properties, preparation, and sensing applications of thin 2D inorganic nanomaterials such as single- or few-layer layered double hydroxides/transition metal oxides/transition metal dichalcogenides. Recent studies have shown that thin 2D inorganic nanomaterials could provide monitoring of harmful/toxic gases with high sensitivity and a low concentration detection limit by means of conductometric sensors operating at relatively low working temperatures. Promisingly, by using these thin 2D inorganic nanomaterials, it may open a simple way of improving the sensing capabilities of conductometric gas sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel 2D-Inorganic Materials for Gas Sensing)
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Open AccessReview Electrochemical Biosensors for the Determination of Toxic Substances Related to Food Safety Developed in South America: Mycotoxins and Herbicides
Chemosensors 2017, 5(3), 23; doi:10.3390/chemosensors5030023
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 1 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
PDF Full-text (2699 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The goal of achieving food safety and quality has become increasingly important in relevant areas. The achievement of this objective includes a significant effort in different areas related to the production of raw materials, storage, transportation, etc. One of the central areas in
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The goal of achieving food safety and quality has become increasingly important in relevant areas. The achievement of this objective includes a significant effort in different areas related to the production of raw materials, storage, transportation, etc. One of the central areas in the verification of food safety and food quality control is related to the analysis of food components and, in particular, possible toxic substances that they may contain. Therefore, the demand for appropriate methods for the determination of these substances is increasingly demanding. Thus, not only is accuracy and precision sought in the results of the analysis, but also the speed, simplicity and lowering of costs. In this way, electrochemical techniques and, particularly, electrochemical biosensors have emerged in recent times as good candidates to satisfy such requirements. This review summarizes the advances made in research and development centers located in South American countries related to the development of electrochemical biosensors for the determination of toxic substances present in foods, particularly mycotoxins and herbicides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors Applications in Food Safety)
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