Microfluidic Electronic Tongue Applied to Soil Analysis
AbstractPrecision agriculture is crucial for increasing food output without expanding the cultivable area, which requires sensors to be deployed for controlling the level of nutrients in the soil. In this paper, we report on a microfluidic electronic tongue (e-tongue) based on impedance measurements which is capable of distinguishing soil samples enriched with plant macronutrients. The e-tongue setup consisted of an array of sensing units made with layer-by-layer films deposited onto gold interdigitated electrodes. Significantly, the sensing units could be reused with adequate reproducibility after a simple washing procedure, thus indicating that there is no cross-contamination in three independent sets of measurements. A high performance was achieved by treating the capacitance data with the multidimensional projection techniques Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Interactive Document Map (IDMAP), and Sammon’s Mapping. While an optimized performance was demonstrated with IDMAP and feature selection, during which data of a limited frequency range were used, the distinction of all soil samples was also possible with the well-established PCA analysis for measurements at a single frequency. The successful use of a simple microfluidic e-tongue for soil analysis paves the way for enhanced tools to support precision agriculture. View Full-Text
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Braunger, M.L.; Shimizu, F.M.; Jimenez, M.J.M.; Amaral, L.R.; Piazzetta, M.H.O.; Gobbi, Â.L.; Magalhães, P.S.G.; Rodrigues, V.; Oliveira, O.N.; Riul, A. Microfluidic Electronic Tongue Applied to Soil Analysis. Chemosensors 2017, 5, 14.
Braunger ML, Shimizu FM, Jimenez MJM, Amaral LR, Piazzetta MHO, Gobbi ÂL, Magalhães PSG, Rodrigues V, Oliveira ON, Riul A. Microfluidic Electronic Tongue Applied to Soil Analysis. Chemosensors. 2017; 5(2):14.Chicago/Turabian Style
Braunger, Maria L.; Shimizu, Flávio M.; Jimenez, Mawin J.M.; Amaral, Lucas R.; Piazzetta, Maria H.O.; Gobbi, Ângelo L.; Magalhães, Paulo S.G.; Rodrigues, Varlei; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.; Riul, Antonio. 2017. "Microfluidic Electronic Tongue Applied to Soil Analysis." Chemosensors 5, no. 2: 14.