Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Water, Volume 6, Issue 9 (September 2014), Pages 2539-2848

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-18
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Other

Open AccessArticle Impact of Forest Cover and Aridity on the Interplay between Effective Rooting Depth and Annual Runoff in South-West Western Australia
Water 2014, 6(9), 2539-2551; doi:10.3390/w6092539
Received: 18 February 2014 / Revised: 25 July 2014 / Accepted: 15 August 2014 / Published: 25 August 2014
PDF Full-text (1486 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Variants of the Budkyo hydrological model describe the effects of land use change on annual water yield. A recent modification using a simple process-based ecohydrological model provides insight into the partitioning of rainfall between runoff and evapotranspiration. In particular, the ‘effective vegetation [...] Read more.
Variants of the Budkyo hydrological model describe the effects of land use change on annual water yield. A recent modification using a simple process-based ecohydrological model provides insight into the partitioning of rainfall between runoff and evapotranspiration. In particular, the ‘effective vegetation rooting depth’ becomes the single free parameter in the model and can be related to land use and climate. We applied this approach to investigate the relations between mean annual runoff from 2000 to 2011, catchment average effective rooting depth and the proportion of forest cover across eleven catchments in South-west Western Australia. The proportion of forested and cleared land was partitioned using MODIS minimum annual average LAI values from 1 km2 pixels over 2000–2011, with forest clearing ranging from 1% to 98% across the 11 catchments. Estimated mean annual runoff using catchment averaged effective rooting depths for forest and cleared (grassland) land obtained using an independent physiologically-based model gave better estimates than a widely used ‘default’ Budkyo-based model. If effective rooting depth declines with aridity, as described by the model then runoff decline may be considerably less (about 50%) than predicted if the effective root depth remains unchanged (70%–92% decline). This highlights the importance of understanding ecohydrological feedbacks between vegetation and climate in projecting scenarios of water yield response to climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Watershed Management)
Open AccessArticle Rational Consumption of Water in Administrative Public Buildings: The Experience of the Bahia Administrative Center, Brazil
Water 2014, 6(9), 2552-2574; doi:10.3390/w6092552
Received: 1 May 2014 / Revised: 11 August 2014 / Accepted: 12 August 2014 / Published: 25 August 2014
PDF Full-text (1162 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The government has to lead, by example, the effort for more rational water use. Nevertheless, public buildings in countries like Brazil lack the operational and maintenance organization necessary to induce better environmental practices. This paper presents the results of a five-year effort [...] Read more.
The government has to lead, by example, the effort for more rational water use. Nevertheless, public buildings in countries like Brazil lack the operational and maintenance organization necessary to induce better environmental practices. This paper presents the results of a five-year effort to control and reduce water use in governmental facilities in Salvador, Bahia. Seventeen state government headquarters in Bahia took part in this initiative. The basic actions taken include: daily monitoring and analysis of water consumption, inspections and adjustments of hydraulic equipment flow, rapid repair of leaks and layout improvements in toilets. All of these are part of the main initiative, which aims to implement water management in the facilities. Ecoteams were created and trained to conduct these efforts. Water control, consumption analysis and communication have been made using AGUAPURA VIANET, an Internet software designed by the Federal University of Bahia for this specific purpose. From June 2008, to December 2013, an estimated 270,000 m3 of potable water have been saved, which represents US$ 2.7 million in water and waste water costs. This represents a monthly savings of 31% in expenses compared to the practices before the program started. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Consumption and Water End-uses in Buildings)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Effect of P-Reactive Drainage Aggregates on Green Roof Runoff Quality
Water 2014, 6(9), 2575-2589; doi:10.3390/w6092575
Received: 17 May 2014 / Revised: 8 August 2014 / Accepted: 14 August 2014 / Published: 27 August 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (440 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The main hypothesis of the presented study is that the negative effect of phosphorus leaching from a green roof substrate can be reduced by including P-reactive material in a drainage layer. In this work, different aggregates (Pollytag®, lightweight expanded clay [...] Read more.
The main hypothesis of the presented study is that the negative effect of phosphorus leaching from a green roof substrate can be reduced by including P-reactive material in a drainage layer. In this work, different aggregates (Pollytag®, lightweight expanded clay aggregates, chalcedony, serpentynite and crushed autoclaved aerated concrete) to be used as the green roof drainage layer are described. Physical parameters, e.g., granulometric composition, water absorption, bulk density and porosity are assessed. A phosphorus sorption isotherm and a kinetic test were performed. Physical and chemical characteristics of the materials were used as a base for choosing the best media for the drainage layer. The P-removal efficiency of crushed autoclaved aerated concrete was confirmed in a column experiment. Adding the implementation of the P-reactive material in a drainage layer during construction can reduce the negative effect of substrate on green roof runoff quality. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Integrated Water Resource Management and Energy Requirements for Water Supply in the Copiapó River Basin, Chile
Water 2014, 6(9), 2590-2613; doi:10.3390/w6092590
Received: 26 May 2014 / Revised: 30 July 2014 / Accepted: 11 August 2014 / Published: 27 August 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (6723 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Population and industry growth in dry climates are fully tied to significant increase in water and energy demands. Because water affects many economic, social and environmental aspects, an interdisciplinary approach is needed to solve current and future water scarcity problems, and to [...] Read more.
Population and industry growth in dry climates are fully tied to significant increase in water and energy demands. Because water affects many economic, social and environmental aspects, an interdisciplinary approach is needed to solve current and future water scarcity problems, and to minimize energy requirements in water production. Such a task requires integrated water modeling tools able to couple surface water and groundwater, which allow for managing complex basins where multiple stakeholders and water users face an intense competition for limited freshwater resources. This work develops an integrated water resource management model to investigate the water-energy nexus in reducing water stress in the Copiapó River basin, an arid, highly vulnerable basin in northern Chile. The model was utilized to characterize groundwater and surface water resources, and water demand and uses. Different management scenarios were evaluated to estimate future resource availability, and compared in terms of energy requirements and costs for desalinating seawater to eliminate the corresponding water deficit. Results show a basin facing a very complex future unless measures are adopted. When a 30% uniform reduction of water consumption is achieved, 70 GWh over the next 30 years are required to provide the energy needed to increase the available water through seawater desalination. In arid basins, this energy could be supplied by solar energy, thus addressing water shortage problems through integrated water resource management combined with new technologies of water production driven by renewable energy sources. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Assessing the Effects of Periodic Flooding on the Population Structure and Recruitment Rates of Riparian Tree Forests
Water 2014, 6(9), 2614-2633; doi:10.3390/w6092614
Received: 4 June 2014 / Revised: 12 August 2014 / Accepted: 14 August 2014 / Published: 27 August 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1892 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Riparian forest stands are subjected to a variety of hydrological stresses as a result of annual fluctuations in water levels during the growing season. Spring floods create additional water-related stress as a result of a major inflow of water that floods riverside [...] Read more.
Riparian forest stands are subjected to a variety of hydrological stresses as a result of annual fluctuations in water levels during the growing season. Spring floods create additional water-related stress as a result of a major inflow of water that floods riverside land. This exploratory study assesses the impacts of successive floods on tree dynamics and regeneration in an active sedimentation area, while determining the age of the stands using the recruitment rates, tree structure and tree rings based on dendrochronological analysis. Environmental data were also recorded for each vegetation quadrat. In total, 2633 tree stems were tallied throughout the quadrats (200 m2), and tree specimens were analyzed based on the various flood zones. A total of 720 specimens were counted (100 m2 strip) to measure natural regeneration. Higher recruitment rates are noted for the no-flood zones and lower rates in active floodplains. During the period of the establishment of tree species, the survival rates are comparable between the flood zones and the no-flood zones. Tree diameter distribution reveals a strong predominance of young trees in flooded areas. Different factors appear to come into play in the dynamics of riparian forest stands, including the disruptions associated with successive flooding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wetlands and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Precipitation over Lake Victoria, East Africa, in the 21st Century
Water 2014, 6(9), 2634-2659; doi:10.3390/w6092634
Received: 3 June 2014 / Revised: 21 August 2014 / Accepted: 22 August 2014 / Published: 29 August 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1091 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Precipitation over Lake Victoria in East Africa greatly influences its water balance. Over 30 million people rely on Lake Victoria for food, potable water, hydropower and transport. Projecting precipitation changes over the lake is vital in dealing with climate change impacts. The [...] Read more.
Precipitation over Lake Victoria in East Africa greatly influences its water balance. Over 30 million people rely on Lake Victoria for food, potable water, hydropower and transport. Projecting precipitation changes over the lake is vital in dealing with climate change impacts. The past and future precipitation over the lake were assessed using 42 model runs obtained from 26 General Circulation Models (GCMs) of the newest generation in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Two CMIP5 scenarios defined by Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP), namely RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, were used to explore climate change impacts. The daily precipitation over Lake Victoria for the period 1962–2002 was compared with future projections for the 2040s and 2075s. The ability of GCMs to project daily, monthly and annual precipitation over the lake was evaluated based on the mean error, root mean square error and the frequency of occurrence of extreme precipitation. Higher resolution models (grid size <1.5°) simulated monthly variations better than low resolution models (grid size >2.5°). The total annual precipitation is expected to increase by less than 10% for the RCP4.5 scenario and less than 20% for the RCP8.5 scenario over the 21st century, despite the higher (up to 40%) increase in extreme daily intensities. Full article
Open AccessArticle Using Drainage Slots in Permeable Paving Blocks to Delay the Effects of Clogging: Proof of Concept Study
Water 2014, 6(9), 2660-2670; doi:10.3390/w6092660
Received: 4 July 2014 / Revised: 22 August 2014 / Accepted: 27 August 2014 / Published: 3 September 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2517 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Permeable interlocking concrete pavements (PICP) are specifically designed to remove sediment and other pollutants from stormwater runoff. Over time, this can lead to clogging of the PICP system. Previous research has shown that much of the clogging occurs on the bedding aggregate [...] Read more.
Permeable interlocking concrete pavements (PICP) are specifically designed to remove sediment and other pollutants from stormwater runoff. Over time, this can lead to clogging of the PICP system. Previous research has shown that much of the clogging occurs on the bedding aggregate directly below the paving joints, while the remainder of the aggregate is unaffected. This paper describes a proof of concept study to delay the effects of clogging by making more efficient use of the bedding aggregate used in PICP systems. Lateral drainage slots were cut into the underside of PICP blocks to allow sediment-laden stormwater to access, and be filtered by, a greater surface area of bedding aggregate. Eight different slot designs were trialed in the study to determine which of the slot designs made the most efficient use of the bedding aggregate to filter the sediment from the stormwater. The study results demonstrated that the eight drainage slot designs deposited between 25% and 366% more sediment (by weight) beneath the pavers than the control pavement. The results of the study suggest that PICP systems with drainage slots cast into their bases would take much longer to clog than unmodified pavers, thereby proving the concept of this study. Full article
Open AccessArticle Investigation of Rainfall-Runoff Processes and Soil Moisture Dynamics in Grassland Plots under Simulated Rainfall Conditions
Water 2014, 6(9), 2671-2689; doi:10.3390/w6092671
Received: 3 April 2014 / Revised: 25 August 2014 / Accepted: 28 August 2014 / Published: 5 September 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3000 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The characteristics of rainfall-runoff are important aspects of hydrological processes. In this study, rainfall-runoff processes and soil moisture dynamics at different soil depths and slope positions of grassland with two different row spacings (5 cm and 10 cm, respectively, referred to as [...] Read more.
The characteristics of rainfall-runoff are important aspects of hydrological processes. In this study, rainfall-runoff processes and soil moisture dynamics at different soil depths and slope positions of grassland with two different row spacings (5 cm and 10 cm, respectively, referred to as R5 and R10) were analyzed, by means of a solution of rainfall simulation experiments. Bare land was also considered as a comparison. The results showed that the mechanism of runoff generation was mainly excess infiltration overland flow. The surface runoff amount of R5 plot was greater than that of R10, while the interflow amount of R10 was larger than that of R5 plot, although the differences of the subsurface runoff processes between plots R5 and R10 were little. The effects of rainfall intensity on the surface runoff were significant, but not obvious on the interflow and recession curve, which can be described as a simple exponential equation, with a fitting degree of up to 0.854–0.996. The response of soil moisture to rainfall and evapotranspiration was mainly in the 0–20 cm layer, and the response at the 40 cm layer to rainfall was slower and generally occurred after the rainfall stopped. The upper slope generally responded fastest to rainfall, and the foot of the slope was the slowest. The results presented here could provide insights into understanding the surface and subsurface runoff processes and soil moisture dynamics for grasslands in semi-arid regions. Full article
Open AccessArticle Multi-Site Calibration of Linear Reservoir Based Geomorphologic Rainfall-Runoff Models
Water 2014, 6(9), 2690-2716; doi:10.3390/w6092690
Received: 7 May 2014 / Revised: 21 August 2014 / Accepted: 27 August 2014 / Published: 10 September 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1930 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Multi-site optimization of two adapted event-based geomorphologic rainfall-runoff models was presented using Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) method for the South Fork Eel River watershed, California. The first model was developed based on Unequal Cascade of Reservoirs (UECR) and the second model [...] Read more.
Multi-site optimization of two adapted event-based geomorphologic rainfall-runoff models was presented using Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) method for the South Fork Eel River watershed, California. The first model was developed based on Unequal Cascade of Reservoirs (UECR) and the second model was presented as a modified version of Geomorphological Unit Hydrograph based on Nash’s model (GUHN). Two calibration strategies were considered as semi-lumped and semi-distributed for imposing (or unimposing) the geomorphology relations in the models. The results of models were compared with Nash’s model. Obtained results using the observed data of two stations in the multi-site optimization framework showed reasonable efficiency values in both the calibration and the verification steps. The outcomes also showed that semi-distributed calibration of the modified GUHN model slightly outperformed other models in both upstream and downstream stations during calibration. Both calibration strategies for the developed UECR model during the verification phase showed slightly better performance in the downstream station, but in the upstream station, the modified GUHN model in the semi-lumped strategy slightly outperformed the other models. The semi-lumped calibration strategy could lead to logical lag time parameters related to the basin geomorphology and may be more suitable for data-based statistical analyses of the rainfall-runoff process. Full article
Open AccessArticle Comparing Simple Flood Reservoir Operation Rules
Water 2014, 6(9), 2717-2731; doi:10.3390/w6092717
Received: 17 November 2013 / Revised: 14 August 2014 / Accepted: 29 August 2014 / Published: 11 September 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (515 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effectiveness of three simple flood operating rules in reducing the peak flow is compared for four simplified hydrograph shapes. The Minimize Flood Peak rule uses available flood storage capacity to store peak flows from an accurate hydrograph forecast. The less demanding [...] Read more.
The effectiveness of three simple flood operating rules in reducing the peak flow is compared for four simplified hydrograph shapes. The Minimize Flood Peak rule uses available flood storage capacity to store peak flows from an accurate hydrograph forecast. The less demanding Minimize Flooding Frequency operating rule releases water at or below channel capacity until the flood storage pool is filled and outflows are forced to exceed the channel capacity. The Short Forecast Peak Minimization rule minimizes flood peak over a short foreseeable future with existing flood storage capacity. Four simplified hydrograph shapes (triangular, abrupt wave, flood pulse and broad peak) were used. The Minimize Flood Peak rule reduces peak flows better than alternatives, but is often impractical. The Short Forecast Peak Minimization rule reduces peak flows for a wide range of conditions. The Minimize Flood Frequency rule may be more relevant where damages occur abruptly, as in many leveed systems. All rules reduce peak outflow more efficiently for more steeply rising hydrographs. The approach suggests some general insights for flood operations of reservoirs. Full article
Open AccessArticle Selecting a Sustainable Disinfection Technique for Wastewater Reuse Projects
Water 2014, 6(9), 2732-2747; doi:10.3390/w6092732
Received: 17 June 2014 / Revised: 27 August 2014 / Accepted: 9 September 2014 / Published: 15 September 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (637 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an application of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) by integrating a Delphi process for selecting the best sustainable disinfection technique for wastewater reuse projects. The proposed methodology provides project managers a tool to evaluate problems with multiple criteria and [...] Read more.
This paper presents an application of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) by integrating a Delphi process for selecting the best sustainable disinfection technique for wastewater reuse projects. The proposed methodology provides project managers a tool to evaluate problems with multiple criteria and multiple alternatives which involve non-commeasurable decision criteria, with expert opinions playing a major role in the selection of these treatment technologies. Five disinfection techniques for wastewater reuse have been evaluated for each of the nine criteria weighted according to the opinions of consulted experts. Finally, the VIKOR method has been applied to determine a compromise solution, and to establish the stability of the results. Therefore, the expert system proposed to select the optimal disinfection alternative is a hybrid method combining the AHP with the Delphi method and the VIKOR technique, which is shown to be appropriate in realistic scenarios where multiple stakeholders are involved in the selection of a sustainable disinfection technique for wastewater reuse projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Assessing the Feasibility of Managed Aquifer Recharge for Irrigation under Uncertainty
Water 2014, 6(9), 2748-2769; doi:10.3390/w6092748
Received: 13 June 2014 / Revised: 5 September 2014 / Accepted: 5 September 2014 / Published: 16 September 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (575 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Additional storage of water is a potential option to meet future water supply goals. Financial comparisons are needed to improve decision making about whether to store water in surface reservoirs or below ground, using managed aquifer recharge (MAR). In some places, the [...] Read more.
Additional storage of water is a potential option to meet future water supply goals. Financial comparisons are needed to improve decision making about whether to store water in surface reservoirs or below ground, using managed aquifer recharge (MAR). In some places, the results of cost-benefit analysis show that MAR is financially superior to surface storage. However, uncertainty often exists as to whether MAR systems will remain operationally effective and profitable in the future, because the profitability of MAR is dependent on many uncertain technical and financial variables. This paper introduces a method to assess the financial feasibility of MAR under uncertainty. We assess such uncertainties by identification of cross-over points in break-even analysis. Cross-over points are the thresholds where MAR and surface storage have equal financial returns. Such thresholds can be interpreted as a set of minimum requirements beyond which an investment in MAR may no longer be worthwhile. Checking that these thresholds are satisfied can improve confidence in decision making. Our suggested approach can also be used to identify areas that may not be suitable for MAR, thereby avoiding expensive hydrogeological and geophysical investigations. Full article
Open AccessArticle Characteristics of Point Recharge in Karst Aquifers
Water 2014, 6(9), 2782-2807; doi:10.3390/w6092782
Received: 3 July 2014 / Revised: 5 September 2014 / Accepted: 11 September 2014 / Published: 23 September 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (5524 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Karstic groundwater basins are characterized by both point and diffuse recharge. This paper describes the hydrologic characteristics of point recharge and their influence on recharge estimation for four groundwater basins. Point recharge is highly transient and may occur in relatively short-time periods, [...] Read more.
Karstic groundwater basins are characterized by both point and diffuse recharge. This paper describes the hydrologic characteristics of point recharge and their influence on recharge estimation for four groundwater basins. Point recharge is highly transient and may occur in relatively short-time periods, yet is capable of recharging a large volume of water, even from a single extreme rainfall event. Preferential groundwater flows are observed in karst aquifers with local fresher water pockets of low salinity that develop around point recharge sources. Measurable fresh water plumes develop only when a large quantity of surface water enters the aquifer as a point recharge. In fresh water plumes, the difference in chloride concentrations in diffuse and point recharge zones decreases as the plumes become enriched through mixing. The relative contributions to total recharge from point sources using the measured gap between groundwater and rainwater chloride in the chloride vs. δ18O plot is not necessarily indicative of sinkholes not directly recharging the aquifer. In karst aquifers, recharge estimation methods based on groundwater age distribution; average annual rainfall and basin average chloride in the conventional chloride mass balance (CMB) method are questionable due to theoretical limitations and key assumptions of these methods not being met. In point recharge dominant groundwater basins, application of: watertable fluctuation, numerical groundwater modelling, Darcy flow calculation or water budget methods are more suitable for recharge estimation as they are independent of the particular mode of recharge. The duality of the recharge mechanism in karst aquifers suggests that modification to the CMB method may be required to include both point and diffuse recharge components. Full article
Open AccessArticle Hydraulic Conductivity Estimation Test Impact on Long-Term Acceptance Rate and Soil Absorption System Design
Water 2014, 6(9), 2808-2820; doi:10.3390/w6092808
Received: 23 May 2014 / Revised: 10 September 2014 / Accepted: 17 September 2014 / Published: 23 September 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (612 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this paper was to verify the common methods of hydraulic conductivity estimation for soil assessment in respect to wastewater disposal. The studies were conducted on three types of sandy soils. Hydraulic conductivity was determined using a scale effect-free laboratory [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper was to verify the common methods of hydraulic conductivity estimation for soil assessment in respect to wastewater disposal. The studies were conducted on three types of sandy soils. Hydraulic conductivity was determined using a scale effect-free laboratory method, empirical equations and compared with measurements estimated from a laboratory infiltration column with identified head loss. Based on the hydraulic conductivity values, the long-term acceptance rates (LTAR) [1] were calculated. The differences in LTAR values were about one order of magnitude smaller than differences in hydraulic coefficient. The study showed a good convergention of the results obtained from the constant head method (CHM) by solving the Glover Equation for medium and coarse sands. In low permeability soil (fine sand), the best result was obtained using CHM-a with a capillary rise consideration (a is a factor included in the flow in the unsaturated and saturated zones calculated from a capillary rise). From a practical point of view the relatively small value of LTAR underestimation (20%-for constant head method) is responsible for the extended surface area of the system and provides a security margin (the avoidance of clogging risk). The use of the falling head method, based on the Van Hoorn equation, can be said to be highly overestimated. For medium and coarse sandy soils the underestimation of LTAR calculated and based on CHM test determination is 14%–18%. The total cost of soil absorption system (SAS) designed-based on CHM in comparison to that designed-based on real hydraulic conductivity value in Poland is only about 7%–9% higher. Full article
Open AccessCommunication A Comparative Study on Flood Management in China and Japan
Water 2014, 6(9), 2821-2829; doi:10.3390/w6092821
Received: 4 May 2014 / Revised: 14 September 2014 / Accepted: 16 September 2014 / Published: 23 September 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (410 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Attempts at flood management during the 20th century resulted in more flood disasters. To gain a better understanding of what went wrong, it is necessary to examine historical evidence, seek ancient wisdom and compare practices of flood management in different countries. This [...] Read more.
Attempts at flood management during the 20th century resulted in more flood disasters. To gain a better understanding of what went wrong, it is necessary to examine historical evidence, seek ancient wisdom and compare practices of flood management in different countries. This study examines flood management concepts and practices in China and Japan during different periods of time in history and the differences in the two countries’ current management of flood retarding basins. It reveals that during the Western Han Dynasty (206 BC–24 AD), China proposed to redirect a river course to gain sufficient flood retarding capacity, and this same concept was realized, either coincidentally or intentionally, during the Edo period of Japan (1603–1868). In modern times, however, the management of flood retarding basins differs fundamentally between China and Japan. In addition, this study investigates the differences in emergency evacuation practices between China and Japan. This is the first study to highlight the link between a Chinese concept and a Japanese practice that are separated by more than 1000 years. Full article
Open AccessArticle Improving Irrigated Lowland Rice Water Use Efficiency under Saturated Soil Culture for Adoption in Tropical Climate Conditions
Water 2014, 6(9), 2830-2846; doi:10.3390/w6092830
Received: 8 May 2014 / Revised: 15 August 2014 / Accepted: 4 September 2014 / Published: 25 September 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (504 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
: Saturated soil culture is one of the water saving techniques that can improve water productivity. However, it is either less implemented or adopted because it consumes more time and energy. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the effective water depth [...] Read more.
: Saturated soil culture is one of the water saving techniques that can improve water productivity. However, it is either less implemented or adopted because it consumes more time and energy. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the effective water depth that can keep soil moisture close to saturation for a commonly practiced irrigation interval, combined with a rainfall pattern for increasing water productivity. The design was a randomized complete block with three replications and four water treatments representing 120% (T120), 180% (T180), 240% (T240), and 300% (T300) of soil saturation or the application of 2, 3, 4 and 5 cm water depth. The results showed that the application of 3 cm was the effective depth. It decreased plant height, tiller number, chlorophyll content, and panicle number per hill by 12.37%, 20.84%, 7.59%, and 70.98%, respectively. The decrease of these parameters is followed by total recovery due to effective rainfall contribution, which led to low yield sacrifice (6% of reduction) and 40% of water saving. We argue that weekly application of a 3 cm water depth and matching crop needed-water period with the onset of rainfall may be implemented and recommended as suitable saturated soil culture practice for rice production in high water demand conditions. Full article

Other

Jump to: Research

Open AccessTechnical Note A Web-Based Tool to Interpolate Nitrogen Loading Using a Genetic Algorithm
Water 2014, 6(9), 2770-2781; doi:10.3390/w6092770
Received: 4 August 2014 / Revised: 5 September 2014 / Accepted: 15 September 2014 / Published: 19 September 2014
PDF Full-text (1843 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water quality data may not be collected at a high frequency, nor over the range of streamflow data. For instance, water quality data are often collected monthly, biweekly, or weekly, since collecting and analyzing water quality samples are costly compared to streamflow [...] Read more.
Water quality data may not be collected at a high frequency, nor over the range of streamflow data. For instance, water quality data are often collected monthly, biweekly, or weekly, since collecting and analyzing water quality samples are costly compared to streamflow data. Regression models are often used to interpolate pollutant loads from measurements made intermittently. Web-based Load Interpolation Tool (LOADIN) was developed to provide user-friendly interfaces and to allow use of streamflow and water quality data from U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) via web access. LOADIN has a regression model assuming that instantaneous load is comprised of the pollutant load based on streamflow and the pollutant load variation within the period. The regression model has eight coefficients determined by a genetic algorithm with measured water quality data. LOADIN was applied to eleven water quality datasets from USGS gage stations located in Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin states with drainage areas from 44 km2 to 1,847,170 km2. Measured loads were calculated by multiplying nitrogen data by streamflow data associated with measured nitrogen data. The estimated nitrogen loads and measured loads were evaluated using Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) and coefficient of determination (R2). NSE ranged from 0.45 to 0.91, and R2 ranged from 0.51 to 0.91 for nitrogen load estimation. Full article
Open AccessCorrection Correction: Wuttichaikitcharoen, P. and Babel, M.S. Principal Component and Multiple Regression Analyses for the Estimation of Suspended Sediment Yield in Ungauged Basins of Northern Thailand. Water 2014, 6, 2412–2435
Water 2014, 6(9), 2847-2848; doi:10.3390/w6092847
Received: 23 September 2014 / Accepted: 24 September 2014 / Published: 25 September 2014
PDF Full-text (800 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following correction to their paper [1]. Due to an error, there are two repeated dotted lines in Figure 1. The former Figure 1 (labelled here as Previous Figure 1) should be replaced by a new version [...] Read more.
The authors wish to make the following correction to their paper [1]. Due to an error, there are two repeated dotted lines in Figure 1. The former Figure 1 (labelled here as Previous Figure 1) should be replaced by a new version (labeled here as New Figure 1):[...] Full article

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Water Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
water@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Water
Back to Top