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Water 2013, 5(1), 94-196; doi:10.3390/w5010094
Review

Advances in Membrane Distillation for Water Desalination and Purification Applications

1,* , 2,3
, 3
, 4
, 3
, 5
 and 3,*
1 Center for Inland Desalination Systems, University of Texas at El Paso, 500 West University Avenue, El Paso, TX 79968, USA 2 Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds Campus, Victoria 3216, Australia 3 Institute for Sustainability and Innovation, Victoria University, P.O. Box 14428, Melbourne, Victoria 8001, Australia 4 School of Engineering and Science, Victoria University, P.O. Box 14428, Melbourne, Victoria 8001, Australia 5 Texas Sustainable Energy Research Institute, University of Texas at San Antonio, 1 UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249, USA
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 November 2012 / Revised: 14 December 2012 / Accepted: 25 December 2012 / Published: 25 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Water Desalination)

Abstract

Membrane distillation is a process that utilizes differences in vapor pressure to permeate water through a macro-porous membrane and reject other non-volatile constituents present in the influent water. This review considers the fundamental heat and mass transfer processes in membrane distillation, recent advances in membrane technology, module configurations, and the applications and economics of membrane distillation, and identifies areas that may lead to technological improvements in membrane distillation as well as the application characteristics required for commercial deployment.
Keywords: membrane distillation; heat transfer; mass transfer; module configurations; water desalination and purification membrane distillation; heat transfer; mass transfer; module configurations; water desalination and purification
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Camacho, L.M.; Dumée, L.; Zhang, J.; Li, J.-D.; Duke, M.; Gomez, J.; Gray, S. Advances in Membrane Distillation for Water Desalination and Purification Applications. Water 2013, 5, 94-196.

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