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Water, Volume 3, Issue 3 (September 2011), Pages 718-963

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle A Water Resources Planning Tool for the Jordan River Basin
Water 2011, 3(3), 718-736; doi:10.3390/w3030718
Received: 3 May 2011 / Revised: 8 June 2011 / Accepted: 15 June 2011 / Published: 27 June 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (514 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Jordan River basin is subject to extreme and increasing water scarcity. Management of transboundary water resources in the basin is closely intertwined with political conflicts in the region. We have jointly developed with stakeholders and experts from the riparian countries, a [...] Read more.
The Jordan River basin is subject to extreme and increasing water scarcity. Management of transboundary water resources in the basin is closely intertwined with political conflicts in the region. We have jointly developed with stakeholders and experts from the riparian countries, a new dynamic consensus database and—supported by hydro-climatological model simulations and participatory scenario exercises in the GLOWA (Global Change and the Hydrological Cycle) Jordan River project—a basin-wide Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) tool, which will allow testing of various unilateral and multilateral adaptation options under climate and socio-economic change. We present its validation and initial (climate and socio-economic) scenario analyses with this budget and allocation tool, and invite further adaptation and application of the tool for specific Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) problems. Full article
Open AccessArticle Participatory Approach for Integrated Basin Planning with Focus on Disaster Risk Reduction: The Case of the Limpopo River
Water 2011, 3(3), 737-763; doi:10.3390/w3030737
Received: 15 April 2011 / Revised: 4 May 2011 / Accepted: 22 May 2011 / Published: 29 June 2011
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Abstract
This paper defends the idea that a participatory approach is a suitable method for basin planning integrating both water and land aspects. Assertions made are based on scientific literature review and corroborated by field experience and research carried out in the Limpopo [...] Read more.
This paper defends the idea that a participatory approach is a suitable method for basin planning integrating both water and land aspects. Assertions made are based on scientific literature review and corroborated by field experience and research carried out in the Limpopo River basin, a transboundary river located in southern Africa which is affected by periodical floods. The paper explains how a basin strategic plan can be drafted and disaster risk reduction strategies derived by combining different types of activities using a bottom-up approach, despite an institutional context which operates through traditional top-down mechanisms. In particular, the “Living with Floods” experience in the lower Limpopo River, in Mozambique, is described as a concrete example of a disaster adaptation measure resulting from a participatory planning exercise. In conclusion, the adopted method and obtained results are discussed and recommendations are formulated for potential replication in similar contexts of the developing world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Policy)
Open AccessArticle Coupling Numerical and Physical Modeling for Analysis of Flow in a Diversion Structure with Coanda-effect Screens
Water 2011, 3(3), 764-786; doi:10.3390/w3030764
Received: 27 April 2011 / Revised: 23 June 2011 / Accepted: 25 June 2011 / Published: 4 July 2011
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Abstract
There is an increasing need to screen water in surface water collection systems to remove floating debris and small aquatic organisms to protect receiving water bodies. Recently, the Albuquerque Metropolitan Arroyo Flood Control Authority (AMAFCA, New Mexico, USA) has actively introduced structural [...] Read more.
There is an increasing need to screen water in surface water collection systems to remove floating debris and small aquatic organisms to protect receiving water bodies. Recently, the Albuquerque Metropolitan Arroyo Flood Control Authority (AMAFCA, New Mexico, USA) has actively introduced structural debris removal from storm-water facilities as a best management practice. In the South Diversion Channel Project, AMAFCA’s objective is to divert the flow at the upstream end of the existing concrete structure and remove debris from this flow using Coanda-effect screens before allowing it to re-enter the channel. Design limitations, such as access to the debris removal site, existing components of the concrete structure, topography of the site, and need for flow-regulating structures complicate the design. This paper shows how numerical modeling tools (Delft3D-FLOW model) and physical modeling can be used in conjunction to observe flow patterns in a diversion structure and around Coanda-effect screens, estimate design parameters and thereby provide design recommendations. Full article
Open AccessArticle Application of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) in Greece
Water 2011, 3(3), 787-805; doi:10.3390/w3030787
Received: 15 May 2011 / Revised: 13 June 2011 / Accepted: 20 June 2011 / Published: 16 August 2011
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (2893 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The main premise of the current effort is that the use of a drought index, such as Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), may lead to a more appropriate understanding of drought duration, magnitude and spatial extent in semi-arid areas like Greece. The importance [...] Read more.
The main premise of the current effort is that the use of a drought index, such as Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), may lead to a more appropriate understanding of drought duration, magnitude and spatial extent in semi-arid areas like Greece. The importance of the Index may be marked in its simplicity and its ability to identify the beginning and end of a drought event. Thus, it may point towards drought contingency planning and through it to drought alert mechanisms. In this context, Greece, as it very often faces the hazardous impacts of droughts, presents an almost ideal case for the SPI application. The present approach examines the SPI drought index application for all of Greece and it is evaluated accordingly by historical precipitation data. Different time series of data from 46 precipitation stations, covering the period 1947–2004, and for time scales of 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months, were used. The computation of the index was achieved by the appropriate usage of a pertinent software tool. Then, spatial representation of the SPI values was carried out with geo-statistical methods using the SURFER 9 software package. The results underline the potential that the SPI usage exhibits in a drought alert and forecasting effort as part of a drought contingency planning posture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Managing Water Resources and Development in a Changing Climate)
Open AccessArticle Hydrologic Response Unit Routing in SWAT to Simulate Effects of Vegetated Filter Strip for South-Korean Conditions Based on VFSMOD
Water 2011, 3(3), 819-842; doi:10.3390/w3030819
Received: 21 March 2011 / Revised: 11 August 2011 / Accepted: 15 August 2011 / Published: 26 August 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (4747 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model has been used worldwide for many hydrologic and Non-Point Source (NPS) Pollution analyses on a watershed scale. However, it has many limitations in simulating the Vegetative Filter Strip (VFS) because it considers only ‘filter [...] Read more.
The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model has been used worldwide for many hydrologic and Non-Point Source (NPS) Pollution analyses on a watershed scale. However, it has many limitations in simulating the Vegetative Filter Strip (VFS) because it considers only ‘filter strip width’ when the model estimates sediment trapping efficiency and does not consider the routing of sediment with overland flow which is expected to maximize the sediment trapping efficiency from upper agricultural subwatersheds to lower spatially-explicit filter strips. Therefore, the SWAT overland flow option between landuse-subwatersheds with sediment routing capability was enhanced by modifying the SWAT watershed configuration and SWAT engine based on the numerical model VFSMOD applied to South-Korean conditions. The enhanced SWAT can simulate the VFS sediment trapping efficiency for South-Korean conditions in a manner similar to the desktop VFSMOD-w system. Due to this enhancement, SWAT is applicable to simulate the effects of overland flow from upper subwatersheds to reflect increased runoff volume at the lower subwatershed, which occurs in the field if no diversion channel is installed. In this study, the enhanced SWAT model was applied to small watersheds located at Jaun-ri in South-Korea to simulate a diversion channel and spatially-explicit VFS. Sediment can be reduced by 31%, 65%, and 68%, with a diversion channel, the VFS, and the VFS with diversion channel, respectively. The enhanced SWAT should be used in estimating site-specific effects on sediment reduction with diversion channels and VFS, instead of the currently available SWAT, which does not simulate sediment routing in overland flow and does not consider other sensitive factors affecting sediment reduction with VFS. Full article
Open AccessArticle Water Recycling in Australia
Water 2011, 3(3), 869-881; doi:10.3390/w3030869
Received: 3 August 2011 / Revised: 25 August 2011 / Accepted: 31 August 2011 / Published: 9 September 2011
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (304 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located [...] Read more.
Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located near the coast, it was thought that large scale recycling would be problematic given the cost of infrastructure and pumping required to establish recycled water schemes. This all changed when Australia experienced a decade of record low rainfall and water utilities were given aggressive targets to increase the volume of water recycled. This resulted in recycled water being accepted as a legitimate source of water for non-drinking purposes in a diversified portfolio of water sources to mitigate climate risk. To ensure community support for recycled water, Australia lead the world in developing national guidelines for the various uses of recycled water to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Australia now provides a great case study of the developments in maximizing water recycling opportunities from policy, regulatory and technological perspectives. This paper explores the evolution in thinking and how approaches to wastewater reuse has changed over the past 40 years from an effluent disposal issue to one of recognizing wastewater as a legitimate and valuable resource. Despite recycled water being a popular choice and being broadly embraced, the concept of indirect potable reuse schemes have lacked community and political support across Australia to date. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Recycling and Reuse)
Open AccessArticle Risk Assessment of Aluminum in Drinking Water between Two Residential Areas
Water 2011, 3(3), 882-893; doi:10.3390/w3030882
Received: 17 May 2011 / Revised: 8 June 2011 / Accepted: 4 July 2011 / Published: 12 September 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (185 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A cross-sectional study was conducted at Sungai Lembing (SL) and Bukit Ubi (BU), Kuantan, Malaysia. The main objectives of this epidemiological study were to determine the aluminum concentration in drinking water, to compare with the government standard and to perform health risk [...] Read more.
A cross-sectional study was conducted at Sungai Lembing (SL) and Bukit Ubi (BU), Kuantan, Malaysia. The main objectives of this epidemiological study were to determine the aluminum concentration in drinking water, to compare with the government standard and to perform health risk assessment prediction among respondents from these two residential areas. A total of 100 respondents were selected from the study areas based on a few inclusive and exclusive criteria. Two duplicates of treated water samples were taken from each respondent's house using a 200 mL high-density polyethylene (HDPE) bottle and 0.4 mL (69%) pure concentrated nitric acid added as preservative. Aluminum concentrations were analyzed using Lambda 25 UV/V spectrophotometer. The result showed that the mean concentration of aluminum in drinking water from SL was 0.11 ± 0.0634 mg/L and 0.12 ± 0.0462 mg/L for BU. The mean value of Chronic Daily Intake (CDI) in SL (0.0035 ± 0.0028 mg/kg/day) was lower compared to BU (0.0037 ± 0.0021 mg/kg/day). The Hazard Index (HI) calculation showed all respondents had HI less than 1. In conclusion, there was unlikely potential for adverse health effects from aluminum intake in drinking water. However, it was necessary for some action to be taken in order to reduce aluminum levels found in drinking water in both locations. Full article
Open AccessArticle Mudflows: Assessment of Energy Dissipation on an Experimental Bottom Grid Device
Water 2011, 3(3), 894-905; doi:10.3390/w3030894
Received: 15 July 2011 / Revised: 31 August 2011 / Accepted: 1 September 2011 / Published: 13 September 2011
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Abstract
Grid devices with a terminal wall barrier have been widely used for dissipation of energy load of water piped from the outfall works of artificial reservoirs. The satisfactory results obtained have led to the commitment to usage of such devices, with good [...] Read more.
Grid devices with a terminal wall barrier have been widely used for dissipation of energy load of water piped from the outfall works of artificial reservoirs. The satisfactory results obtained have led to the commitment to usage of such devices, with good results even in the case of mudflows for which design criteria were suggested. In this study, the experimental results of an evaluation of pressure on a vertical terminal wall are shown with the evaluation of the overall hydrodynamic thrust. The correct evaluation of the dynamic impact of a mudflow front against a structure is an important task in its design procedure. The hydrodynamic drive calculated from the tests with corresponding theoretical model values derived has shown a good matching. According to the test and speed range detected, the maximum dissipation rate due to the wall was about 35% of the available total load. Full article
Open AccessArticle Economic Effects of Legislative Framework Changes in Groundwater Use Rights for Irrigation
Water 2011, 3(3), 906-922; doi:10.3390/w3030906
Received: 23 May 2011 / Revised: 23 August 2011 / Accepted: 30 August 2011 / Published: 19 September 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (292 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In most countries, groundwater resource is a public good, and the entitlement of use rights by the public authority to final users differs according to a country-specific legislative framework. In Italy, groundwater extraction has been regulated through non-tradable private licenses. At present, [...] Read more.
In most countries, groundwater resource is a public good, and the entitlement of use rights by the public authority to final users differs according to a country-specific legislative framework. In Italy, groundwater extraction has been regulated through non-tradable private licenses. At present, the public authority needs to reform the current legislative framework, in order to comply with the Water Framework Directive, aimed at the enhancement of the efficiency of the resource use. This research analyzes the effects of reforming the current framework based on non-tradable use rights, by comparing two different liberalization scenarios: an intra-sector market, and a regional market. Although positive economic benefits are generally expected from the liberalization of use rights at aggregated level, we want to analyze whether effects of the legislative framework causes uneven changes on some farm groups. The empirical case study refers to the Fortore river basin (South of Italy), where groundwater covers about 50–80% of current needs, and informal (though illegal) water markets across neighbor farmers already exist. From the findings, there is no evidence that the exchange liberalization of groundwater use rights leads to gains in terms of the value added and the farmer’s revenue. In addition, in the case of an auction system regulated by the public authority, farmers whose water productivity is higher may be able to gain, while others may suffer some losses. In this case, resistances from farmers’ associations towards the legislative framework reform may arise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Policy)
Open AccessArticle Bankfull Hydraulic Geometry Relationships for the Inner and Outer Bluegrass Regions of Kentucky
Water 2011, 3(3), 923-948; doi:10.3390/w3030923
Received: 27 June 2011 / Revised: 27 August 2011 / Accepted: 9 September 2011 / Published: 20 September 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1263 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bankfull hydraulic geometry relationships relate bankfull stream dimensions, such as cross-sectional area, width, mean depth, mean velocity, width to depth ratio, and slope to bankfull discharge. These relationships can assist in determining a design discharge for stream restoration and management projects. This [...] Read more.
Bankfull hydraulic geometry relationships relate bankfull stream dimensions, such as cross-sectional area, width, mean depth, mean velocity, width to depth ratio, and slope to bankfull discharge. These relationships can assist in determining a design discharge for stream restoration and management projects. This study assessed 27 stable streams located in the Inner Bluegrass and Outer Bluegrass regions of Kentucky. Reaches were selected based on the presence of a U.S. Geological Survey gage, as well as other conditions such as presence of readily identifiable bankfull indicators, stability indices, and site accessibility. Bankfull channel dimensions and discharges were determined, and hydraulic geometry relationships were developed for both the Inner Bluegrass and Outer Bluegrass regions. These scaling relationships for karst-influenced streams were similar to others reported in the literature for non-karst areas. Significant differences between the regions were found only for bankfull width and width-to-depth ratio. Streams in the Inner Bluegrass tended to be more narrow and deep at bankfull discharges less than 10 m3s−1 and wider and shallower at bankfull discharges greater than 20 m3s−1 as compared to stream in the Outer Bluegrass. It is suspected that physiographic conditions related to local geology and/or riparian vegetation at three sites in the Outer Bluegrass accounted for these differences. Results of this study indicate that in instances of geologic variation within a physiographic region, hydraulic geometry relationships may require evaluation at the watershed scale. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Importance of Institutional Asymmetries to the Development of Binational Aquifer Assessment Programs: The Arizona-Sonora Experience
Water 2011, 3(3), 949-963; doi:10.3390/w3030949
Received: 31 May 2011 / Revised: 31 August 2011 / Accepted: 9 September 2011 / Published: 23 September 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (4020 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Setting water policy depends fundamentally on the location of the supply and demand for water and the legal/institutional framework for water management. Within and across nations, laws and structures for water management decision making vary, often significantly. Recognizing these differences can aid [...] Read more.
Setting water policy depends fundamentally on the location of the supply and demand for water and the legal/institutional framework for water management. Within and across nations, laws and structures for water management decision making vary, often significantly. Recognizing these differences can aid in overcoming challenges inherent to the assessment and management of transboundary waters. This paper examines current binational efforts to develop the scientific information to support water management decision making along the United States-Mexico border. The particular focus is on transboundary aquifers along the border shared by the states of Arizona in the United States and Sonora in Mexico. Legislation enacted in the United States (Public Law 109–448) established a governmental-academic partnership to assess transboundary aquifers. The paper discusses the establishment of a working partnership between Mexico and the United States, which led to an official binational cooperative framework for transboundary assessment. It explains how the extensive effort to recognize and accommodate asymmetries in the underlying legal and regulatory frameworks for water management was essential to meeting the objectives of both countries. The focus of the binational investigations is briefly discussed. The paper concludes by noting the opportunities for additional cross-border scientific and water management collaboration should funding and institutional commitments continue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Policy)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Activated Sludge and Other Aerobic Suspended Culture Processes
Water 2011, 3(3), 806-818; doi:10.3390/w3030806
Received: 30 May 2011 / Revised: 12 June 2011 / Accepted: 17 June 2011 / Published: 16 August 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (181 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A review of the literature published in 2008, 2009 and 2010 relating to activated sludge treatment of wastewater is presented. The review considers information on the topics of modeling and kinetics; process microbiology; nitrogen and phosphorus removal; treatment and effects of xenobiotics; [...] Read more.
A review of the literature published in 2008, 2009 and 2010 relating to activated sludge treatment of wastewater is presented. The review considers information on the topics of modeling and kinetics; process microbiology; nitrogen and phosphorus removal; treatment and effects of xenobiotics; oxygen transfer; and solids separation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Science and Technology of Wastewater and Sludge Treatment)
Open AccessReview Biofilm Fixed Film Systems
Water 2011, 3(3), 843-868; doi:10.3390/w3030843
Received: 31 May 2011 / Revised: 12 July 2011 / Accepted: 31 August 2011 / Published: 9 September 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (297 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The work reviewed here was published between 2008 and 2010 and describes research that involved aerobic and anoxic biofilm treatment of water pollutants. Biofilm denitrification systems are covered when appropriate. References catalogued here are divided on the basis of fundamental research area [...] Read more.
The work reviewed here was published between 2008 and 2010 and describes research that involved aerobic and anoxic biofilm treatment of water pollutants. Biofilm denitrification systems are covered when appropriate. References catalogued here are divided on the basis of fundamental research area or reactor types. Fundamental research into biofilms is presented in two sections, Biofilm Measurement and Characterization and Growth and Modeling. The reactor types covered are: trickling filters, rotating biological contactors, fluidized bed bioreactors, submerged bed biofilm reactors, biological granular activated carbon, membrane bioreactors, and immobilized cell reactors. Innovative reactors, not easily classified, are then presented, followed by a section on biofilms on sand, soil and sediment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Science and Technology of Wastewater and Sludge Treatment)

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