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Risk Assessment of Aluminum in Drinking Water between Two Residential Areas
Environmental and Occupational Health Unit, Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Environmental and Occupational Medicine Unit, Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 May 2011; in revised form: 8 June 2011 / Accepted: 4 July 2011 / Published: 12 September 2011
Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Sungai Lembing (SL) and Bukit Ubi (BU), Kuantan, Malaysia. The main objectives of this epidemiological study were to determine the aluminum concentration in drinking water, to compare with the government standard and to perform health risk assessment prediction among respondents from these two residential areas. A total of 100 respondents were selected from the study areas based on a few inclusive and exclusive criteria. Two duplicates of treated water samples were taken from each respondent's house using a 200 mL high-density polyethylene (HDPE) bottle and 0.4 mL (69%) pure concentrated nitric acid added as preservative. Aluminum concentrations were analyzed using Lambda 25 UV/V spectrophotometer. The result showed that the mean concentration of aluminum in drinking water from SL was 0.11 ± 0.0634 mg/L and 0.12 ± 0.0462 mg/L for BU. The mean value of Chronic Daily Intake (CDI) in SL (0.0035 ± 0.0028 mg/kg/day) was lower compared to BU (0.0037 ± 0.0021 mg/kg/day). The Hazard Index (HI) calculation showed all respondents had HI less than 1. In conclusion, there was unlikely potential for adverse health effects from aluminum intake in drinking water. However, it was necessary for some action to be taken in order to reduce aluminum levels found in drinking water in both locations.
Keywords: aluminum in drinking water; health risk assessment; chronic daily intake (CDI); hazard index (HI); environmental health; environmental hygiene; guideline
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Dzulfakar, M.A.; Shaharuddin, M.S.; Muhaimin, A.A.; Syazwan, A.I. Risk Assessment of Aluminum in Drinking Water between Two Residential Areas. Water 2011, 3, 882-893.
Dzulfakar MA, Shaharuddin MS, Muhaimin AA, Syazwan AI. Risk Assessment of Aluminum in Drinking Water between Two Residential Areas. Water. 2011; 3(3):882-893.
Dzulfakar, Mohd A.; Shaharuddin, Mohd S.; Muhaimin, Abdul A.; Syazwan, Aizat I. 2011. "Risk Assessment of Aluminum in Drinking Water between Two Residential Areas." Water 3, no. 3: 882-893.