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Biofilm Fixed Film Systems
Department of Civil Engineering, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND 58202, USA
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH 44115, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 May 2011; in revised form: 12 July 2011 / Accepted: 31 August 2011 / Published: 9 September 2011
Abstract: The work reviewed here was published between 2008 and 2010 and describes research that involved aerobic and anoxic biofilm treatment of water pollutants. Biofilm denitrification systems are covered when appropriate. References catalogued here are divided on the basis of fundamental research area or reactor types. Fundamental research into biofilms is presented in two sections, Biofilm Measurement and Characterization and Growth and Modeling. The reactor types covered are: trickling filters, rotating biological contactors, fluidized bed bioreactors, submerged bed biofilm reactors, biological granular activated carbon, membrane bioreactors, and immobilized cell reactors. Innovative reactors, not easily classified, are then presented, followed by a section on biofilms on sand, soil and sediment.
Keywords: biofilm; wastewater treatment systems; fixed film models; trickling filters; biotowers; rotating biological contactors; biomembrane processes; submerged fixed film; xenobiotics; nutrient removal; nitrification; denitrification; biological phosphorus removal; extracellular polymeric substances
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Gullicks, H.; Hasan, H.; Das, D.; Moretti, C.; Hung, Y.-T. Biofilm Fixed Film Systems. Water 2011, 3, 843-868.
Gullicks H, Hasan H, Das D, Moretti C, Hung Y-T. Biofilm Fixed Film Systems. Water. 2011; 3(3):843-868.
Gullicks, Harvey; Hasan, Hasibul; Das, Dipesh; Moretti, Charles; Hung, Yung-Tse. 2011. "Biofilm Fixed Film Systems." Water 3, no. 3: 843-868.