Water 2011, 3(3), 843-868; doi:10.3390/w3030843
Review

Biofilm Fixed Film Systems

1,* email, 1email, 1email, 1email and 2email
Received: 31 May 2011; in revised form: 12 July 2011 / Accepted: 31 August 2011 / Published: 9 September 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Science and Technology of Wastewater and Sludge Treatment)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The work reviewed here was published between 2008 and 2010 and describes research that involved aerobic and anoxic biofilm treatment of water pollutants. Biofilm denitrification systems are covered when appropriate. References catalogued here are divided on the basis of fundamental research area or reactor types. Fundamental research into biofilms is presented in two sections, Biofilm Measurement and Characterization and Growth and Modeling. The reactor types covered are: trickling filters, rotating biological contactors, fluidized bed bioreactors, submerged bed biofilm reactors, biological granular activated carbon, membrane bioreactors, and immobilized cell reactors. Innovative reactors, not easily classified, are then presented, followed by a section on biofilms on sand, soil and sediment.
Keywords: biofilm; wastewater treatment systems; fixed film models; trickling filters; biotowers; rotating biological contactors; biomembrane processes; submerged fixed film; xenobiotics; nutrient removal; nitrification; denitrification; biological phosphorus removal; extracellular polymeric substances
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gullicks, H.; Hasan, H.; Das, D.; Moretti, C.; Hung, Y.-T. Biofilm Fixed Film Systems. Water 2011, 3, 843-868.

AMA Style

Gullicks H, Hasan H, Das D, Moretti C, Hung Y-T. Biofilm Fixed Film Systems. Water. 2011; 3(3):843-868.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gullicks, Harvey; Hasan, Hasibul; Das, Dipesh; Moretti, Charles; Hung, Yung-Tse. 2011. "Biofilm Fixed Film Systems." Water 3, no. 3: 843-868.

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