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Catalysts, Volume 7, Issue 7 (July 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Conversion of carbohydrates to furanic derivatives is of prime interest for many applications. In [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Evaluation of Ni Catalysts Supported on BaCe0.5Zr0.3−xY0.2NixO3−δ with Fused-Aggregate Network Structure for the Hydrogen Electrode of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell
Catalysts 2017, 7(7), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal7070223
Received: 16 June 2017 / Revised: 14 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 24 July 2017
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Abstract
Nickel nanoparticles loaded on the electron–proton mixed conductor BaCe0.5Zr0.3−xY0.2NixO3−δ (Ni/BCZYN, x = 0 and 0.03) were synthesized for use in the hydrogen electrode of a proton-conducting solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC). The Ni nanoparticles,
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Nickel nanoparticles loaded on the electron–proton mixed conductor BaCe0.5Zr0.3−xY0.2NixO3−δ (Ni/BCZYN, x = 0 and 0.03) were synthesized for use in the hydrogen electrode of a proton-conducting solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC). The Ni nanoparticles, synthesized by an impregnation method, were from 45.8 nm to 84.1 nm in diameter, and were highly dispersed on the BCZYN. The BCZYN nanoparticles, fabricated by the flame oxide synthesis method, constructed a unique microstructure, the so-called “fused-aggregate network structure”. The BCZYN nanoparticles have capability of constructing a scaffold for the hydrogen electrode with both electronically conducting pathways and gas diffusion pathways. The catalytic activity on Ni/BCZYN (x = 0 and 0.03) catalyst layers (CLs) improved with the circumference length of the Ni nanoparticles. Moreover, the catalytic activity on the Ni/BCZYN (x = 0.03) CL was higher than that of the Ni/BCZYN (x = 0) CL. BCZYN (x = 0.03) possesses higher electronic conductivity than BCZYN (x = 0) due to the Ni doping, resulting in an enlarged effective reaction zone (ERZ). We conclude that the proton reduction reaction in the ERZ was the rate-determining step on the hydrogen electrode, and the reaction was enhanced by improving the electronic conductivity of the electron–proton mixed conductor BCZYN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Materials for Applications in Heterogeneous Catalysis)
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Open AccessArticle Solvent-Free Microwave-Induced Oxidation of Alcohols Catalyzed by Ferrite Magnetic Nanoparticles
Catalysts 2017, 7(7), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal7070222
Received: 28 June 2017 / Revised: 16 July 2017 / Accepted: 16 July 2017 / Published: 24 July 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (5108 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A series of first-row-transition-metal ferrite magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) MFe2O4 [M = Mn2+ (1), Fe2+ (2), Co2+ (3), Ni2+ (4), Cu2+ (5) or Zn2+ (
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A series of first-row-transition-metal ferrite magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) MFe2O4 [M = Mn2+ (1), Fe2+ (2), Co2+ (3), Ni2+ (4), Cu2+ (5) or Zn2+ (6)] were prepared by the co-precipitation method and characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope - energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Those NPs were used as catalysts for the microwave-assisted oxidation of various alcohols in solvent-free medium. MnFe2O4 (1), CoFe2O4 (3) and CuFe2O4 (5) act as catalysts for the conversion of alcohols to the corresponding ketones or aldehydes with a yield range of 81 to 94% in 2 h at 120 °C using t-BuOOH as an oxidant. These catalysts can be readily isolated by using an external magnet and no significant loss of activity is observed when reused up to 10 consecutive runs. The effects of some parameters, such as temperature, time, type of oxidant and presence of organic radicals, on the oxidation reactions were also investigated. The presented literature overview highlights the advantages of our new 16 NPs catalytic systems in terms of efficiency and economy, mainly due the used microwave (MW) heating mode. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanocatalysts)
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Open AccessArticle Conversion of Cellulose to Lactic Acid by Using ZrO2–Al2O3 Catalysts
Catalysts 2017, 7(7), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal7070221
Received: 26 June 2017 / Revised: 19 July 2017 / Accepted: 19 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
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Abstract
Lactic acid has a wide range of applications in many industries, both as an ingredient and as an intermediate. Here, we investigated the catalytic conversion of cellulose to lactic acid by using heterogeneous mixed-oxide catalysts containing ZrO2. Although pure ZrO2
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Lactic acid has a wide range of applications in many industries, both as an ingredient and as an intermediate. Here, we investigated the catalytic conversion of cellulose to lactic acid by using heterogeneous mixed-oxide catalysts containing ZrO2. Although pure ZrO2 has catalytic activity for the conversion of cellulose to lactic acid, the yield of lactic acid obtained is not satisfactory. In contrast, a series of ZrO2–Al2O3 catalysts containing various percentages of ZrO2 provided higher yields of lactic acid. The ZrO2–Al2O3 catalysts had more Lewis acid sites and far fewer base sites than ZrO2. This suggests that the Lewis acid sites on ZrO2–Al2O3 catalysts are more important than the base sites for the conversion of cellulose to lactic acid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalysis of Biomass-Derived Molecules)
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Open AccessArticle Electroreduction of CO2 into Ethanol over an Active Catalyst: Copper Supported on Titania
Catalysts 2017, 7(7), 220; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal7070220
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 15 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 20 July 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2722 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A simple, inexpensive, and novel method was used to prepare electrocatalysts from Cu supported on titanium dioxide (Cu/TiO2). XRD, SEM, and TEM characterizations confirmed different loadings of Cu nanoparticles (NPs) on TiO2. Cyclic voltammetry tests indicated that Cu/TiO2
[...] Read more.
A simple, inexpensive, and novel method was used to prepare electrocatalysts from Cu supported on titanium dioxide (Cu/TiO2). XRD, SEM, and TEM characterizations confirmed different loadings of Cu nanoparticles (NPs) on TiO2. Cyclic voltammetry tests indicated that Cu/TiO2 exhibited lower overpotential for CO2 reduction than that of Cu NPs. Moreover, 40 wt % Cu/TiO2 exhibited the highest faradaic efficiency for ethanol (FEethanol) of 27.4%, which is approximately 10-fold higher than that for Cu NPs (FEethanol = 2.7%). The 40 wt % Cu/TiO2 electrocatalyst exhibits a stable current density of 8.66 mA/cm2 over a 25 h stability test. The high efficiency towards CO2 electroreduction to ethanol may be attributed to the synergistic effect of Cu and TiO2 NPs. This work highlights the importance of compositional effect of NPs on their catalytic activities and provides a strategy for designing efficient catalysts for CO2 electroreduction in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Electrocatalysis)
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Open AccessArticle Recyclable Fe3O4 Nanoparticles Catalysts for Aza-Michael Addition of Acryl Amides by Magnetic Field
Catalysts 2017, 7(7), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal7070219
Received: 20 June 2017 / Revised: 11 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 20 July 2017
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Abstract
A nanostructure-based catalytic system has the advantages of both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. It is of great significance to develop the sustainable and green process of homogeneous catalytic reaction. We report a novel, efficient and recyclable magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles-catalyzed aza-Michael
[...] Read more.
A nanostructure-based catalytic system has the advantages of both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. It is of great significance to develop the sustainable and green process of homogeneous catalytic reaction. We report a novel, efficient and recyclable magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles-catalyzed aza-Michael addition reaction of acryl amides, and the magnetic nanoparticles catalysts can be recovered by external magnetic field. Both primary amine and secondary amine can react with various acryl amides providing a good output to target products successfully at room temperature. Further experiments reveal that the magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles-based catalyst shows excellent yields, which can be recycled 10 times, and, at the same time, it maintains a high catalytically activity. In this catalytic system, the tedious separation procedures are replaced by external magnetic field, which gives us a different direction for choosing a catalyst in a nanostructure-based catalytic system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanocatalysts)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrates to Furanic Derivatives in the Presence of Choline Chloride
Catalysts 2017, 7(7), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal7070218
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 12 July 2017 / Accepted: 13 July 2017 / Published: 20 July 2017
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Abstract
The synthesis of furanic derivatives (5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), furfural…) from carbohydrates is of high interest for a wide range of applications. These reactions are carried out in the presence of various solvents, and among them choline chloride can be used. It is a salt
[...] Read more.
The synthesis of furanic derivatives (5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), furfural…) from carbohydrates is of high interest for a wide range of applications. These reactions are carried out in the presence of various solvents, and among them choline chloride can be used. It is a salt that can form a low melting mixture with a carbohydrate (fructose, glucose…) or a deep eutectic mixture with carboxylic acid. A review of the studies performed in the conversion of carbohydrates to furanic derivatives in the presence of choline chloride is presented here with the advantages and drawbacks of this solvent. Choline chloride can enhance the selectivity to HMF by stabilizing effect and allows the conversion of highly concentrated feed. However, the extraction of the products from these solvents still needs improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalysis in Innovative Solvents)
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Open AccessArticle Co-Immobilization of Superoxide Dismutase with Catalase on Soft Microparticles Formed by Self-Assembly of Amphiphilic Poly(Aspartic Acid)
Catalysts 2017, 7(7), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal7070217
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 12 July 2017 / Accepted: 17 July 2017 / Published: 19 July 2017
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Abstract
Through genetic engineering technology, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) have been separately fused to an elastin-like polypeptide (ELP). Thus, the enzymes can be purified through phase transition. Hexadecylamine-modified poly(aspartic acid) (HPASP) is able to self-assemble, forming soft microparticles. The HPASP microparticles were
[...] Read more.
Through genetic engineering technology, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) have been separately fused to an elastin-like polypeptide (ELP). Thus, the enzymes can be purified through phase transition. Hexadecylamine-modified poly(aspartic acid) (HPASP) is able to self-assemble, forming soft microparticles. The HPASP microparticles were used to co-immobilize SOD-ELP and CAT-ELP through amidation reaction. Circular dichroism (CD) confirmed that the secondary structures of the co-immobilized enzymes have been preserved. Fluorescence spectra showed that the co-immobilized enzymes exhibited a higher stability than the free enzymes. Dismutation of superoxide by superoxide dismutase (SOD) generates hydrogen peroxide. By using the co-immobilized enzymes (SOD-ELP/CAT-ELP@HPASP), the generated hydrogen peroxide of SOD-ELP can be decomposed in situ by CAT-ELP. Activity assay results demonstrated that the superoxide anion (•O2) scavenging ability is 63.15 ± 0.75% for SOD-ELP/CAT-ELP@HPASP. The advantages of the approach of enzyme co-immobilization include the fact that the soft support HPASP itself is a polypeptide in nature, the stability of immobilized enzymes is improved, and a high activity has been achieved. Potentially SOD-ELP/CAT-ELP@HPASP can be applied in the cosmetic industry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Highly ordered Nanomaterial Functionalized Copper Schiff Base Framework: Synthesis, Characterization, and Hydrogen Peroxide Decomposition Performance
Catalysts 2017, 7(7), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal7070216
Received: 7 June 2017 / Revised: 11 July 2017 / Accepted: 12 July 2017 / Published: 19 July 2017
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Abstract
An immobilized copper Schiff base tridentate complex was prepared in three steps from SBA-15 supports. The immobilized copper nanocatalyst (heterogeneous catalyst) was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), cross polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS), 13-carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR), atomic
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An immobilized copper Schiff base tridentate complex was prepared in three steps from SBA-15 supports. The immobilized copper nanocatalyst (heterogeneous catalyst) was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), cross polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS), 13-carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and N2-physisorption. Moreover, morphological and structural features of the immobilized nanocatalyst were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray powder diffraction spectrometry (PXRD). After characterizing the nanocatalyst, the catalytic activity was determined in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) decomposition. The high decomposition yield of H2O2 was obtained for low-loaded copper content materials at pH 7 and at room temperature. Furthermore, the nanocatalyst exhibited high activity and stability under the investigated conditions, and could be recovered and reused for at least five consecutive times without any significant loss in activity. No copper leaching was detected during the reaction by AAS measurements. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Mo(VI) Complexes Immobilized on SBA-15 as an Efficient Catalyst for 1-Octene Epoxidation
Catalysts 2017, 7(7), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal7070215
Received: 13 June 2017 / Revised: 8 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 18 July 2017
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Abstract
SBA-15 materials were functionalized through a post-synthetic methodology with molybdenum-Schiff bases to provide catalytic activity in epoxidation reactions. Thus, glycidoxypropyl functionalities were first attached to the surface of the mesostructured silica, followed by the reaction of the immobilized oxirane groups with 2-amino propyl
[...] Read more.
SBA-15 materials were functionalized through a post-synthetic methodology with molybdenum-Schiff bases to provide catalytic activity in epoxidation reactions. Thus, glycidoxypropyl functionalities were first attached to the surface of the mesostructured silica, followed by the reaction of the immobilized oxirane groups with 2-amino propyl pyridine. This reaction allowed the obtaining of (hydroxypropyl)-2-aminomethyl pyridine ligands, directly tethered to the surface of the mesoporous silica-based SBA-15, which resulted in excellent chelating ligands to immobilize dioxo molydenum species by a reaction with MoO2(acac)2. This investigation comprises a thorough characterization of the process for building the immobilized molybdenum-Schiff base complexes, as well as the use of the obtained materials in 1-octene oxidation in the presence of organic hydroperoxides. These materials displayed high intrinsic catalytic activity in the epoxidation of 1-octene with organic hydroperoxides under a wide variety of conditions, although both the reaction solvent as well as the nature of the organic hydroperoxide, exerted a dramatic influence on the catalytic activity of these heterogeneous oxidation catalysts. Thus, whereas nonpolar solvents provided good epoxide yields with high efficiency in the use of the oxidant, polar solvents depressed the catalytic activity of the supported Mo-Schiff bases. These results have been ascribed to the competition with the solvent, when polar, for binding to the metal sites, thus avoiding the formation of the hydroperoxo-metal cycle and the epoxidation of the olefin. The catalysts presented here show good reusability with low catalytic activity decay after the first reuse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mesostructured Materials and Their Catalytic Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Sulfur-Doped TiO2: Structure and Surface Properties
Catalysts 2017, 7(7), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal7070214
Received: 29 May 2017 / Revised: 30 June 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 18 July 2017
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Abstract
A comprehensive study on the sulfur doping of TiO2, by means of H2S treatment at 673 K, has been performed in order to highlight the role of sulfur in affecting the properties of the system, as compared to the
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A comprehensive study on the sulfur doping of TiO2, by means of H2S treatment at 673 K, has been performed in order to highlight the role of sulfur in affecting the properties of the system, as compared to the native TiO2. The focus of this study is to find a relationship among the surface, structure, and morphology properties, by means of a detailed chemical and physical characterization of the samples. In particular, transmission electron microscopy images provide a simple tool to have a direct and immediate evidence of the effects of H2S action on the TiO2 particles structure and surface defects. Furthermore, from spectroscopy analyses, the peculiar surface, optical properties, and methylene blue photodegradation test of S-doped TiO2 samples, as compared to pure TiO2, have been investigated and explained by the effects caused by the exchange of S species with O species and by the surface defects induced by the strong H2S treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysis)
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Open AccessArticle Pure and Fe-Doped Mesoporous Titania Catalyse the Oxidation of Acid Orange 7 by H2O2 under Different Illumination Conditions: Fe Doping Improves Photocatalytic Activity under Simulated Solar Light
Catalysts 2017, 7(7), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal7070213
Received: 5 May 2017 / Revised: 11 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 18 July 2017
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Abstract
A sample of mesoporous TiO2 (MT, specific surface area = 150 m2·g−1) and two samples of MT containing 2.5 wt.% Fe were prepared by either direct synthesis doping (Fe2.5-MTd) or impregnation (Fe2.5-MTi). Commercial TiO2 (Degussa P25, specific
[...] Read more.
A sample of mesoporous TiO2 (MT, specific surface area = 150 m2·g−1) and two samples of MT containing 2.5 wt.% Fe were prepared by either direct synthesis doping (Fe2.5-MTd) or impregnation (Fe2.5-MTi). Commercial TiO2 (Degussa P25, specific surface area = 56 m2 g−1) was used both as a benchmark and as a support for impregnation with either 0.8 or 2.5 wt.% Fe (Fe0.80-IT and Fe2.5-IT). The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 isotherms at −196 °C, Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) Spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Diffuse Reflectance (DR) ultra-violet (UV)-Vis and Mössbauer spectroscopies. Degradation of Acid Orange 7 (AO7) by H2O2 was the test reaction: effects of dark-conditions versus both UV and simulated solar light irradiation were considered. In dark conditions, AO7 conversion was higher with MT than with Degussa P25, whereas Fe-containing samples were active in a (slow) Fenton-like reaction. Under UV light, MT was as active as Degussa P25, and Fe doping enhanced the photocatalytic activity of Fe2.5-MTd; Fe-impregnated samples were also active, likely due to the occurrence of a photo-Fenton process. Interestingly, the Fe2.5-MTd sample showed the best performance under solar light, confirming the positive effect of Fe doping by direct synthesis with respect to impregnation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mesostructured Materials and Their Catalytic Applications)
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Open AccessReview In Silico Studies of Small Molecule Interactions with Enzymes Reveal Aspects of Catalytic Function
Catalysts 2017, 7(7), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal7070212
Received: 20 May 2017 / Revised: 7 July 2017 / Accepted: 10 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
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Abstract
Small molecules, such as solvent, substrate, and cofactor molecules, are key players in enzyme catalysis. Computational methods are powerful tools for exploring the dynamics and thermodynamics of these small molecules as they participate in or contribute to enzymatic processes. In-depth knowledge of how
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Small molecules, such as solvent, substrate, and cofactor molecules, are key players in enzyme catalysis. Computational methods are powerful tools for exploring the dynamics and thermodynamics of these small molecules as they participate in or contribute to enzymatic processes. In-depth knowledge of how small molecule interactions and dynamics influence protein conformational dynamics and function is critical for progress in the field of enzyme catalysis. Although numerous computational studies have focused on enzyme–substrate complexes to gain insight into catalytic mechanisms, transition states and reaction rates, the dynamics of solvents, substrates, and cofactors are generally less well studied. Also, solvent dynamics within the biomolecular solvation layer play an important part in enzyme catalysis, but a full understanding of its role is hampered by its complexity. Moreover, passive substrate transport has been identified in certain enzymes, and the underlying principles of molecular recognition are an area of active investigation. Enzymes are highly dynamic entities that undergo different conformational changes, which range from side chain rearrangement of a residue to larger-scale conformational dynamics involving domains. These events may happen nearby or far away from the catalytic site, and may occur on different time scales, yet many are related to biological and catalytic function. Computational studies, primarily molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, provide atomistic-level insight and site-specific information on small molecule interactions, and their role in conformational pre-reorganization and dynamics in enzyme catalysis. The review is focused on MD simulation studies of small molecule interactions and dynamics to characterize and comprehend protein dynamics and function in catalyzed reactions. Experimental and theoretical methods available to complement and expand insight from MD simulations are discussed briefly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Methods and Their Application in Catalysis)
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Open AccessArticle Arenesulfonic Acid-Functionalized Bentonite as Catalyst in Glycerol Esterification with Acetic Acid
Catalysts 2017, 7(7), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal7070211
Received: 13 May 2017 / Revised: 28 June 2017 / Accepted: 3 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
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Abstract
The present study is focused on the synthesis of arenesulfonic acid-functionalized bentonite as a catalyst to produce monoacetin, diacetin, and triacetin from glycerol and acetic acid using toluene as solvent and a water removing agent. The best conditions for the present reaction with
[...] Read more.
The present study is focused on the synthesis of arenesulfonic acid-functionalized bentonite as a catalyst to produce monoacetin, diacetin, and triacetin from glycerol and acetic acid using toluene as solvent and a water removing agent. The best conditions for the present reaction with acetic acid were an acetic acid:glycerol:toluene molar ratio of 7:1:1.4, 100 °C, and 0.074 wt % of catalyst (based on the total weight of glycerol). Under the reaction conditions, 96% glycerol conversion was achieved within 0.5 h from the start of the reaction. The maximum selectivity of 66% and 74% were achieved for diacetin and triacetin after 0.5 and 3 h of reaction, respectively, without formation of any byproduct. The arenesulfonic acid-functionalized bentonite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, N2 adsorption/desorption experiments (Brunauer, Emmett and Teller, BET, method), field emission scanning electron microscopy, and the surface acidity was determined by back titration. Without significant treatment, the catalyst was reusable for 5 consecutive runs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glycerol Conversion by Heterogeneous Catalysis)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Solventless Coupling of Epoxides and CO2 in Compressed Medium Catalysed by Fluorinated Metalloporphyrins
Catalysts 2017, 7(7), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal7070210
Received: 22 June 2017 / Revised: 22 June 2017 / Accepted: 7 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
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Abstract
Metal complexes of meso-arylporphyrins (Cr(III), Fe(III), and Zn(II)) were evaluated in the coupling reaction of cyclohexene oxide (CHO) with CO2 in compressed medium, where the Cr complexes were demonstrated to be the most active systems, leading predominantly to copolymerisation products. It
[...] Read more.
Metal complexes of meso-arylporphyrins (Cr(III), Fe(III), and Zn(II)) were evaluated in the coupling reaction of cyclohexene oxide (CHO) with CO2 in compressed medium, where the Cr complexes were demonstrated to be the most active systems, leading predominantly to copolymerisation products. It is noteworthy that no addition of solvent was required. To improve the catalytic activity, and to simultaneously increase the solubility in compressed CO2, a new fluorinated catalyst, tetrakis(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)porphyrinatochromium(III) chloride (CrCl-pCF3TPP), was applied to this reaction. The alternating copolymerisation of CHO with CO2, using the Cr(III) fluorinated porphyrin catalyst, required the use of a co-catalyst, bis(triphenylphosphine)iminium chloride (PPNCl), with the best yields of copolymers being obtained at 80 °C, and CO2 pressures in the range of 50–110 bar, over a period of 24 h, with a low catalyst/substrate molar ratio (0.07%). The polycarbonate’s structure was analysed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and MALDI-TOF spectroscopy, which demonstrated high carbonate incorporations (98–99%). Gel permeation chromatography revealed number-average molecular weights (Mn) in the range of 4800–12,800 and narrow molecular weight distributions (Mw/Mn ≤ 1.63). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalysis in Innovative Solvents)
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Open AccessArticle Low-Temperature Synthesis of Anatase/Rutile/Brookite TiO2 Nanoparticles on a Polymer Membrane for Photocatalysis
Catalysts 2017, 7(7), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal7070209
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 28 June 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 10 July 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1806 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Removing pollutants from water by using the photocatalyst TiO2 is a highly-promising method. A large amount of work has been done to increase the activity of TiO2, whereas the main two findings are increasing the surface area and applying mixed
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Removing pollutants from water by using the photocatalyst TiO2 is a highly-promising method. A large amount of work has been done to increase the activity of TiO2, whereas the main two findings are increasing the surface area and applying mixed phase modifications (anatase, brookite, and rutile). Here, we present a method to directly synthesize non-agglomerated TiO2 nanoparticles with different crystal phase ratios via low temperature dissolution-precipitation (LTDRP) on a porous microfiltration membrane (polyethersulfone). The amount of hydrochloric acid and the temperature was varied between 0.1–1 M and 25–130 °C, respectively, while the concentration of titanium precursor (titanium(IV) isopropoxide) was kept unchanged. The TiO2 nanoparticles and the membrane were thoroughly characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), measuring the water contact angle and permeation flux, and examining the degradation of methylene blue. The mixed phase anatase/brookite with a main component being anatase exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity in removing methylene blue. Higher synthesis temperature induces enhanced crystallinity and, subsequently, the degradation rate of methylene blue was improved. Additionally, the photocatalytic activity remains high and unchanged for up to nine repeated cycles, i.e., full recovery of the photocatalytic properties is sustained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalysis in Membrane Reactors)
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