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Catalysts 2017, 7(7), 209; doi:10.3390/catal7070209

Low-Temperature Synthesis of Anatase/Rutile/Brookite TiO2 Nanoparticles on a Polymer Membrane for Photocatalysis

1
Leibniz-Institute of Surface Modification, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig, Germany
2
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 28 June 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 10 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalysis in Membrane Reactors)
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Abstract

Removing pollutants from water by using the photocatalyst TiO2 is a highly-promising method. A large amount of work has been done to increase the activity of TiO2, whereas the main two findings are increasing the surface area and applying mixed phase modifications (anatase, brookite, and rutile). Here, we present a method to directly synthesize non-agglomerated TiO2 nanoparticles with different crystal phase ratios via low temperature dissolution-precipitation (LTDRP) on a porous microfiltration membrane (polyethersulfone). The amount of hydrochloric acid and the temperature was varied between 0.1–1 M and 25–130 °C, respectively, while the concentration of titanium precursor (titanium(IV) isopropoxide) was kept unchanged. The TiO2 nanoparticles and the membrane were thoroughly characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), measuring the water contact angle and permeation flux, and examining the degradation of methylene blue. The mixed phase anatase/brookite with a main component being anatase exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity in removing methylene blue. Higher synthesis temperature induces enhanced crystallinity and, subsequently, the degradation rate of methylene blue was improved. Additionally, the photocatalytic activity remains high and unchanged for up to nine repeated cycles, i.e., full recovery of the photocatalytic properties is sustained. View Full-Text
Keywords: TiO2 nanoparticles; photocatalysis; mixed phase; membrane reactor TiO2 nanoparticles; photocatalysis; mixed phase; membrane reactor
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Fischer, K.; Gawel, A.; Rosen, D.; Krause, M.; Abdul Latif, A.; Griebel, J.; Prager, A.; Schulze, A. Low-Temperature Synthesis of Anatase/Rutile/Brookite TiO2 Nanoparticles on a Polymer Membrane for Photocatalysis. Catalysts 2017, 7, 209.

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