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Cancers, Volume 5, Issue 2 (June 2013), Pages 320-738

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Global Decrease of Histone H3K27 Acetylation in ZEB1-Induced Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Lung Cancer Cells
Cancers 2013, 5(2), 334-356; doi:10.3390/cancers5020334
Received: 5 February 2013 / Revised: 23 March 2013 / Accepted: 26 March 2013 / Published: 3 April 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1358 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) enables epithelial cells with a migratory mesenchymal phenotype. It is activated in cancer cells and is involved in invasion, metastasis and stem-like properties. ZEB1, an E-box binding transcription factor, is a major suppressor of epithelial genes [...] Read more.
The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) enables epithelial cells with a migratory mesenchymal phenotype. It is activated in cancer cells and is involved in invasion, metastasis and stem-like properties. ZEB1, an E-box binding transcription factor, is a major suppressor of epithelial genes in lung cancer. In the present study, we show that in H358 non-small cell lung cancer cells, ZEB1 downregulates EpCAM (coding for an epithelial cell adhesion molecule), ESRP1 (epithelial splicing regulatory protein), ST14 (a membrane associated serine protease involved in HGF processing) and RAB25 (a small G-protein) by direct binding to these genes. Following ZEB1 induction, acetylation of histone H4 and histone H3 on lysine 9 (H3K9) and 27 (H3K27) was decreased on ZEB1 binding sites on these genes as demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Of note, decreased H3K27 acetylation could be also detected by western blot and immunocytochemistry in ZEB1 induced cells. In lung cancers, H3K27 acetylation level was higher in the tumor compartment than in the corresponding stroma where ZEB1 was more often expressed. Since HDAC and DNA methylation inhibitors increased expression of ZEB1 target genes, targeting these epigenetic modifications would be expected to reduce metastasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Epigenetics)
Open AccessArticle Glioma Surgical Aspirate: A Viable Source of Tumor Tissue for Experimental Research
Cancers 2013, 5(2), 357-371; doi:10.3390/cancers5020357
Received: 18 February 2013 / Revised: 18 March 2013 / Accepted: 22 March 2013 / Published: 3 April 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1300 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Brain cancer research has been hampered by a paucity of viable clinical tissue of sufficient quality and quantity for experimental research. This has driven researchers to rely heavily on long term cultured cells which no longer represent the cancers from which they [...] Read more.
Brain cancer research has been hampered by a paucity of viable clinical tissue of sufficient quality and quantity for experimental research. This has driven researchers to rely heavily on long term cultured cells which no longer represent the cancers from which they were derived. Resection of brain tumors, particularly at the interface between normal and tumorigenic tissue, can be carried out using an ultrasonic surgical aspirator (CUSA) that deposits liquid (blood and irrigation fluid) and resected tissue into a sterile bottle for disposal. To determine the utility of CUSA-derived glioma tissue for experimental research, we collected 48 CUSA specimen bottles from glioma patients and analyzed both the solid tissue fragments and dissociated tumor cells suspended in the liquid waste fraction. We investigated if these fractions would be useful for analyzing tumor heterogeneity, using IHC and multi-parameter flow cytometry; we also assessed culture generation and orthotopic xenograft potential. Both cell sources proved to be an abundant, highly viable source of live tumor cells for cytometric analysis, animal studies and in-vitro studies. Our findings demonstrate that CUSA tissue represents an abundant viable source to conduct experimental research and to carry out diagnostic analyses by flow cytometry or other molecular diagnostic procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glioblastoma)
Open AccessArticle Protein Kinase C Epsilon and Genetic Networks in Osteosarcoma Metastasis
Cancers 2013, 5(2), 372-403; doi:10.3390/cancers5020372
Received: 16 February 2013 / Revised: 22 March 2013 / Accepted: 26 March 2013 / Published: 8 April 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1254 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant tumor of the bone, and pulmonary metastasis is the most frequent cause of OS mortality. The aim of this study was to discover and characterize genetic networks differentially expressed in metastatic OS. Expression profiling [...] Read more.
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant tumor of the bone, and pulmonary metastasis is the most frequent cause of OS mortality. The aim of this study was to discover and characterize genetic networks differentially expressed in metastatic OS. Expression profiling of OS tumors, and subsequent supervised network analysis, was performed to discover genetic networks differentially activated or organized in metastatic OS compared to localized OS. Broad trends among the profiles of metastatic tumors include aberrant activity of intracellular organization and translation networks, as well as disorganization of metabolic networks. The differentially activated PRKCε-RASGRP3-GNB2 network, which interacts with the disorganized DLG2 hub, was also found to be differentially expressed among OS cell lines with differing metastatic capacity in xenograft models. PRKCε transcript was more abundant in some metastatic OS tumors; however the difference was not significant overall. In functional studies, PRKCε was not found to be involved in migration of M132 OS cells, but its protein expression was induced in M112 OS cells following IGF-1 stimulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Ex Vivo Behaviour of Human Bone Tumor Endothelial Cells
Cancers 2013, 5(2), 404-417; doi:10.3390/cancers5020404
Received: 19 February 2013 / Revised: 19 March 2013 / Accepted: 3 April 2013 / Published: 11 April 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (907 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cooperation between endothelial cells and bone in bone remodelling is well established. In contrast, bone microvasculature supporting the growth of primary tumors and metastasis is poorly understood. Several antiangiogenic agents have recently been undergoing trials, although an extensive body of clinical data [...] Read more.
Cooperation between endothelial cells and bone in bone remodelling is well established. In contrast, bone microvasculature supporting the growth of primary tumors and metastasis is poorly understood. Several antiangiogenic agents have recently been undergoing trials, although an extensive body of clinical data and experimental research have proved that angiogenic pathways differ in each tumor type and stage. Here, for the first time, we characterize at the molecular and functional level tumor endothelial cells from human bone sarcomas at different stages of disease and with different histotypes. We selected a CD31+ subpopulation from biopsies that displayed the capability to grow as adherent cell lines without vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Our findings show the existence in human primary bone sarcomas of highly proliferative endothelial cells expressing CD31, CD44, CD105, CD146 and CD90 markers. These cells are committed to develop capillary-like structures and colony formation units, and to produce nitric oxide. We believe that a better understanding of tumor vasculature could be a valid tool for the design of an efficacious antiangiogenic therapy as adjuvant treatment of sarcomas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle A Phase I Study of the Combination of Temsirolimus with Irinotecan for Metastatic Sarcoma
Cancers 2013, 5(2), 418-429; doi:10.3390/cancers5020418
Received: 16 February 2013 / Revised: 25 March 2013 / Accepted: 6 April 2013 / Published: 11 April 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (521 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
mTOR inhibitors are emerging as important anti-neoplastic agents with a wide range of clinical applications. The topoisomerase I inhibitor irinotecan is a potent DNA damaging drug, with a broad spectrum of anticancer activities. mTOR appears to enhance cancer cell survival following DNA [...] Read more.
mTOR inhibitors are emerging as important anti-neoplastic agents with a wide range of clinical applications. The topoisomerase I inhibitor irinotecan is a potent DNA damaging drug, with a broad spectrum of anticancer activities. mTOR appears to enhance cancer cell survival following DNA damage, thus the inhibition of mTOR after irinotecan could theoretically show synergistic activities in patients. Both mTOR inhibitors and irinotecan have been used as single agents in soft tissue sarcomas with limited efficacy. We completed a phase I trial of the combination of the mTOR inhibitor, temsirolimus, and irinotecan in patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma. Seventeen patients were recruited. The Phase II recommended dose is 20 mg of temsirolimus and 80 mg/m2 of irinotecan administered on weekly basis for three out of four weeks. Most frequently encountered toxicities include cytopenias, fatigue, and gastrointestinal toxicities. Two patients (one with leiomyosarcoma and one with high grade undifferentiated sarcoma) had stable disease for more than 12 months. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Metabolomic Dynamic Analysis of Hypoxia in MDA-MB-231 and the Comparison with Inferred Metabolites from Transcriptomics Data
Cancers 2013, 5(2), 491-510; doi:10.3390/cancers5020491
Received: 12 April 2013 / Revised: 24 April 2013 / Accepted: 24 April 2013 / Published: 3 May 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1122 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Hypoxia affects the tumor microenvironment and is considered important to metastasis progression and therapy resistance. Thus far, the majority of global analyses of tumor hypoxia responses have been limited to just a single omics level. Combining multiple omics data can broaden our [...] Read more.
Hypoxia affects the tumor microenvironment and is considered important to metastasis progression and therapy resistance. Thus far, the majority of global analyses of tumor hypoxia responses have been limited to just a single omics level. Combining multiple omics data can broaden our understanding of tumor hypoxia. Here, we investigate the temporal change of the metabolite composition with gene expression data from literature to provide a more comprehensive insight into the system level in response to hypoxia. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to perform metabolomic profiling on the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line under hypoxic conditions. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that the metabolic difference between hypoxia and normoxia was similar over 24 h, but became distinct over 48 h. Time dependent microarray data from the same cell line in the literature displayed different gene expressions under hypoxic and normoxic conditions mostly at 12 h or earlier. The direct metabolomic profiles show a large overlap with theoretical metabolic profiles deduced from previous transcriptomic studies. Consistent pathways are glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, pyruvate, purine and arginine and proline metabolism. Ten metabolic pathways revealed by metabolomics were not covered by the downstream of the known transcriptomic profiles, suggesting new metabolic phenotypes. These results confirm previous transcriptomics understanding and expand the knowledge from existing models on correlation and co-regulation between transcriptomic and metabolomics profiles, which demonstrates the power of integrated omics analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Metabolism)
Open AccessArticle The Lack of Predictors for Rapid Progression in Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Sipuleucel-T
Cancers 2013, 5(2), 511-518; doi:10.3390/cancers5020511
Received: 19 March 2013 / Revised: 19 March 2013 / Accepted: 22 April 2013 / Published: 6 May 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (154 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sipuleucel-T is an immunotherapy indicated for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. It offers a new mechanism to treat prostate cancer without the side effects of hormone therapies and chemotherapies. In previous studies sipuleucel-T did not delay disease progression, but demonstrated an [...] Read more.
Sipuleucel-T is an immunotherapy indicated for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. It offers a new mechanism to treat prostate cancer without the side effects of hormone therapies and chemotherapies. In previous studies sipuleucel-T did not delay disease progression, but demonstrated an overall survival benefit compared to placebo. While clinical trials have evaluated the effects of sipuleucel-T on overall survival and progression, more studies are needed to evaluate its effectiveness and role in the management of prostate cancer. The objective of this study is to identify the incidence and possible predictors for disease progression in patients receiving sipuleucel-T. A retrospective review of patients who received sipuleucel-T between 1 September 2010 and 11 October 2011 was conducted (n = 36). Patients who changed therapy or died within 120 days were classified as experiencing rapid progression. Potential predictors of rapid progression were examined using logistic regression. Seven patients met criteria for rapid progression. Progression occurred in 72.2% of all patients. The median days to progression was 158. No significant predictors of rapid progression were identified. Currently no predictors have been found to be associated with rapid progression in prostate cancer patients on sipuleucel-T. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Responses to Human Prostate Cancer)
Open AccessArticle Osteopontin and MMP9: Associations with VEGF Expression/Secretion and Angiogenesis in PC3 Prostate Cancer Cells
Cancers 2013, 5(2), 617-638; doi:10.3390/cancers5020617
Received: 4 March 2013 / Revised: 14 April 2013 / Accepted: 15 May 2013 / Published: 27 May 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1715 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Osteopontin and MMP9 are implicated in angiogenesis and cancer progression. The objective of this study is to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying angiogenesis, and to elucidate the role of osteopontin in this process. We report here that osteopontin/αvβ3 signaling pathway [...] Read more.
Osteopontin and MMP9 are implicated in angiogenesis and cancer progression. The objective of this study is to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying angiogenesis, and to elucidate the role of osteopontin in this process. We report here that osteopontin/αvβ3 signaling pathway which involves ERK1/2 phosphorylation regulates the expression of VEGF. An inhibitor to MEK or curcumin significantly suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and expression of VEGF. MMP9 knockdown reduces the secretion but not the expression of VEGF. Moreover, MMP9 knockdown increases the release of angiostatin, a key protein that suppresses angiogenesis. Conditioned media from PC3 cells treated with curcumin or MEK inhibitor inhibited tube formation in vitro in human microvascular endothelial cells. Similar inhibitory effect on tube formation was found with conditioned media collected from PC3 cells expressing mutant-osteopontin at integrin-binding site and knockdown of osteopontin or MMP9. We conclude that MMP9 activation is associated with angiogenesis via regulation of secretion of VEGF and angiostatin in PC3 cells. Curcumin is thus a potential drug for cancer treatment because it demonstrated anti-angiogenic and anti-invasive properties. Full article
Open AccessArticle Role of Topoisomerases in Pediatric High Grade Osteosarcomas: TOP2A Gene Is One of the Unique Molecular Biomarkers of Chemoresponse
Cancers 2013, 5(2), 662-675; doi:10.3390/cancers5020662
Received: 13 March 2013 / Revised: 5 April 2013 / Accepted: 22 April 2013 / Published: 4 June 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (677 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Currently, the treatment of pediatric high-grade osteosarcomas systematically includes one topoisomerase IIα inhibitor. This chemotherapy is usually adapted to the response to the neo-adjuvant therapy after surgery. The current and unique marker of chemoresponsiveness is the percentage of viable residual cells in [...] Read more.
Currently, the treatment of pediatric high-grade osteosarcomas systematically includes one topoisomerase IIα inhibitor. This chemotherapy is usually adapted to the response to the neo-adjuvant therapy after surgery. The current and unique marker of chemoresponsiveness is the percentage of viable residual cells in the surgical resection. This late patient management marker has to be evaluated earlier in the therapeutic history of the patients on initial biopsy. Therefore, new biomarkers, especially those involved in the topoisomerase IIα inhibitor response might be good candidates. Therefore, our study was designed to target TOP1, TOP2A and TOP2B genes in 105 fresh-frozen diagnostic biopsies by allelotyping and real-time quantitative PCR. Our analyses in those pediatric osteosarcomas, homogeneously treated, highlighted the frequent involvement of topo-isomerase genes. The main and most important observation was the statistical link between the presence of TOP2A amplification and the good response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. Compared to adult cancers, the 17q21 amplicon, including TOP2A and ERBB2 genes, seems to be differentially implicated in the osteosarcoma chemoresponsiveness. Surprisingly, there is no ERBB2 gene co-amplification and the patients harboring TOP2A amplification tend to show a worse survival, so TOP2A analyses remain a preliminary, but a good molecular approach for the evaluation at diagnosis of pediatric osteosarcoma chemoresponsiveness. Full article
Open AccessArticle Epigenetics and Colorectal Cancer Pathogenesis
Cancers 2013, 5(2), 676-713; doi:10.3390/cancers5020676
Received: 21 March 2013 / Revised: 22 May 2013 / Accepted: 24 May 2013 / Published: 5 June 2013
Cited by 46 | PDF Full-text (603 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops through a multistage process that results from the progressive accumulation of genetic mutations, and frequently as a result of mutations in the Wnt signaling pathway. However, it has become evident over the past two decades that epigenetic alterations [...] Read more.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops through a multistage process that results from the progressive accumulation of genetic mutations, and frequently as a result of mutations in the Wnt signaling pathway. However, it has become evident over the past two decades that epigenetic alterations of the chromatin, particularly the chromatin components in the promoter regions of tumor suppressors and oncogenes, play key roles in CRC pathogenesis. Epigenetic regulation is organized at multiple levels, involving primarily DNA methylation and selective histone modifications in cancer cells. Assessment of the CRC epigenome has revealed that virtually all CRCs have aberrantly methylated genes and that the average CRC methylome has thousands of abnormally methylated genes. Although relatively less is known about the patterns of specific histone modifications in CRC, selective histone modifications and resultant chromatin conformation have been shown to act, in concert with DNA methylation, to regulate gene expression to mediate CRC pathogenesis. Moreover, it is now clear that not only DNA methylation but also histone modifications are reversible processes. The increased understanding of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the context of CRC pathogenesis has led to development of epigenetic biomarkers for CRC diagnosis and epigenetic drugs for CRC therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Epigenetics)
Open AccessArticle Genomic Instability: The Driving Force behind Refractory/Relapsing Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
Cancers 2013, 5(2), 714-725; doi:10.3390/cancers5020714
Received: 18 April 2013 / Revised: 23 May 2013 / Accepted: 27 May 2013 / Published: 5 June 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (883 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) the malignant mononuclear Hodgkin (H) and multinuclear, diagnostic Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells are rare and generally make up <3% of the total cellular mass of the affected lymph nodes. During recent years, the introduction of laser micro-dissection techniques [...] Read more.
In classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) the malignant mononuclear Hodgkin (H) and multinuclear, diagnostic Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells are rare and generally make up <3% of the total cellular mass of the affected lymph nodes. During recent years, the introduction of laser micro-dissection techniques at the single cell level has substantially improved our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of HL. Gene expression profiling, comparative genomic hybridization analysis, micro-RNA expression profiling and viral oncogene sequencing have deepened our knowledge of numerous facets of H- and RS-cell gene expression deregulation. The question remains whether disturbed signaling pathways and deregulated transcription factors are at the origin of refractory/relapsing Hodgkin’s lymphoma or whether these hallmarks are at least partially related to another major factor. We recently showed that the 3D nuclear organization of telomeres and chromosomes marked the transition from H- to RS-cells in HL cell lines. This transition is associated with progression of telomere dysfunction, shelterin disruption and progression of complex chromosomal rearrangements. We reported analogous findings in refractory/relapsing HL and identified the shelterin proteins TRF1, TRF2 and POT1 as targets of the LMP1 oncogene in post-germinal center B-cells. Here we summarize our findings, including data not previously published, and propose a model in which progressive disruption of nuclear integrity, a form of genomic instability, is the key-player in refractory/relapsing HL. Therapeutic approaches should take these findings into account. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genomic Instability and Cancers)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Ellagic Acid on Angiogenic Factors in Prostate Cancer Cells
Cancers 2013, 5(2), 726-738; doi:10.3390/cancers5020726
Received: 3 May 2013 / Revised: 31 May 2013 / Accepted: 7 June 2013 / Published: 19 June 2013
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (741 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Several natural antioxidants, including ellagic acid (EA), have been reported to have chemotherapeutic activity in vivo and in vitro settings. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity and synthesis of both epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and 20-hydroxy-5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), together with vascular endothelial growth [...] Read more.
Background: Several natural antioxidants, including ellagic acid (EA), have been reported to have chemotherapeutic activity in vivo and in vitro settings. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity and synthesis of both epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and 20-hydroxy-5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), together with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and heme oxygenase system (HO) have emerged as important modulators of tumor growth and metastasis. Methods: The anti-angiogenic effects of EA were investigated in the human prostatic cancer cell line LnCap. HO-1, HO-2, CYP2J2 and soluble epoxyde hydrolase (sEH) expressions were evaluated by western blotting. Levels of VEGF and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were determined in the culture supernatant using an ELISA assay, while CYP mRNAs were determined by qRT-PCR. Results: EA treatment induced a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in HO-1, HO-2 and CYP2J2 expression, and in VEGF and OPG levels. Similarly CYP2J2, CYP4F2 and CYPA22 mRNAs were significantly (p < 0.05) down-regulated by EA treatment. The decrease in CYP2J2 mRNA was associated with an increase in sEH expression. Conclusions: Results reported in the present study highlighted the ability of EA to modulate a new pathway, in addition to anti-proliferative and pro-differentiation properties, via a mechanism that involves a decrease in eicosanoid synthesis and a down-regulation of the HO system in prostate cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumour Angiogenesis)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Hypoxia-Inducible Factors: Mediators of Cancer Progression; Prognostic and Therapeutic Targets in Soft Tissue Sarcomas
Cancers 2013, 5(2), 320-333; doi:10.3390/cancers5020320
Received: 23 January 2013 / Revised: 12 March 2013 / Accepted: 26 March 2013 / Published: 2 April 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (382 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Soft-tissue sarcomas remain aggressive tumors that result in death in greater than a third of patients due to either loco-regional recurrence or distant metastasis. Surgical resection remains the main choice of treatment for soft tissue sarcomas with pre- and/or post-operational radiation and [...] Read more.
Soft-tissue sarcomas remain aggressive tumors that result in death in greater than a third of patients due to either loco-regional recurrence or distant metastasis. Surgical resection remains the main choice of treatment for soft tissue sarcomas with pre- and/or post-operational radiation and neoadjuvant chemotherapy employed in more advanced stage disease. However, in recent decades, there has been little progress in the average five-year survival for the majority of patients with high-grade soft tissue sarcomas, highlighting the need for improved targeted therapeutic agents. Clinical and preclinical studies demonstrate that tumor hypoxia and up-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) is associated with decreased survival, increased metastasis, and resistance to therapy in soft tissue sarcomas. HIF-mediated gene expression regulates many critical aspects of tumor biology, including cell survival, metabolic programming, angiogenesis, metastasis, and therapy resistance. In this review, we discuss HIFs and HIF-mediated genes as potential prognostic markers and therapeutic targets in sarcomas. Many pharmacological agents targeting hypoxia-related pathways are in development that may hold therapeutic potential for treating both primary and metastatic sarcomas that demonstrate increased HIF expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Epigenetic Modulating Agents as a New Therapeutic Approach in Multiple Myeloma
Cancers 2013, 5(2), 430-461; doi:10.3390/cancers5020430
Received: 28 February 2013 / Revised: 3 April 2013 / Accepted: 8 April 2013 / Published: 15 April 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (954 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable B-cell malignancy. Therefore, new targets and drugs are urgently needed to improve patient outcome. Epigenetic aberrations play a crucial role in development and progression in cancer, including MM. To target these aberrations, epigenetic modulating agents, such [...] Read more.
Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable B-cell malignancy. Therefore, new targets and drugs are urgently needed to improve patient outcome. Epigenetic aberrations play a crucial role in development and progression in cancer, including MM. To target these aberrations, epigenetic modulating agents, such as DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTi) and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), are under intense investigation in solid and hematological cancers. A clinical benefit of the use of these agents as single agents and in combination regimens has been suggested based on numerous studies in pre-clinical tumor models, including MM models. The mechanisms of action are not yet fully understood but appear to involve a combination of true epigenetic changes and cytotoxic actions. In addition, the interactions with the BM niche are also affected by epigenetic modulating agents that will further determine the in vivo efficacy and thus patient outcome. A better understanding of the molecular events underlying the anti-tumor activity of the epigenetic drugs will lead to more rational drug combinations. This review focuses on the involvement of epigenetic changes in MM pathogenesis and how the use of DNMTi and HDACi affect the myeloma tumor itself and its interactions with the microenvironment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Epigenetics)
Figures

Open AccessReview Regulatory Roles for Long ncRNA and mRNA
Cancers 2013, 5(2), 462-490; doi:10.3390/cancers5020462
Received: 1 March 2013 / Revised: 5 April 2013 / Accepted: 19 April 2013 / Published: 26 April 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1061 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technology have identified the transcription of a much larger portion of the genome than previously anticipated. Especially in the context of cancer it has become clear that aberrant transcription of both protein-coding and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) [...] Read more.
Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technology have identified the transcription of a much larger portion of the genome than previously anticipated. Especially in the context of cancer it has become clear that aberrant transcription of both protein-coding and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are frequent events. The current dogma of RNA function describes mRNA to be responsible for the synthesis of proteins, whereas non-coding RNA can have regulatory or epigenetic functions. However, this distinction between protein coding and regulatory ability of transcripts may not be that strict. Here, we review the increasing body of evidence for the existence of multifunctional RNAs that have both protein-coding and trans-regulatory roles. Moreover, we demonstrate that coding transcripts bind to components of the Polycomb Repressor Complex 2 (PRC2) with similar affinities as non-coding transcripts, revealing potential epigenetic regulation by mRNAs. We hypothesize that studies on the regulatory ability of disease-associated mRNAs will form an important new field of research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-coding RNA and Cancer)
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Open AccessReview Lost in Translation: Ambiguity in Nerve Sheath Tumor Nomenclature and Its Resultant Treatment Effect
Cancers 2013, 5(2), 519-528; doi:10.3390/cancers5020519
Received: 4 March 2013 / Revised: 9 April 2013 / Accepted: 3 May 2013 / Published: 8 May 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (863 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is much ambiguity surrounding the diagnosis of nerve sheath tumors, including atypical neurofibroma and low-grade MPNST, and yet, the distinction between these entities designates either benign or malignant behavior and thus carries presumed profound prognostic importance that often guides treatment. This [...] Read more.
There is much ambiguity surrounding the diagnosis of nerve sheath tumors, including atypical neurofibroma and low-grade MPNST, and yet, the distinction between these entities designates either benign or malignant behavior and thus carries presumed profound prognostic importance that often guides treatment. This study reviews the diagnostic criteria used to designate atypical neurofibroma from low-grade MPNSTs and reviews existing literature the natural history of each of these tumors to see if the distinction is, in fact, of importance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Novel Systemic Therapies in Advanced Liposarcoma: A Review of Recent Clinical Trial Results
Cancers 2013, 5(2), 529-549; doi:10.3390/cancers5020529
Received: 21 March 2013 / Revised: 16 April 2013 / Accepted: 2 May 2013 / Published: 10 May 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (362 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Liposarcoma is one of the most common adult soft tissue sarcomas and consists of three histologic subtypes (well and dedifferentiated, myxoid/round cell, and pleomorphic). Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for localized disease; however for unresectable or metastatic disease, effective treatment options [...] Read more.
Liposarcoma is one of the most common adult soft tissue sarcomas and consists of three histologic subtypes (well and dedifferentiated, myxoid/round cell, and pleomorphic). Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for localized disease; however for unresectable or metastatic disease, effective treatment options are currently limited. In the past decade, a better understanding of the distinct genetic and molecular aberrations for each of the three histologic subtypes has led to the development of several novel systemic therapies. Data from phase I and early phase II clinical trials have been reported. Despite challenges with conducting clinical trials in liposarcoma, preliminary results for several of these novel, biology-driven therapies are encouraging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview 99mTc-HYNIC-Annexin A5 in Oncology: Evaluating Efficacy of Anti-Cancer Therapies
Cancers 2013, 5(2), 550-568; doi:10.3390/cancers5020550
Received: 22 March 2013 / Revised: 13 April 2013 / Accepted: 10 May 2013 / Published: 15 May 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (383 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Evaluation of efficacy of anti-cancer therapy is currently performed by anatomical imaging (e.g., MRI, CT). Structural changes, if present, become apparent 1–2 months after start of therapy. Cancer patients thus bear the risk to receive an ineffective treatment, whilst clinical trials take [...] Read more.
Evaluation of efficacy of anti-cancer therapy is currently performed by anatomical imaging (e.g., MRI, CT). Structural changes, if present, become apparent 1–2 months after start of therapy. Cancer patients thus bear the risk to receive an ineffective treatment, whilst clinical trials take a long time to prove therapy response. Both patient and pharmaceutical industry could therefore profit from an early assessment of efficacy of therapy. Diagnostic methods providing information on a functional level, rather than a structural, could present the solution. Recent technological advances in molecular imaging enable in vivo imaging of biological processes. Since most anti-cancer therapies combat tumors by inducing apoptosis, imaging of apoptosis could offer an early assessment of efficacy of therapy. This review focuses on principles of and clinical experience with molecular imaging of apoptosis using Annexin A5, a widely accepted marker for apoptosis detection in vitro and in vivo in animal models. 99mTc-HYNIC-Annexin A5 in combination with SPECT has been probed in clinical studies to assess efficacy of chemo- and radiotherapy within 1–4 days after start of therapy. Annexin A5-based functional imaging of apoptosis shows promise to offer a personalized medicine approach, now primarily used in genome-based medicine, applicable to all cancer patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Cell Imaging)
Open AccessReview Immunotherapy and Immune Evasion in Prostate Cancer
Cancers 2013, 5(2), 569-590; doi:10.3390/cancers5020569
Received: 29 March 2013 / Revised: 16 April 2013 / Accepted: 8 May 2013 / Published: 24 May 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (270 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metastatic prostate cancer remains to this day a terminal disease. Prostatectomy and radiotherapy are effective for organ-confined diseases, but treatment for locally advanced and metastatic cancer remains challenging. Although advanced prostate cancers treated with androgen deprivation therapy achieves debulking of disease, responses [...] Read more.
Metastatic prostate cancer remains to this day a terminal disease. Prostatectomy and radiotherapy are effective for organ-confined diseases, but treatment for locally advanced and metastatic cancer remains challenging. Although advanced prostate cancers treated with androgen deprivation therapy achieves debulking of disease, responses are transient with subsequent development of castration-resistant and metastatic disease. Since prostate cancer is typically a slowly progressing disease, use of immune-based therapies offers an advantage to target advanced tumors and to induce antitumor immunity. This review will discuss the clinical merits of various vaccines and immunotherapies in castrate resistant prostate cancer and challenges to this evolving field of immune-based therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Responses to Human Prostate Cancer)
Open AccessReview Current Therapeutic Strategies and Novel Approaches in Osteosarcoma
Cancers 2013, 5(2), 591-616; doi:10.3390/cancers5020591
Received: 22 March 2013 / Revised: 28 April 2013 / Accepted: 9 May 2013 / Published: 24 May 2013
Cited by 37 | PDF Full-text (470 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Osteosarcoma is the most frequent malignant primary bone tumor and a main cause of cancer-related death in children and adolescents. Although long-term survival in localized osteosarcoma has improved to about 60% during the 1960s and 1970s, long-term survival in both localized and [...] Read more.
Osteosarcoma is the most frequent malignant primary bone tumor and a main cause of cancer-related death in children and adolescents. Although long-term survival in localized osteosarcoma has improved to about 60% during the 1960s and 1970s, long-term survival in both localized and metastatic osteosarcoma has stagnated in the past several decades. Thus, current conventional therapy consists of multi-agent chemotherapy, surgery and radiation, which is not fully adequate for osteosarcoma treatment. Innovative drugs and approaches are needed to further improve outcome in osteosarcoma patients. This review describes the current management of osteosarcoma as well as potential new therapies. Full article
Open AccessReview Ras and Rheb Signaling in Survival and Cell Death
Cancers 2013, 5(2), 639-661; doi:10.3390/cancers5020639
Received: 1 April 2013 / Revised: 8 May 2013 / Accepted: 17 May 2013 / Published: 28 May 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (540 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
One of the most obvious hallmarks of cancer is uncontrolled proliferation of cells partly due to independence of growth factor supply. A major component of mitogenic signaling is Ras, a small GTPase. It was the first identified human protooncogene and is known [...] Read more.
One of the most obvious hallmarks of cancer is uncontrolled proliferation of cells partly due to independence of growth factor supply. A major component of mitogenic signaling is Ras, a small GTPase. It was the first identified human protooncogene and is known since more than three decades to promote cellular proliferation and growth. Ras was shown to support growth factor-independent survival during development and to protect from chemical or mechanical lesion-induced neuronal degeneration in postmitotic neurons. In contrast, for specific patho-physiological cases and cellular systems it has been shown that Ras may also promote cell death. Proteins from the Ras association family (Rassf, especially Rassf1 and Rassf5) are tumor suppressors that are activated by Ras-GTP, triggering apoptosis via e.g., activation of mammalian sterile 20-like (MST1) kinase. In contrast to Ras, their expression is suppressed in many types of tumours, which makes Rassf proteins an exciting model for understanding the divergent effects of Ras activity. It seems likely that the outcome of Ras signaling depends on the balance between the activation of its various downstream effectors, thus determining cellular fate towards either proliferation or apoptosis. Ras homologue enriched in brain (Rheb) is a protein from the Ras superfamily that is also known to promote proliferation, growth, and regeneration through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTor) pathway. However, recent evidences indicate that the Rheb-mTor pathway may switch its function from a pro-growth into a cell death pathway, depending on the cellular situation. In contrast to Ras signaling, for Rheb, the cellular context is likely to modulate the whole Rheb-mTor pathway towards cellular death or survival, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue RASSF Signalling in Cancer)

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