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Cancers 2013, 5(2), 569-590; doi:10.3390/cancers5020569

Immunotherapy and Immune Evasion in Prostate Cancer

1
Department of Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
2
Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
3
Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 March 2013 / Revised: 16 April 2013 / Accepted: 8 May 2013 / Published: 24 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Responses to Human Prostate Cancer)
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Abstract

Metastatic prostate cancer remains to this day a terminal disease. Prostatectomy and radiotherapy are effective for organ-confined diseases, but treatment for locally advanced and metastatic cancer remains challenging. Although advanced prostate cancers treated with androgen deprivation therapy achieves debulking of disease, responses are transient with subsequent development of castration-resistant and metastatic disease. Since prostate cancer is typically a slowly progressing disease, use of immune-based therapies offers an advantage to target advanced tumors and to induce antitumor immunity. This review will discuss the clinical merits of various vaccines and immunotherapies in castrate resistant prostate cancer and challenges to this evolving field of immune-based therapies.
Keywords: prostate cancer; immunotherapy; vaccine; castrate resistant prostate cancer; bispecific antibody prostate cancer; immunotherapy; vaccine; castrate resistant prostate cancer; bispecific antibody
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Thakur, A.; Vaishampayan, U.; Lum, L.G. Immunotherapy and Immune Evasion in Prostate Cancer. Cancers 2013, 5, 569-590.

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