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Immunotherapy and Immune Evasion in Prostate Cancer
Department of Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 March 2013; in revised form: 16 April 2013 / Accepted: 8 May 2013 / Published: 24 May 2013
Abstract: Metastatic prostate cancer remains to this day a terminal disease. Prostatectomy and radiotherapy are effective for organ-confined diseases, but treatment for locally advanced and metastatic cancer remains challenging. Although advanced prostate cancers treated with androgen deprivation therapy achieves debulking of disease, responses are transient with subsequent development of castration-resistant and metastatic disease. Since prostate cancer is typically a slowly progressing disease, use of immune-based therapies offers an advantage to target advanced tumors and to induce antitumor immunity. This review will discuss the clinical merits of various vaccines and immunotherapies in castrate resistant prostate cancer and challenges to this evolving field of immune-based therapies.
Keywords: prostate cancer; immunotherapy; vaccine; castrate resistant prostate cancer; bispecific antibody
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Thakur, A.; Vaishampayan, U.; Lum, L.G. Immunotherapy and Immune Evasion in Prostate Cancer. Cancers 2013, 5, 569-590.
Thakur A, Vaishampayan U, Lum LG. Immunotherapy and Immune Evasion in Prostate Cancer. Cancers. 2013; 5(2):569-590.
Thakur, Archana; Vaishampayan, Ulka; Lum, Lawrence G. 2013. "Immunotherapy and Immune Evasion in Prostate Cancer." Cancers 5, no. 2: 569-590.