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Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 417; doi:10.3390/nu9040417

Sodium and Potassium Intake in Healthy Adults in Thessaloniki Greater Metropolitan Area—The Salt Intake in Northern Greece (SING) Study

1
Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Department of Zoology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124, Greece
2
Nutrition Policy and Research Directorate, Hellenic Food Authority, 124 Kifisias Av. & 2 Iatridou Str., Athens 11526, Greece
3
Division of Noncommunicable Diseases and Promoting Health through the Life-Course, WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen DK-2100, Denmark
4
Department of Medical Laboratory Studies, Alexander Technological and Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Sindos, Thessaloniki 57400, Greece
5
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Alexander Technological and Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Sindos, Thessaloniki 57400, Greece
6
Department of Social Medicine, Preventive Medicine and Nutrition Clinic, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion 71003, Crete, Greece
7
Division of Health Sciences (Mental Health & Wellbeing), Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK
8
University Hospitals Coventry & Warwickshire NHS Trust, Coventry, CV2 2DX, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 March 2017 / Revised: 6 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 22 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health)
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Abstract

A reduction in population sodium (as salt) consumption is a global health priority, as well as one of the most cost-effective strategies to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease. High potassium intake is also recommended to reduce cardiovascular disease. To establish effective policies for setting targets and monitoring effectiveness within each country, the current level of consumption should be known. Greece lacks data on actual sodium and potassium intake. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess dietary salt (using sodium as biomarker) and potassium intakes in a sample of healthy adults in northern Greece, and to determine whether adherence to a Mediterranean diet is related to different sodium intakes or sodium-to-potassium ratio. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Thessaloniki greater metropolitan area (northern Greece) (n = 252, aged 18–75 years, 45.2% males). Participants’ dietary sodium and potassium intakes were determined by 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretions. In addition, we estimated their adherence to Mediterranean diet by the use of an 11-item MedDietScore (range 0–55). The mean sodium excretion was 175 (SD 72) mmol/day, equivalent to 4220 (1745) mg of sodium or 10.7 (4.4) g of salt per day, and the potassium excretion was 65 (25) mmol/day, equivalent to 3303 (1247) mg per day. Men had higher sodium and potassium excretions compared to women. Only 5.6% of the sample had salt intake <5 g/day, which is the target intake recommended by the World Health Organization. Mean sodium-to-potassium excretion ratio was 2.82 (1.07). There was no significant difference in salt or potassium intake or their ratio across MedDietScore quartiles. No significant relationships were found between salt intake and adherence to a Mediterranean diet, suggesting that the perception of the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet does not hold when referring to salt consumption. These results suggest the need for a larger, nation-wide survey on salt intake in Greece and underline the importance of continuation of salt reduction initiatives in Greece. View Full-Text
Keywords: salt; sodium; potassium; intake; MedDietScore; Greece salt; sodium; potassium; intake; MedDietScore; Greece
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Vasara, E.; Marakis, G.; Breda, J.; Skepastianos, P.; Hassapidou, M.; Kafatos, A.; Rodopaios, N.; Koulouri, A.A.; Cappuccio, F.P. Sodium and Potassium Intake in Healthy Adults in Thessaloniki Greater Metropolitan Area—The Salt Intake in Northern Greece (SING) Study. Nutrients 2017, 9, 417.

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