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Nutrients, Volume 2, Issue 5 (May 2010), Pages 482-571

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Effects of Vegetarian Nutrition–A Nutrition Ecological Perspective
Nutrients 2010, 2(5), 496-504; doi:10.3390/nu2050496
Received: 22 March 2010 / Revised: 12 April 2010 / Accepted: 29 April 2010 / Published: 10 May 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (374 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although vegetarian nutrition is a complex issue, the multidimensionality and interrelatedness of its effects are rarely explored. This article aims to demonstrate the complexity of vegetarian nutrition by means of the nutrition ecological modeling technique NutriMod. The integrative qualitative cause-effect model, which is
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Although vegetarian nutrition is a complex issue, the multidimensionality and interrelatedness of its effects are rarely explored. This article aims to demonstrate the complexity of vegetarian nutrition by means of the nutrition ecological modeling technique NutriMod. The integrative qualitative cause-effect model, which is based on scientific literature, provides a comprehensive picture of vegetarian nutrition. The nutrition ecological perspective offers a basis for the assessment of the effects of worldwide developments concerning shifts in diets and the effects of vegetarian nutrition on global problems like climate change. Furthermore, new research areas on the complexity of vegetarian nutrition can be identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegetarian Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle Beliefs and Attitudes toward Vegetarian Lifestyle across Generations
Nutrients 2010, 2(5), 523-531; doi:10.3390/nu2050523
Received: 20 April 2010 / Revised: 12 May 2010 / Accepted: 14 May 2010 / Published: 17 May 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (277 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of the study was to examine whether reasons to adopt vegetarian lifestyle differ significantly among generations. Using a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), we identified that 4% of the participants were vegans, 25% lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 4% pesco-vegetarians and 67% non-vegetarian. Younger people significantly
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The objective of the study was to examine whether reasons to adopt vegetarian lifestyle differ significantly among generations. Using a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), we identified that 4% of the participants were vegans, 25% lacto-ovo-vegetarians, 4% pesco-vegetarians and 67% non-vegetarian. Younger people significantly agreed more with the moral reason and with the environmental reason. People ages 41–60 significantly agreed more with the health reason. There are significant differences across generations as to why people choose to live a vegetarian lifestyle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegetarian Nutrition)

Review

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Open AccessReview The Relationship between Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure and Vitamin D Status
Nutrients 2010, 2(5), 482-495; doi:10.3390/nu2050482
Received: 1 March 2010 / Revised: 14 April 2010 / Accepted: 20 April 2010 / Published: 4 May 2010
Cited by 61 | PDF Full-text (385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reviews the main factors influencing the synthesis of vitamin D, with particular focus on ultraviolet radiation exposure. On the global level, the main source of vitamin D is the sun. The effect of solar radiation on vitamin D synthesis depends to
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This paper reviews the main factors influencing the synthesis of vitamin D, with particular focus on ultraviolet radiation exposure. On the global level, the main source of vitamin D is the sun. The effect of solar radiation on vitamin D synthesis depends to some extent on the initial vitamin D levels. At moderate to high latitudes, diet becomes an increasingly important source of vitamin D due to decreased solar intensity and cold temperatures, which discourage skin exposure. During the mid-winter season, these factors result in decreased solar radiation exposure, hindering extensively the synthesis of vitamin D in these populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Vitamins)
Open AccessReview Is Excess Calcium Harmful to Health?
Nutrients 2010, 2(5), 505-522; doi:10.3390/nu2050505
Received: 30 March 2010 / Revised: 12 May 2010 / Accepted: 14 May 2010 / Published: 17 May 2010
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (279 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Most current guidelines recommend that older adults and the elderly strive for a total calcium intake (diet and supplements) of 1,000 to 1,300 mg/day to prevent osteoporosis and fractures. Traditionally, calcium supplements have been considered safe, effective and well tolerated, but their safety
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Most current guidelines recommend that older adults and the elderly strive for a total calcium intake (diet and supplements) of 1,000 to 1,300 mg/day to prevent osteoporosis and fractures. Traditionally, calcium supplements have been considered safe, effective and well tolerated, but their safety has recently been questioned due to potential adverse effects on vascular disease which may increase mortality. For example, the findings from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (currently published in abstract form only) revealed that the use of calcium supplements was associated with an ~30% increased risk of myocardial infarction. If high levels of calcium are harmful to health, this may alter current public health recommendations with regard to the use of calcium supplements for preventing osteoporosis. In this review, we provide an overview of the latest information from human observational and prospective studies, randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses related to the effects of calcium supplementation on vascular disease and related risk factors, including blood pressure, lipid and lipoprotein levels and vascular calcification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Calcium)
Open AccessReview Vitamin A–Not for Your Eyes Only: Requirement for Heart Formation Begins Early in Embryogenesis
Nutrients 2010, 2(5), 532-550; doi:10.3390/nu2050532
Received: 25 March 2010 / Revised: 7 May 2010 / Accepted: 18 May 2010 / Published: 25 May 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (271 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin A insufficiency has profound adverse effects on embryonic development. Major advances in understanding the role of vitamin A in vertebrate heart formation have been made since the discovery that the vitamin A active form, all-trans-retinoic acid, regulates many genes, including developmental genes.
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Vitamin A insufficiency has profound adverse effects on embryonic development. Major advances in understanding the role of vitamin A in vertebrate heart formation have been made since the discovery that the vitamin A active form, all-trans-retinoic acid, regulates many genes, including developmental genes. Among the experimental models used, the vitamin A-deficient avian embryo has been an important tool to study the function of vitamin A during early heart formation. A cluster of retinoic acid-regulated developmental genes have been identified that participate in building the heart. In the absence of retinoic acid the embryonic heart develops abnormally leading to embryolethality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers for Vitamins)
Open AccessReview When Food Meets Man: the Contribution of Epigenetics to Health
Nutrients 2010, 2(5), 551-571; doi:10.3390/nu2050551
Received: 26 April 2010 / Revised: 11 May 2010 / Accepted: 14 May 2010 / Published: 25 May 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1181 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Post-translational modifications of chromatin contribute to the epigenetic control of gene transcription. The response to food intake and individual nutrients also includes epigenetic events. Bile acids are necessary for lipid digestion and absorption, and more recently have emerged as signaling molecules. Their synthesis
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Post-translational modifications of chromatin contribute to the epigenetic control of gene transcription. The response to food intake and individual nutrients also includes epigenetic events. Bile acids are necessary for lipid digestion and absorption, and more recently have emerged as signaling molecules. Their synthesis is transcriptionally regulated also in relation to the fasted-to-fed cycle, and interestingly, the underlying mechanisms include chromatin remodeling at promoters of key genes involved in their metabolism. Several compounds present in nutrients affect gene transcription through epigenetic mechanisms and recent studies demonstrate that, beyond the well known anti-cancer properties, they beneficially affect energy metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foodomics 2009)
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