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Is Excess Calcium Harmful to Health?
Department of Medicine (RMH/WH), The University of Melbourne, Western Hospital, Melbourne 3011, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 March 2010; in revised form: 12 May 2010 / Accepted: 14 May 2010 / Published: 17 May 2010
Abstract: Most current guidelines recommend that older adults and the elderly strive for a total calcium intake (diet and supplements) of 1,000 to 1,300 mg/day to prevent osteoporosis and fractures. Traditionally, calcium supplements have been considered safe, effective and well tolerated, but their safety has recently been questioned due to potential adverse effects on vascular disease which may increase mortality. For example, the findings from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (currently published in abstract form only) revealed that the use of calcium supplements was associated with an ~30% increased risk of myocardial infarction. If high levels of calcium are harmful to health, this may alter current public health recommendations with regard to the use of calcium supplements for preventing osteoporosis. In this review, we provide an overview of the latest information from human observational and prospective studies, randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses related to the effects of calcium supplementation on vascular disease and related risk factors, including blood pressure, lipid and lipoprotein levels and vascular calcification.
Keywords: calcium supplementation; cardiovascular disease; mortality; elderly
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MDPI and ACS Style
Daly, R.M.; Ebeling, P.R. Is Excess Calcium Harmful to Health? Nutrients 2010, 2, 505-522.
Daly RM, Ebeling PR. Is Excess Calcium Harmful to Health? Nutrients. 2010; 2(5):505-522.
Daly, Robin M.; Ebeling, Peter R. 2010. "Is Excess Calcium Harmful to Health?" Nutrients 2, no. 5: 505-522.