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Sustainability, Volume 2, Issue 9 (September 2010), Pages 2734-3141

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Changes in Woodland Use from Longleaf Pine to Loblolly Pine
Sustainability 2010, 2(9), 2734-2745; doi:10.3390/su2092734
Received: 15 July 2010 / Revised: 9 August 2010 / Accepted: 25 August 2010 / Published: 31 August 2010
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Abstract
There is growing evidence suggesting that the United States’ roots are not in a state of “pristine” nature but rather in a “human-modified landscape” over which Native people have since long exerted vast control and use. The longleaf pine is a typical [...] Read more.
There is growing evidence suggesting that the United States’ roots are not in a state of “pristine” nature but rather in a “human-modified landscape” over which Native people have since long exerted vast control and use. The longleaf pine is a typical woodland use largely shaped by fires, lightning and by Native Americans. The frequent fires, which were used to reduce fuels and protect themselves from wildfires, enhance wildlife habitats and for hunting, protect themselves from predators and enemy tribes, led to the establishment of the fire dependent and fire tolerant longleaf pine across the southern landscape. In the last 3 centuries however, the range of longleaf ecosystem has been gradually replaced first by agriculture and then by loblolly pine farming. The joint effects of agricultural expansion, intense logging of the longleaf in the late 1800s, expanded fire control since the early 20th century, and subsequent bare-root planting beginning in the 1930s, has permitted loblolly pine to become dominantly established in the south. Longleaf and loblolly pines represent two distinct woodland uses and represent separate human values. This study investigated the change from longleaf pine use to loblolly pine farming in Southern US from perspectives of human values of land and natural resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle System Dynamics Modeling of the Massachusetts SREC Market
Sustainability 2010, 2(9), 2746-2761; doi:10.3390/su2092746
Received: 4 August 2010 / Revised: 19 August 2010 / Accepted: 20 August 2010 / Published: 31 August 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (264 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As states across the country struggle to increase local development of renewable energy, policymakers are turning to innovative program designs to meet their renewable electricity targets. Massachusetts recently adopted a unique, auction-based price support mechanism for the solar portion of its renewable [...] Read more.
As states across the country struggle to increase local development of renewable energy, policymakers are turning to innovative program designs to meet their renewable electricity targets. Massachusetts recently adopted a unique, auction-based price support mechanism for the solar portion of its renewable portfolio standard. During the program development process, the Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources (DOER) used system dynamics to simulate potential solar renewable energy certificate market conditions under the proposed regulations. The modeling exercise resulted in several program design changes that will lead to a more stable certificate market. System dynamics can be a useful tool for developing and improving sustainability programs. Full article
Open AccessArticle Participatory System Dynamics Modeling for Sustainable Environmental Management: Observations from Four Cases
Sustainability 2010, 2(9), 2762-2784; doi:10.3390/su2092762
Received: 30 July 2010 / Revised: 19 August 2010 / Accepted: 20 August 2010 / Published: 2 September 2010
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (470 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sustainable environmental management requires a decision support approach that accounts for dynamic connections between social and ecological systems, integrates stakeholder deliberation with scientific analysis, incorporates diverse stakeholder knowledge, and fosters relationships among stakeholders that can accommodate changing information and changing social and [...] Read more.
Sustainable environmental management requires a decision support approach that accounts for dynamic connections between social and ecological systems, integrates stakeholder deliberation with scientific analysis, incorporates diverse stakeholder knowledge, and fosters relationships among stakeholders that can accommodate changing information and changing social and environmental conditions. Participatory system dynamics modeling provides such a framework. It supports stakeholder learning about the system and the perspectives of other stakeholders, and can help build social capital among stakeholders. Four cases of participatory system dynamics modeling, which range from no to full participant involvement in model development, support the idea that greater social capital development results from greater participation in model development, but also suggest that even the simplest use of simulation models in a group fosters stakeholder learning about the system through surprise and discovery. To maximize the learning value of simulation models, it is important to allow enough time for debriefing the “aha!” moments that lead to curiosity about system behavior. To maximize social capital development, it is important to build enough time into the problem structuring and model conceptualization phases for stakeholders to articulate their mental models and examine those of other participants. Full article
Open AccessArticle Environmental Information—Explanatory Factors for Information Behavior
Sustainability 2010, 2(9), 2785-2798; doi:10.3390/su2092785
Received: 15 July 2010 / Revised: 15 August 2010 / Accepted: 25 August 2010 / Published: 2 September 2010
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (159 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As sustainable waste management has become an important environmental concern, growing emphasis is being given to policy tools aimed at increasing recycling behavior by households. Information is a common policy tool, but may not always reach the individuals whose behavior is being [...] Read more.
As sustainable waste management has become an important environmental concern, growing emphasis is being given to policy tools aimed at increasing recycling behavior by households. Information is a common policy tool, but may not always reach the individuals whose behavior is being targeted, i.e., those reluctant to recycle. This study examined individual differences in attention to recycling information and demand for such information. A nationwide survey in Sweden showed that having personal norms for recycling is important when it comes to obeying and seeking environmentally relevant information. In contrast to earlier research, this study found that lack of information alone is not a significant antecedent to the intention to seek information. Personal norms were found to moderate the effect of perceived lack of information on the intention to seek information. Full article
Open AccessArticle Uncertainty Regarding Waste Handling in Everyday Life
Sustainability 2010, 2(9), 2799-2813; doi:10.3390/su2092799
Received: 15 July 2010 / Revised: 15 August 2010 / Accepted: 25 August 2010 / Published: 3 September 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (201 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
According to our study, based on interviews with households in a residential area in Sweden, uncertainty is a cultural barrier to improved recycling. Four causes of uncertainty are identified. Firstly, professional categories not matching cultural categories—people easily discriminate between certain categories (e.g., [...] Read more.
According to our study, based on interviews with households in a residential area in Sweden, uncertainty is a cultural barrier to improved recycling. Four causes of uncertainty are identified. Firstly, professional categories not matching cultural categories—people easily discriminate between certain categories (e.g., materials such as plastic and paper) but not between others (e.g., packaging and “non-packaging”). Thus a frequent cause of uncertainty is that the basic categories of the waste recycling system do not coincide with the basic categories used in everyday life. Challenged habits—source separation in everyday life is habitual, but when a habit is challenged, by a particular element or feature of the waste system, uncertainty can arise. Lacking fractions—some kinds of items cannot be left for recycling and this makes waste collection incomplete from the user’s point of view and in turn lowers the credibility of the system. Missing or contradictory rules of thumb—the above causes seem to be particularly relevant if no motivating principle or rule of thumb (within the context of use) is successfully conveyed to the user. This paper discusses how reducing uncertainty can improve recycling. Full article
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Open AccessArticle T21-Ohio, a System Dynamics Approach to Policy Assessment for Sustainable Development: A Waste to Profit Case Study
Sustainability 2010, 2(9), 2814-2832; doi:10.3390/su2092814
Received: 6 August 2010 / Revised: 28 August 2010 / Accepted: 29 August 2010 / Published: 6 September 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (168 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new system dynamics tool, T21-Ohio, was developed to support integrated and comprehensive development planning at the state level. Based on the Threshold 21 (T21) framework, T21-Ohio provides insights into the potential impacts of energy and environmental policies across a wide range [...] Read more.
A new system dynamics tool, T21-Ohio, was developed to support integrated and comprehensive development planning at the state level. Based on the Threshold 21 (T21) framework, T21-Ohio provides insights into the potential impacts of energy and environmental policies across a wide range of sectors, and reveals how different strategies interact with one another to achieve planned goals and objectives. This paper shows how T21-Ohio was used to model the broader social, economic and environmental impacts of “waste to profit” activities in Ohio, such as recycling, electricity generation from waste, and bio-fuel production. Three alternative scenarios were simulated to evaluate the impacts of biomass co-firing, government stimulus for solid waste recycling, and by-product synergy activities. The results of the three scenario analyses indicate significant potential for economic development and creation of jobs while reducing emissions and waste. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Small Cities, Neoliberal Governance and Sustainable Development in the Global South: A Conceptual Framework and Research Agenda
Sustainability 2010, 2(9), 2833-2848; doi:10.3390/su2092833
Received: 22 July 2010 / Revised: 31 August 2010 / Accepted: 31 August 2010 / Published: 6 September 2010
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (145 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Development and environmental issues of small cities in developing countries have largely been overlooked although these settlements are of global demographic importance and often face a “triple challenge”; that is, they have limited financial and human resources to address growing environmental problems [...] Read more.
Development and environmental issues of small cities in developing countries have largely been overlooked although these settlements are of global demographic importance and often face a “triple challenge”; that is, they have limited financial and human resources to address growing environmental problems that are related to both development (e.g., pollution) and under-development (e.g., inadequate water supply). Neoliberal policy has arguably aggravated this challenge as public investments in infrastructure generally declined while the focus shifted to the metropolitan “economic growth machines”. This paper develops a conceptual framework and agenda for the study of small cities in the global south, their environmental dynamics, governance and politics in the current neoliberal context. While small cities are governed in a neoliberal policy context, they are not central to neoliberalism, and their (environmental) governance therefore seems to differ from that of global cities. Furthermore, “actually existing” neoliberal governance of small cities is shaped by the interplay of regional and local politics and environmental situations. The approach of urban political ecology and the concept of rural-urban linkages are used to consider these socio-ecological processes. The conceptual framework and research agenda are illustrated in the case of India, where the agency of small cities in regard to environmental governance seems to remain limited despite formal political decentralization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Political Economy and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Sustainable Capital? The Neoliberalization of Nature and Knowledge in the European “Knowledge-based Bio-economy”
Sustainability 2010, 2(9), 2898-2918; doi:10.3390/su2092898
Received: 6 August 2010 / Revised: 2 September 2010 / Accepted: 7 September 2010 / Published: 13 September 2010
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (243 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As an EU policy agenda, the “knowledge-based bio-economy” (KBBE) emphasizes bio-technoscience as the means to reconcile environmental and economic sustainability. This frames the sustainability problem as an inefficiency to be overcome through a techno-knowledge fix. Here ecological sustainability means a benign eco-efficient [...] Read more.
As an EU policy agenda, the “knowledge-based bio-economy” (KBBE) emphasizes bio-technoscience as the means to reconcile environmental and economic sustainability. This frames the sustainability problem as an inefficiency to be overcome through a techno-knowledge fix. Here ecological sustainability means a benign eco-efficient productivity using resources which are renewable, reproducible and therefore sustainable. The KBBE narrative has been elaborated by European Technology Platforms in the agri-food-forestry-biofuels sectors, whose proposals shape research priorities. These inform policy agendas for the neoliberalization of both nature and knowledge, especially through intellectual property. In these ways, the KBBE can be understood as a new political-economic strategy for sustainable capital. This strategy invests great expectations for unlocking the productive potential of natural resources through a techno-knowledge fix. Although eco-efficiency is sometimes equated with biological productivity, commercial success will be dependent upon new combinations of “living” and “dead” labour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Political Economy and Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Food Security and Conservation of Yukon River Salmon: Are We Asking Too Much of the Yukon River?
Sustainability 2010, 2(9), 2965-2987; doi:10.3390/su2092965
Received: 6 August 2010 / Revised: 3 September 2010 / Accepted: 12 September 2010 / Published: 15 September 2010
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (538 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
By the terms set by international agreements for the conservation of Yukon River salmon, 2009 was a management success. It was a devastating year for many of the Alaska Native communities along the Yukon River, however, especially in up-river communities, where subsistence [...] Read more.
By the terms set by international agreements for the conservation of Yukon River salmon, 2009 was a management success. It was a devastating year for many of the Alaska Native communities along the Yukon River, however, especially in up-river communities, where subsistence fishing was closed in order to meet international conservation goals for Chinook salmon. By the end of summer, the smokehouses and freezers of many Alaska Native families remained empty, and Alaska’s Governor Sean Parnell petitioned the US Federal Government to declare a fisheries disaster. This paper reviews the social and ecological dimensions of salmon management in 2009 in an effort to reconcile these differing views regarding success, and the apparently-competing goals of salmon conservation and food security. We report local observations of changes in the Chinook salmon fishery, as well as local descriptions of the impacts of fishing closures on the food system. Three categories of concern emerge from our interviews with rural Alaskan participants in the fishery and with federal and state agency managers: social and ecological impacts of closures; concerns regarding changes to spawning grounds; and a lack of confidence in current management methods and technologies. We show how a breakdown in observation of the Yukon River system undermines effective adaptive management and discuss how sector-based, species-by-species management undermines a goal of food security and contributes to the differential distribution of impacts for communities down and up river. We conclude with a discussion of the merits of a food system and ecosystem-based approach to management, and note existing jurisdictional and paradigmatic challenges to the implementation of such an approach in Alaska. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Security and Environmental Sustainability)
Open AccessArticle Sustainable Zero-Valent Metal (ZVM) Water Treatment Associated with Diffusion, Infiltration, Abstraction, and Recirculation
Sustainability 2010, 2(9), 2988-3073; doi:10.3390/su2092988
Received: 10 August 2010 / Revised: 28 August 2010 / Accepted: 13 September 2010 / Published: 17 September 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (5069 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Socio-economic, climate and agricultural stress on water resources have resulted in increased global demand for water while at the same time the proportion of potential water resources which are adversely affected by sodification/salinisation, metals, nitrates, and organic chemicals has increased. Nano-zero-valent metal [...] Read more.
Socio-economic, climate and agricultural stress on water resources have resulted in increased global demand for water while at the same time the proportion of potential water resources which are adversely affected by sodification/salinisation, metals, nitrates, and organic chemicals has increased. Nano-zero-valent metal (n-ZVM) injection or placement in aquifers offers a potential partial solution. However, n-ZVM application results in a substantial reduction in aquifer permeability, which in turn can reduce the amount of water that can be abstracted from the aquifer. This study using static diffusion and continuous flow reactors containing n-ZVM and m-ZVM (ZVM filaments, filings and punchings) has established that the use of m-ZVM does not result in a reduction in aquifer permeability. The experimental results are used to design and model m-ZVM treatment programs for an aquifer (using recirculation or static diffusion). They also provide a predictive model for water quality associated with specific abstraction rates and infiltration/injection into an aquifer. The study demonstrates that m-ZVM treatment requires 1% of the weight required for n-ZVM treatment for a specific flow rate. It is observed that 1 t Fe0 will process 23,500 m3 of abstracted or infiltrating water. m-ZVM is able to remove >80% of nitrates from flowing water and adjust the water composition (by reduction) in an aquifer to optimize removal of nitrates, metals and organic compounds. The experiments demonstrate that ZVM treatment of an aquifer can be used to reduce groundwater salinity by 20 –> 45% and that an aquifer remediation program can be designed to desalinate an aquifer. Modeling indicates that widespread application of m-ZVM water treatment may reduce global socio-economic, climate and agricultural stress on water resources. The rate of oxygen formation during water reduction [by ZVM (Fe0, Al0 and Cu0)] controls aquifer permeability, the associated aquifer pH, aquifer Eh and the degree of water treatment that occurs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Identifying and Structuring Values to Guide the Choice of Sustainability Indicators for Tourism Development
Sustainability 2010, 2(9), 3074-3099; doi:10.3390/su2093074
Received: 17 August 2010 / Revised: 7 September 2010 / Accepted: 8 September 2010 / Published: 17 September 2010
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Abstract
In Mexico, the National Trust for Tourism Promotion (FONATUR) needs to lead development of Integrally Planned Tourist Centers (IPC) towards sustainability. As the development of these IPCs leads to changes in local communities and their environment, it is necessary to define how [...] Read more.
In Mexico, the National Trust for Tourism Promotion (FONATUR) needs to lead development of Integrally Planned Tourist Centers (IPC) towards sustainability. As the development of these IPCs leads to changes in local communities and their environment, it is necessary to define how to establish a path towards sustainability and how to measure progress towards that goal. The objective of this study is to contribute toward identifying the main stakeholder’s values, defining sustainability indicators at a local level, and to discuss their adequacy in the context of tourism development. The study was performed in a Mexican community facing its probable inclusion in tourism development and special attention was given to the values of stakeholders in defining which objectives to monitor. Using Value-Focused Thinking as a framework, a series of interviews were analyzed and the opinions were organized in a tree of values, encompassing environmental, economic, social and political/institutional aspects. A set of indicators associated with these objectives was subsequently proposed. This information may serve as a guide to design and monitor plans that are more appealing from a sustainability perspective and as an aid in the identification of future information needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Tourism: Issues, Debates and Challenges)
Open AccessArticle Sustainable Aluminium Systems
Sustainability 2010, 2(9), 3100-3109; doi:10.3390/su2093100
Received: 2 August 2010 / Accepted: 2 September 2010 / Published: 17 September 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (257 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the present paper, an analytical presentation of some popular aluminium systems that contribute to sustainability of structures is presented. Special emphasis has been given to the properties of aluminium, while the influence of these systems in the overall performance of the [...] Read more.
In the present paper, an analytical presentation of some popular aluminium systems that contribute to sustainability of structures is presented. Special emphasis has been given to the properties of aluminium, while the influence of these systems in the overall performance of the structure regarding environment and economy is described. In particular, characteristics of aluminium elements such as high reflectivity and recyclability and their role in life cycle analysis (LCA) are analyzed. The connections between energy efficiency and conservation of buildings and aluminium application are also discussed. Building applications such as curtain walls, window frames and facade sheets are presented and thoroughly investigated, considering their environmental and economic aspects. Furthermore, many innovative techniques that use aluminium elements in collaboration with other systems in order to produce renewable energy, such as solar panels and photovoltaics, are introduced. Finally, environmental innovations such as optimized ventilation mechanisms and light and shade management systems based on aluminium members are presented. Full article
Open AccessArticle Designing a Sustainable Future through Creation of North America’s only International Wildlife Refuge
Sustainability 2010, 2(9), 3110-3128; doi:10.3390/su2093110
Received: 23 July 2010 / Revised: 9 September 2010 / Accepted: 13 September 2010 / Published: 21 September 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (720 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In 2001, the Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge was established based on the principles of conservation and sustainability. The refuge has grown from 49.1 ha in 2001 to over 2,300 ha in 2010. Agreement on a compelling vision for a sustainable future [...] Read more.
In 2001, the Detroit River International Wildlife Refuge was established based on the principles of conservation and sustainability. The refuge has grown from 49.1 ha in 2001 to over 2,300 ha in 2010. Agreement on a compelling vision for a sustainable future was necessary to rally stakeholders and move them forward together. Project examples include: lake sturgeon and common tern restoration; soft shoreline engineering; ecotourism; sustainable redevelopment of a brownfield; and indicator reporting. Key success factors include: a consensus long-term vision; a multi-stakeholder process that achieves cooperative learning; strong coupling of monitoring/research programs with management; implementing actions consistent with adaptive management; measuring and celebrating successes; quantifying benefits; building capacity; and developing the next generation of sustainability practitioners and entrepreneurs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Futures)
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Open AccessArticle Hurdles to Forest Friendly Farming: Sustainability Lessons from Southeastern Mexico
Sustainability 2010, 2(9), 3129-3141; doi:10.3390/su2093129
Received: 13 August 2010 / Revised: 20 September 2010 / Accepted: 21 September 2010 / Published: 27 September 2010
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (247 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Worldwide the search is on for sustainable solutions to the competing needs for forest conservation and agricultural development. A strategy with contemporary salience arises in intensive, sedentarized agriculture that can protect forests and enhance livelihoods for forest dwellers. This paper investigates why [...] Read more.
Worldwide the search is on for sustainable solutions to the competing needs for forest conservation and agricultural development. A strategy with contemporary salience arises in intensive, sedentarized agriculture that can protect forests and enhance livelihoods for forest dwellers. This paper investigates why intensive agriculture does not limit deforestation in southeastern Mexico’s Calakmul Municipality. It argues that agriculture faces challenges from a range of biophysical and socioeconomic factors in tropical regions and that this encourages expanded land use for intensive farmers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Political Economy and Sustainability)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Can New Perspectives on Sustainability Drive Lifestyles?
Sustainability 2010, 2(9), 2849-2872; doi:10.3390/su2092849
Received: 21 June 2010 / Accepted: 3 September 2010 / Published: 13 September 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (372 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Understanding sustainability engages multiple views in a wide spectrum of technological, social and political positions. Over the last two decades it appears that an evolutionary process reflects a changing sustainability paradigm. At the basis of this changing paradigm remain strong principles of [...] Read more.
Understanding sustainability engages multiple views in a wide spectrum of technological, social and political positions. Over the last two decades it appears that an evolutionary process reflects a changing sustainability paradigm. At the basis of this changing paradigm remain strong principles of dematerialization, reflected in cuts in natural resource consumption, changing pathways to overcome lock-ins, mastering the art of economic innovation with ecological principles. This may engage new consumption attitudes and behavior. This review paper adopts a holistic and integrated sustainability perspective, suggesting a mix-and-match approach to engage more context specific designs for sustainability to look into principles of consumption behavior and people’s motivation in choosing their lifestyle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability and Consumption)
Open AccessReview “Sustainability Learning”: An Introduction to the Concept and Its Motivational Aspects
Sustainability 2010, 2(9), 2873-2897; doi:10.3390/su2092873
Received: 1 July 2010 / Revised: 28 August 2010 / Accepted: 3 September 2010 / Published: 13 September 2010
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (377 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This theoretical paper clarifies the concept of sustainability learning and specifically analyzes motivational aspects. Mastering the challenges of sustainability requires individual learning as well as learning processes on different levels of human systems ranging from groups and organizations to human societies, and [...] Read more.
This theoretical paper clarifies the concept of sustainability learning and specifically analyzes motivational aspects. Mastering the challenges of sustainability requires individual learning as well as learning processes on different levels of human systems ranging from groups and organizations to human societies, and mankind as a whole. Learning processes of individuals play a fundamental role, since individuals constitute and shape the larger social aggregates. Learning processes on the level of social aggregates are important since social systems embed and influence individuals. Therefore, sustainability learning needs to be understood as a multi-level concept, comprising individual learning as well as learning processes of human systems. Transdisciplinarity and mutual learning between science and society are considered fundamental approaches of sustainability learning, and hence increase the capacity of mankind to manage human-environment systems in sustainable ways. Based on systemic considerations, the two-fold role, in which motivations act as determinants and targeted outcomes of sustainability learning processes, is explained together with the outstanding role that cooperation, hence cooperative motivation, plays for sustainable development. Finally, the multifaceted, controversial discourses on what sustainability ultimately means (for the scientific community, for a given cultural or political entity, organization, or individual person) are considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Education)
Open AccessReview Land-Sourced Pollution with an Emphasis on Domestic Sewage: Lessons from the Caribbean and Implications for Coastal Development on Indian Ocean and Pacific Coral Reefs
Sustainability 2010, 2(9), 2919-2949; doi:10.3390/su2092919
Received: 6 August 2010 / Revised: 5 September 2010 / Accepted: 9 September 2010 / Published: 14 September 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (803 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper discusses land-sourced pollution with an emphasis on domestic sewage in the Caribbean in relation to similar issues in the Indian Ocean and Pacific. Starting on a large-scale in the 1980s, tropical Atlantic coastlines of Florida and Caribbean islands were over-developed [...] Read more.
This paper discusses land-sourced pollution with an emphasis on domestic sewage in the Caribbean in relation to similar issues in the Indian Ocean and Pacific. Starting on a large-scale in the 1980s, tropical Atlantic coastlines of Florida and Caribbean islands were over-developed to the point that traditional sewage treatment and disposal were inadequate to protect fragile coral reefs from eutrophication by land-sourced nutrient pollution. This pollution caused both ecological and public health problems. Coral reefs were smothered by macro-algae and died, becoming rapidly transformed into weedy algal lawns, which resulted in beach erosion, and loss of habitat that added to fisheries collapse previously caused by over-fishing. Barbados was one of the first countries to recognize this problem and to begin implementation of effective solutions. Eastern Africa, the Indian Ocean Islands, Pacific Islands, and South East Asia, are now starting to develop their coastlines for ecotourism, like the Caribbean was in the 1970s. Tourism is an important and increasing component of the economies of most tropical coastal areas. There are important lessons to be learned from this Caribbean experience for coastal zone planners, developers, engineers, coastal communities and decision makers in other parts of the world to assure that history does not repeat itself. Coral reef die-off from land-sourced pollution has been eclipsed as an issue since the ocean warming events of 1998, linked to global warming. Addressing ocean warming will take considerable international cooperation, but much of the land-sourced pollution issue, especially sewage, can be dealt with on a watershed by watershed basis by Indian Ocean and Pacific countries. Failure to solve this critical issue can adversely impact both coral reef and public health with dire economic consequences, and will prevent coral reef recovery from extreme high temperature events. Sewage treatment, disposal options, and nutrient standards are recommended that can serve as a reference point but must be fine-tuned to local ecology. Full article
Open AccessReview Sustainability of Urban Infrastructures
Sustainability 2010, 2(9), 2950-2964; doi:10.3390/su2092950
Received: 27 July 2010 / Revised: 2 September 2010 / Accepted: 8 September 2010 / Published: 14 September 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (514 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The scope of the paper is to overview the different approaches for evaluation of urban infrastructure sustainability. In this context, urban infrastructure covers transportation, energy, water, sewage and information networks as well as waste management and blue-green infrastructure, in terms of both [...] Read more.
The scope of the paper is to overview the different approaches for evaluation of urban infrastructure sustainability. In this context, urban infrastructure covers transportation, energy, water, sewage and information networks as well as waste management and blue-green infrastructure, in terms of both the supply and demand side. A common effort of partners in the European project “C8—Best Practice in Sustainable Urban Infrastructure”, developed under the Cooperation in Science and Technology program (COST), in brief COST C8, was focused on defining the methods, indicators and criteria for evaluation of sustainability, and resulted in a guidebook for decision-makers in local authorities. Here, the COST C8 matrix for simple sustainability assessment of urban infrastructure is applied to The Path (POT) case—a circular memorial and recreational park around the city of Ljubljana, Slovenia. The applicability and acceptance of the matrix in 43 other cases of sustainable urban infrastructure, collected in the COST C8 project, is presented and discussed. Full article

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