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Materials 2015, 8(4), 1871-1896; doi:10.3390/ma8041871

Additively Manufactured Open-Cell Porous Biomaterials Made from Six Different Space-Filling Unit Cells: The Mechanical and Morphological Properties

1
Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft, The Netherlands
2
LayerWise NV, Kapeldreef 60, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
3
Department of Orthopedics and Department of Rheumatology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands
4
Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, PB 2450, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Aldo R. Boccaccini
Received: 18 January 2015 / Revised: 8 April 2015 / Accepted: 14 April 2015 / Published: 21 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanics of Biomaterials)

Abstract

It is known that the mechanical properties of bone-mimicking porous biomaterials are a function of the morphological properties of the porous structure, including the configuration and size of the repeating unit cell from which they are made. However, the literature on this topic is limited, primarily because of the challenge in fabricating porous biomaterials with arbitrarily complex morphological designs. In the present work, we studied the relationship between relative density (RD) of porous Ti6Al4V EFI alloy and five compressive properties of the material, namely elastic gradient or modulus (Es20–70), first maximum stress, plateau stress, yield stress, and energy absorption. Porous structures with different RD and six different unit cell configurations (cubic (C), diamond (D), truncated cube (TC), truncated cuboctahedron (TCO), rhombic dodecahedron (RD), and rhombicuboctahedron (RCO)) were fabricated using selective laser melting. Each of the compressive properties increased with increase in RD, the relationship being of a power law type. Clear trends were seen in the influence of unit cell configuration and porosity on each of the compressive properties. For example, in terms of Es20–70, the structures may be divided into two groups: those that are stiff (comprising those made using C, TC, TCO, and RCO unit cell) and those that are compliant (comprising those made using D and RD unit cell). View Full-Text
Keywords: cellular solids; selective laser melting; compressive properties; and porous Ti alloy cellular solids; selective laser melting; compressive properties; and porous Ti alloy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ahmadi, S.M.; Yavari, S.A.; Wauthle, R.; Pouran, B.; Schrooten, J.; Weinans, H.; Zadpoor, A.A. Additively Manufactured Open-Cell Porous Biomaterials Made from Six Different Space-Filling Unit Cells: The Mechanical and Morphological Properties. Materials 2015, 8, 1871-1896.

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