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Energies, Volume 7, Issue 8 (August 2014), Pages 4727-5501

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Open AccessArticle A Dynamic Fuzzy Controller to Meet Thermal Comfort by Using Neural Network Forecasted Parameters as the Input
Energies 2014, 7(8), 4727-4756; doi:10.3390/en7084727
Received: 26 May 2014 / Revised: 9 July 2014 / Accepted: 11 July 2014 / Published: 24 July 2014
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (10329 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are typical non-linear time-variable multivariate systems with disturbances and uncertainties. In this paper, an approach based on a combined neuro-fuzzy model for dynamic and automatic regulation of indoor temperature is proposed. The proposed artificial neural network performs
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Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are typical non-linear time-variable multivariate systems with disturbances and uncertainties. In this paper, an approach based on a combined neuro-fuzzy model for dynamic and automatic regulation of indoor temperature is proposed. The proposed artificial neural network performs indoor temperatures forecasts that are used to feed a fuzzy logic control unit in order to manage the on/off switching of the HVAC system and the regulation of the inlet air speed. Moreover, the used neural network is optimized by the analytical calculation of the embedding parameters, and the goodness of this approach is tested through MATLAB. The fuzzy controller is driven by the indoor temperature forecasted by the neural network module and is able to adjust the membership functions dynamically, since thermal comfort is a very subjective factor and may vary even in the same subject. The paper shows some experimental results, through a real implementation in an embedded prototyping board, of the proposed approach in terms of the evolution of the inlet air speed injected by the fan coils, the indoor air temperature forecasted by the neural network model and the adjusting of the membership functions after receiving user feedback. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Potential and Utilization of Unused Energy Sources for Large-Scale Horticulture Facility Applications under Korean Climatic Conditions
Energies 2014, 7(8), 4781-4801; doi:10.3390/en7084781
Received: 7 May 2014 / Revised: 12 June 2014 / Accepted: 16 July 2014 / Published: 24 July 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1282 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As the use of fossil fuel has increased, not only in construction, but also in agriculture due to the drastic industrial development in recent times, the problems of heating costs and global warming are getting worse. Therefore, introduction of more reliable and environmentally-friendly
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As the use of fossil fuel has increased, not only in construction, but also in agriculture due to the drastic industrial development in recent times, the problems of heating costs and global warming are getting worse. Therefore, introduction of more reliable and environmentally-friendly alternative energy sources has become urgent and the same trend is found in large-scale horticulture facilities. In this study, among many alternative energy sources, we investigated the reserves and the potential of various different unused energy sources which have infinite potential, but are nowadays wasted due to limitations in their utilization. In addition, we utilized available unused energy as a heat source for a heat pump in a large-scale horticulture facility and analyzed its feasibility through EnergyPlus simulation modeling. Accordingly, the discharge flow rate from the Fan Coil Unit (FCU) in the horticulture facility, the discharge air temperature, and the return temperature were analyzed. The performance and heat consumption of each heat source were compared with those of conventional boilers. The result showed that the power load of the heat pump was decreased and thus the heat efficiency was increased as the temperature of the heat source was increased. Among the analyzed heat sources, power plant waste heat which had the highest heat source temperature consumed the least electric energy and showed the highest efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy for Agriculture)
Open AccessArticle Geothermal Power Growth 1995–2013—A Comparison with Other Renewables
Energies 2014, 7(8), 4802-4812; doi:10.3390/en7084802
Received: 4 April 2014 / Revised: 15 July 2014 / Accepted: 16 July 2014 / Published: 24 July 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1408 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Based on global statistical data the current status of deep geothermal resource utilization for electricity generation is presented. Particular attention is paid to growth rates. The rates are compared with those of other renewable energies (biomass, hydro, solar photovoltaic (PV), wind). Whereas wind
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Based on global statistical data the current status of deep geothermal resource utilization for electricity generation is presented. Particular attention is paid to growth rates. The rates are compared with those of other renewable energies (biomass, hydro, solar photovoltaic (PV), wind). Whereas wind and solar PV exhibit annual growth rates of 25%–30% since 2004, geothermal growth is only about 5% per year. Geothermal electricity production (in TW∙h/yr) was higher until 2011 than from solar PV, but is now clearly falling behind. So far the global geothermal electricity generation is provided nearly entirely by hydrothermal resources, which exist only under specific geologic conditions. Further development (=increasing production capacity) based on this resource type alone will therefore hardly accelerate to two-digit (>10% per year) growth rates. Faster growth can only be achieved by using the ubiquitous petrothermal resources, provided that the key problem will be solved: establishing a universally applicable technology. This would enable to create, at any requested site, feasible and efficient deep heat exchangers for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) power plants—irrespective of the local subsurface conditions. Goals and challenges of this technology are addressed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Numerical Investigation of Hydrate Dissociation Performance in the South China Sea with Different Horizontal Well Configurations
Energies 2014, 7(8), 4813-4834; doi:10.3390/en7084813
Received: 4 April 2014 / Revised: 3 July 2014 / Accepted: 16 July 2014 / Published: 28 July 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (2515 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Based on the available measurement data and literature on the hydrate deposits of the South China Sea, a numerical simulation with a new dual horizontal well system has been carried out. Warm brine stimulation combined with depressurization is employed as the production method.
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Based on the available measurement data and literature on the hydrate deposits of the South China Sea, a numerical simulation with a new dual horizontal well system has been carried out. Warm brine stimulation combined with depressurization is employed as the production method. Two horizontal wells were situated in the same horizontal plane and they were placed in the middle of the Hydrate-Bearing Layer (HBL). The warm brine is injected from the left well (LW) into the reservoir, and the right well (RW) acted as the producer under constant pressure. The simulation results show that the effects of hydrate dissociation rate, gas to water ratio, and energy ratio are all better than the previous work in which the dual horizontal wells are placed in the same vertical plane. In addition, the sensitivity analysis indicates that a higher injection rate can enhance the hydrate dissociation rate and gas production rate, while a lower injection rate gives a more favorable gas to water ratio and energy ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Ocean Natural Gas Hydrate 2014)
Open AccessArticle A Layered Fault Tree Model for Reliability Evaluation of Smart Grids
Energies 2014, 7(8), 4835-4857; doi:10.3390/en7084835
Received: 20 March 2014 / Revised: 31 May 2014 / Accepted: 15 July 2014 / Published: 29 July 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1245 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The smart grid concept has emerged as a result of the requirement for renewable energy resources and application of new techniques. It is proposed as a practical future form of power distribution system. Evaluating the reliability of smart grids is of great importance
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The smart grid concept has emerged as a result of the requirement for renewable energy resources and application of new techniques. It is proposed as a practical future form of power distribution system. Evaluating the reliability of smart grids is of great importance and significance. Focusing on the perspective of the consumers, this paper proposes a layered fault tree model to distinguish and separate two different smart grid power supply modes. Revised importance measures for the components in the fault tree are presented considering load priority, aiming to find the weak parts of the system and to improve the design and using. A corresponding hierarchical Monte Carlo simulation procedure for reliability evaluation is proposed based on the layered fault tree model. The method proposed in this paper is tested on a case of reliability assessment for the Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) system. The proposed technique can be applicable to other forms of smart grids. Full article
Open AccessArticle Topology of a Bidirectional Converter for Energy Interaction between Electric Vehicles and the Grid
Energies 2014, 7(8), 4858-4894; doi:10.3390/en7084858
Received: 16 April 2014 / Revised: 18 July 2014 / Accepted: 21 July 2014 / Published: 30 July 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3048 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In vehicle-to-grid (V2G) systems, electric vehicles interact with the grid as distributed energy storage systems that offer many potential benefits. As an energy interface between a vehicle and the grid, the bidirectional converter plays a crucial role in their interaction. Its reliability, safety,
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In vehicle-to-grid (V2G) systems, electric vehicles interact with the grid as distributed energy storage systems that offer many potential benefits. As an energy interface between a vehicle and the grid, the bidirectional converter plays a crucial role in their interaction. Its reliability, safety, cost, efficiency, weight, size, harmonics, and other factors are of essential importance for V2G realization, especially for on-board operations. Beyond the common existing topologies for bidirectional chargers, this paper introduces a novel high-power-factor bidirectional single-stage full-bridge (BSS-FBC) topology, which offers advantages in power density, size, weight, cost, efficiency, power quality, dynamic characteristic, reliability, and complexity. Its operational principles and control strategies are presented. Harmonic analysis on the basis of double-Fourier integral is performed with detailed comparison of line current harmonic characteristics between the BSS-FBC topology and unipolar/bipolar controlled single-phase pulse width modulation (PWM) converters. A dynamic model of the topology is derived, its dynamic behavior analyzed, and its compensator design method developed. Simulation and experimental results are employed to verify the design and analysis. Design considerations for the key parameters are discussed. A 3.3 kW prototype is developed for this topology and validated in its vehicle applications. The results demonstrate clearly the benefits and advantages of the new topology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Cycle Life of Commercial Lithium-Ion Batteries with Lithium Titanium Oxide Anodes in Electric Vehicles
Energies 2014, 7(8), 4895-4909; doi:10.3390/en7084895
Received: 24 June 2014 / Revised: 20 July 2014 / Accepted: 22 July 2014 / Published: 30 July 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (756 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The lithium titanium oxide (LTO) anode is widely accepted as one of the best anodes for the future lithium ion batteries in electric vehicles (EVs), especially since its cycle life is very long. In this paper, three different commercial LTO cells from different
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The lithium titanium oxide (LTO) anode is widely accepted as one of the best anodes for the future lithium ion batteries in electric vehicles (EVs), especially since its cycle life is very long. In this paper, three different commercial LTO cells from different manufacturers were studied in accelerated cycle life tests and their capacity fades were compared. The result indicates that under 55 °C, the LTO battery still shows a high capacity fade rate. The battery aging processes of all the commercial LTO cells clearly include two stages. Using the incremental capacity (IC) analysis, it could be judged that in the first stage, the battery capacity decreases mainly due to the loss of anode material and the degradation rate is lower. In the second stage, the battery capacity decreases much faster, mainly due to the degradation of the cathode material. The result is important for the state of health (SOH) estimation and remaining useful life (RUL) prediction of battery management system (BMS) for LTO batteries in EVs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Energy Storage—Battery and Capacitor)
Open AccessArticle Optimizing the Design of Small Fast Spectrum Battery-Type Nuclear Reactors
Energies 2014, 7(8), 4910-4937; doi:10.3390/en7084910
Received: 3 June 2014 / Revised: 7 July 2014 / Accepted: 18 July 2014 / Published: 31 July 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1675 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study is focused on defining and optimizing the design parameters of inherently safe “battery” type sodium-cooled metallic-fueled nuclear reactor cores that operate on a single stationary fuel loading at full power for 30 years. A total of 29 core designs were developed
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This study is focused on defining and optimizing the design parameters of inherently safe “battery” type sodium-cooled metallic-fueled nuclear reactor cores that operate on a single stationary fuel loading at full power for 30 years. A total of 29 core designs were developed with varying power and flow conditions, including detailed thermal-hydraulic, structural-mechanical and neutronic analysis. Given set constraints for irradiation damage, primary cycle pressure drop and inherent safety considerations, the attainable power range and performance characteristics of the systems are defined. The optimum power level for a core with a coolant pressure drop limit of 100 kPa and an irradiation damage limit of 200 DPA (displacements per atom) is found to be 100 MWt/40 MWe. Raising the power level of an optimized core gives significantly higher attainable power densities and burnup, but severely decreases safety margins and increases the irradiation damage. A fully optimized inherently safe battery-type fast reactor core with an active height and diameter of 150 cm (2.6 m3), a pressure drop limit of 100 kPa and an irradiation damage limit of 300 DPA can be designed to operate at 150 MWt/60 MWe for 30 years, reaching an average discharge burnup of 100 MWd/kg-actinide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nuclear Reactor and Fuel Cycle Technologies)
Open AccessArticle Buoyant Unstable Behavior of Initially Spherical Lean Hydrogen-Air Premixed Flames
Energies 2014, 7(8), 4938-4956; doi:10.3390/en7084938
Received: 31 March 2014 / Revised: 16 July 2014 / Accepted: 23 July 2014 / Published: 31 July 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1987 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Buoyant unstable behavior in initially spherical lean hydrogen-air premixed flames within a center-ignited combustion vessel have been studied experimentally under a wide range of pressures (including reduced, normal, and elevated pressures). The experimental observations show that the flame front of lean hydrogen-air premixed
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Buoyant unstable behavior in initially spherical lean hydrogen-air premixed flames within a center-ignited combustion vessel have been studied experimentally under a wide range of pressures (including reduced, normal, and elevated pressures). The experimental observations show that the flame front of lean hydrogen-air premixed flames will not give rise to the phenomenon of cellular instability when the equivalence ratio has been reduced to a certain value, which is totally different from the traditional understanding of the instability characteristics of lean hydrogen premixed flames. Accompanied by the smoothened flame front, the propagation mode of lean hydrogen premixed flames transitions from initially spherical outwardly towards upwardly when the flames expand to certain sizes. To quantitatively investigate such buoyant instability behaviors, two parameters, “float rate (ψ)” and “critical flame radius (Rcr)”, have been proposed in the present article. The quantitative results demonstrate that the influences of initial pressure (Pint) on buoyant unstable behaviors are different. Based on the effects of variation of density difference and stretch rate on the flame front, the mechanism of such buoyant unstable behaviors has been explained by the competition between the stretch force and the results of gravity and buoyancy, and lean hydrogen premixed flames will display buoyant unstable behavior when the stretch effects on the flame front are weaker than the effects of gravity and buoyancy. Full article
Open AccessArticle Study on the Characteristics of Expander Power Output Used for Offsetting Pumping Work Consumption in Organic Rankine Cycles
Energies 2014, 7(8), 4957-4971; doi:10.3390/en7084957
Received: 24 June 2014 / Revised: 25 July 2014 / Accepted: 28 July 2014 / Published: 31 July 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1283 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The circulation pump in an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) increases the pressure of the liquid working fluid from low condensing pressure to high evaporating pressure, and the expander utilizes the pressure difference to generate work. A portion of the expander output power is
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The circulation pump in an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) increases the pressure of the liquid working fluid from low condensing pressure to high evaporating pressure, and the expander utilizes the pressure difference to generate work. A portion of the expander output power is used to offset the consumed pumping work, and the rest of the expander power is exactly the net work produced by the ORC system. Because of the relatively great theoretical pumping work and very low efficiency of the circulation pump reported in previous papers, the characteristics of the expander power used for offsetting the pumping work need serious consideration. In particular, the present work examines those characteristics. It is found that the characteristics of the expander power used for offsetting the pumping work are satisfactory only under the condition that the working fluid absorbs sufficient heat in the evaporator and its specific volume at the evaporator outlet is larger than or equal to a threshold value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waste Heat Recovery—Strategy and Practice)
Open AccessArticle Impact of Air Tightness on the Evaluation of Building Energy Performance in Lithuania
Energies 2014, 7(8), 4972-4987; doi:10.3390/en7084972
Received: 9 April 2014 / Revised: 11 July 2014 / Accepted: 22 July 2014 / Published: 4 August 2014
PDF Full-text (1686 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to fulfil the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) requirements for the reduction of energy consumption, European national requirements have been created for building envelope thermal properties and calculation methodology to determine if building energy efficiency is created. This is
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In order to fulfil the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) requirements for the reduction of energy consumption, European national requirements have been created for building envelope thermal properties and calculation methodology to determine if building energy efficiency is created. This is however not true in all methodologies. The necessity of building air tightness appears only for new A class buildings, and there are no requirements for air tightness for other building classes. Therefore, the aim of this work is to improve the methodology for the calculation of energy efficiency of buildings, while taking into account the air tightness of the buildings. In order to achieve this aim, the sum energy consumption of investigated buildings was calculated, energy efficiency classes were determined, air tightness of the buildings was measured, and reasons for insufficient air tightness were analyzed. Investigation results show that the average value of air tightness of A energy efficiency class buildings is 0.6 h−1. The results of other investigated buildings, corresponding to B and C energy efficiency classes, show insufficient air tightness (the average n50 value is 6 h−1); herewith, energy consumption for heating is higher than calculated, according to the energy efficiency methodology. This paper provides an energy performance evaluation scheme, under which performed evaluation of energy performance of buildings ensures high quality construction work, building durability, and the reliability of heat-loss calculations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient Building Design and Operation 2014)
Open AccessArticle A Novel Hybrid-Fuel Storage System of Compressed Air Energy for China
Energies 2014, 7(8), 4988-5010; doi:10.3390/en7084988
Received: 20 March 2014 / Revised: 14 July 2014 / Accepted: 23 July 2014 / Published: 4 August 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (835 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Compressed air energy storage (CAES) is a large-scale technology that provides long-duration energy storage. It is promising for balancing the large-scale penetration of intermittent and dispersed sources of power, such as wind and solar power, into electric grids. The existing CAES plants utilize
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Compressed air energy storage (CAES) is a large-scale technology that provides long-duration energy storage. It is promising for balancing the large-scale penetration of intermittent and dispersed sources of power, such as wind and solar power, into electric grids. The existing CAES plants utilize natural gas (NG) as fuel. However, China is rich in coal but is deficient in NG; therefore, a hybrid-fuel CAES is proposed and analyzed in this study. Based on the existing CAES plants, the hybrid-fuel CAES incorporates an external combustion heater into the power generation subsystem to heat the air from the recuperator and the air from the high-pressure air turbine. Coal is the fuel for the external combustion heater. The overall efficiency and exergy efficiency of the hybrid-fuel CAES are 61.18% and 59.84%, respectively. Given the same parameters, the cost of electricity (COE) of the hybrid-fuel CAES, which requires less NG, is $5.48/MW∙h less than that of the gas-fuel CAES. Although the proposed CAES requires a relatively high investment in the current electricity system in North China, the proposed CAES will be likely to become competitive in the market, provided that the energy supplies are improved and the large scale grid-connection of wind power is realized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Innovation: Strategies to Accelerate Progress)
Open AccessArticle Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Experiencing Platform Pitching Motion
Energies 2014, 7(8), 5011-5026; doi:10.3390/en7085011
Received: 14 May 2014 / Revised: 25 July 2014 / Accepted: 29 July 2014 / Published: 4 August 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1713 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study is to illustrate the unsteady aerodynamic effects of a floating offshore wind turbine experiencing the prescribed pitching motion of a supporting floating platform as a sine function. The three-dimensional, unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the shear-stress transport
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The objective of this study is to illustrate the unsteady aerodynamic effects of a floating offshore wind turbine experiencing the prescribed pitching motion of a supporting floating platform as a sine function. The three-dimensional, unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the shear-stress transport (SST) k-ω turbulence model were applied. Moreover, an overset grid approach was used to model the rigid body motion of a wind turbine blade. The current simulation results are compared to various approaches from previous studies. The unsteady aerodynamic loads of the blade were demonstrated to change drastically with respect to the frequency and amplitude of platform motion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Open AccessArticle Circuit Simulation for Solar Power Maximum Power Point Tracking with Different Buck-Boost Converter Topologies
Energies 2014, 7(8), 5027-5046; doi:10.3390/en7085027
Received: 20 June 2014 / Revised: 17 July 2014 / Accepted: 29 July 2014 / Published: 5 August 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (882 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The power converter is one of the essential elements for effective use of renewable power sources. This paper focuses on the development of a circuit simulation model for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) evaluation of solar power that involves using different buck-boost power
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The power converter is one of the essential elements for effective use of renewable power sources. This paper focuses on the development of a circuit simulation model for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) evaluation of solar power that involves using different buck-boost power converter topologies; including SEPIC, Zeta, and four-switch type buck-boost DC/DC converters. The circuit simulation model mainly includes three subsystems: a PV model; a buck-boost converter-based MPPT system; and a fuzzy logic MPPT controller. Dynamic analyses of the current-fed buck-boost converter systems are conducted and results are presented in the paper. The maximum power point tracking function is achieved through appropriate control of the power switches of the power converter. A fuzzy logic controller is developed to perform the MPPT function for obtaining maximum power from the PV panel. The MATLAB-based Simulink piecewise linear electric circuit simulation tool is used to verify the complete circuit simulation model. Full article
Open AccessArticle Hybrid Model Representation of a TLP Including Flexible Topsides in Non-Linear Regular Waves
Energies 2014, 7(8), 5047-5064; doi:10.3390/en7085047
Received: 23 May 2014 / Accepted: 7 July 2014 / Published: 6 August 2014
PDF Full-text (731 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The rising demand for renewable energy solutions is forcing the established industries to expand and continue evolving. For the wind energy sector, the vast resources in deep sea locations have encouraged research towards the installation of turbines in deeper waters. One of the
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The rising demand for renewable energy solutions is forcing the established industries to expand and continue evolving. For the wind energy sector, the vast resources in deep sea locations have encouraged research towards the installation of turbines in deeper waters. One of the most promising technologies able to solve this challenge is the floating wind turbine foundation. For the ultimate limit state, where higher order wave loads have a significant influence, a design tool that couples non-linear excitations with structural dynamics is required. To properly describe the behavior of such a structure, a numerical model is proposed and validated by physical test results. The model is applied to a case study of a tension leg platform with a flexible topside mimicking the tower and a lumped mass mimicking the rotor-nacelle assembly. The model is additionally compared to current commercial software, where the need for the coupled higher order dynamics proposed in this paper becomes evident. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Model Based State of Charge Estimation Methods for Lithium-Ion Batteries
Energies 2014, 7(8), 5065-5082; doi:10.3390/en7085065
Received: 16 April 2014 / Revised: 1 August 2014 / Accepted: 5 August 2014 / Published: 8 August 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (810 KB) | XML Full-text
Abstract
Four model-based State of Charge (SOC) estimation methods for lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are studied and evaluated in this paper. Different from existing literatures, this work evaluates different aspects of the SOC estimation, such as the estimation error distribution, the estimation rise time, the
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Four model-based State of Charge (SOC) estimation methods for lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are studied and evaluated in this paper. Different from existing literatures, this work evaluates different aspects of the SOC estimation, such as the estimation error distribution, the estimation rise time, the estimation time consumption, etc. The equivalent model of the battery is introduced and the state function of the model is deduced. The four model-based SOC estimation methods are analyzed first. Simulations and experiments are then established to evaluate the four methods. The urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS) current profiles are applied to simulate the drive situations of an electrified vehicle, and a genetic algorithm is utilized to identify the model parameters to find the optimal parameters of the model of the Li-ion battery. The simulations with and without disturbance are carried out and the results are analyzed. A battery test workbench is established and a Li-ion battery is applied to test the hardware in a loop experiment. Experimental results are plotted and analyzed according to the four aspects to evaluate the four model-based SOC estimation methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Energy Storage—Battery and Capacitor)
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Open AccessArticle Application of US and EU Sustainability Criteria to Analysis of Biofuels-Induced Land Use Change
Energies 2014, 7(8), 5119-5128; doi:10.3390/en7085119
Received: 11 May 2014 / Revised: 18 July 2014 / Accepted: 6 August 2014 / Published: 12 August 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (555 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This research asks and answers a question that had been avoided by all the previous research on biofuels impacts. That is, to what extent are the US and EU biofuels sustainability criteria binding in the sense that if applied, sufficient land would be
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This research asks and answers a question that had been avoided by all the previous research on biofuels impacts. That is, to what extent are the US and EU biofuels sustainability criteria binding in the sense that if applied, sufficient land would be available to implement the programs? In answering the question, we simulate the global land by agro-ecological zone that would be needed to supply feedstocks for the US and EU biofuel programs using an advanced version of the GTAP-BIO model. Then we estimate the global area of land that would not be available due to sustainability criteria restrictions, again by agro-ecological zone. Finally, we determine the extent to which the US and EU sustainability criteria are binding and find that they are not binding at the biofuel levels currently targeted by the US and EU. In addition, we evaluate the same question, but this time freezing global food consumption, and get the same answer—plenty of land is available to meet the targets and supply food demands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass Resource Efficiency for the Biobased Industries)
Open AccessArticle An Economic and Environmental Assessment Model for Selecting the Optimal Implementation Strategy of Fuel Cell Systems—A Focus on Building Energy Policy
Energies 2014, 7(8), 5129-5150; doi:10.3390/en7085129
Received: 24 May 2014 / Revised: 8 July 2014 / Accepted: 5 August 2014 / Published: 12 August 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2818 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Considerable effort is being made to reduce the primary energy consumption in buildings. As part of this effort, fuel cell systems are attracting attention as a new/renewable energy systems for several reasons: (i) distributed generation system; (ii) combined heat and power system; and
[...] Read more.
Considerable effort is being made to reduce the primary energy consumption in buildings. As part of this effort, fuel cell systems are attracting attention as a new/renewable energy systems for several reasons: (i) distributed generation system; (ii) combined heat and power system; and (iii) availability of various sources of hydrogen in the future. Therefore, this study aimed to develop an economic and environmental assessment model for selecting the optimal implementation strategy of the fuel cell system, focusing on building energy policy. This study selected two types of buildings (i.e., residential buildings and non-residential buildings) as the target buildings and considered two types of building energy policies (i.e., the standard of energy cost calculation and the standard of a government subsidy). This study established the optimal implementation strategy of the fuel cell system in terms of the life cycle cost and life cycle CO2 emissions. For the residential building, it is recommended that the subsidy level and the system marginal price level be increased. For the non-residential building, it is recommended that gas energy cost be decreased and the system marginal price level be increased. The developed model could be applied to any other country or any other type of building according to building energy policy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient Building Design and Operation 2014)
Open AccessArticle Shadow Replication: An Energy-Aware, Fault-Tolerant Computational Model for Green Cloud Computing
Energies 2014, 7(8), 5151-5176; doi:10.3390/en7085151
Received: 4 June 2014 / Revised: 30 July 2014 / Accepted: 5 August 2014 / Published: 12 August 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (881 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As the demand for cloud computing continues to increase, cloud service providers face the daunting challenge to meet the negotiated SLA agreement, in terms of reliability and timely performance, while achieving cost-effectiveness. This challenge is increasingly compounded by the increasing likelihood of failure
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As the demand for cloud computing continues to increase, cloud service providers face the daunting challenge to meet the negotiated SLA agreement, in terms of reliability and timely performance, while achieving cost-effectiveness. This challenge is increasingly compounded by the increasing likelihood of failure in large-scale clouds and the rising impact of energy consumption and CO2 emission on the environment. This paper proposes Shadow Replication, a novel fault-tolerance model for cloud computing, which seamlessly addresses failure at scale, while minimizing energy consumption and reducing its impact on the environment. The basic tenet of the model is to associate a suite of shadow processes to execute concurrently with the main process, but initially at a much reduced execution speed, to overcome failures as they occur. Two computationally-feasible schemes are proposed to achieve Shadow Replication. A performance evaluation framework is developed to analyze these schemes and compare their performance to traditional replication-based fault tolerance methods, focusing on the inherent tradeoff between fault tolerance, the specified SLA and profit maximization. The results show that Shadow Replication leads to significant energy reduction, and is better suited for compute-intensive execution models, where up to 30% more profit increase can be achieved due to reduced energy consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green IT and IT for Smart Energy Savings)
Open AccessArticle Modeling and Parameterization of Fuel Economy in Heavy Duty Vehicles (HDVs)
Energies 2014, 7(8), 5177-5200; doi:10.3390/en7085177
Received: 31 March 2014 / Revised: 12 July 2014 / Accepted: 4 August 2014 / Published: 13 August 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1853 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present paper suggests fuel consumption modeling for HDVs based on the code from the Japanese Ministry of the Environment. Two interpolation models (inversed distance weighted (IDW) and Hermite) and three types of fuel efficiency maps (coarse, medium, and dense) were adopted to
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The present paper suggests fuel consumption modeling for HDVs based on the code from the Japanese Ministry of the Environment. Two interpolation models (inversed distance weighted (IDW) and Hermite) and three types of fuel efficiency maps (coarse, medium, and dense) were adopted to determine the most appropriate combination for further studies. Finally, sensitivity analysis studies were conducted to determine which parameters greatly impact the fuel efficiency prediction results for HDVs. While vitiating each parameter at specific percentages (±1%, ±3%, ±5%, ±10%), the change rate of the fuel efficiency results was analyzed, and the main factors affecting fuel efficiency were summarized. As a result, the Japanese transformation algorithm program showed good agreement with slightly increased prediction accuracy for the fuel efficiency test results when applying the Hermite interpolation method compared to IDW interpolation. The prediction accuracy of fuel efficiency remained unchanged regardless of the chosen fuel efficiency map data density. According to the sensitivity analysis study, three parameters (fuel consumption map data, driving force, and gross vehicle weight) have the greatest impact on fuel efficiency (±5% to ±10% changes). Full article
Open AccessArticle Dialectic Form Finding of Passive and Adaptive Shading Enclosures
Energies 2014, 7(8), 5201-5220; doi:10.3390/en7085201
Received: 9 June 2014 / Revised: 17 July 2014 / Accepted: 5 August 2014 / Published: 13 August 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1876 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Form finding describes the process of finding a stable equilibrium shape for a system under a specific set of loads, for a set of boundary conditions and starting from an arbitrary initial geometry. However, form finding does not traditionally involve performance constraints such
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Form finding describes the process of finding a stable equilibrium shape for a system under a specific set of loads, for a set of boundary conditions and starting from an arbitrary initial geometry. However, form finding does not traditionally involve performance constraints such as energy-related criteria. Dialectic form finding is an extension of the process integrating energy-related design aspects. In this paper, dialectic form finding is employed as an approach for designing high performance architectural systems, driven by solar radiation control and structural efficiency. Two applications of dialectic form found shading enclosure structures, a passive and an active one, are presented. The first application example is a site-specific outdoor shading structure. The structure is based on a louver system designed to provide protection from ultraviolet radiation over a pre-defined target only when required, promoting natural lighting and ventilation. The second application example is a shape-shifting modular façade system that adapts its opacity in response to environmental fluctuations. The system can thus improve the environmental performance of a building. Moreover, the system explores elastic deformations for shape changes, reducing actuation requirements. These examples highlight the potential of the dialectic form-finding strategy for the design of high performance architectural integrated structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient Building Design and Operation 2014)
Open AccessArticle Carbon Capture and Storage Development Trends from a Techno-Paradigm Perspective
Energies 2014, 7(8), 5221-5250; doi:10.3390/en7085221
Received: 5 June 2014 / Revised: 8 July 2014 / Accepted: 11 August 2014 / Published: 14 August 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (6280 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The world’s energy needs have been continually growing over the past decade, yet fossil fuels are limited. Renewable energies are becoming more prevalent, but are still a long way from being commonplace worldwide. Literature mining is applied to review carbon capture and storage
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The world’s energy needs have been continually growing over the past decade, yet fossil fuels are limited. Renewable energies are becoming more prevalent, but are still a long way from being commonplace worldwide. Literature mining is applied to review carbon capture and storage (CCS) development trends and to develop and examine a novel carbon capture and storage technological paradigm (CCSTP), which incorporates CCSTP competition, diffusion and shift. This paper first provides an overview of the research and progress in CCS technological development, then applies a techno-paradigm theory to analyze CCSTP development and to provide a guide for future CCS technological trends. CCS could avoid CO2 being released into the atmosphere. Moreover, bioenergy with CCS (BECCS) can make a significant contribution to a net removal of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. In this study, we compare the different CCSTP developmental paths and the conventional techno-paradigm by examining the S-curves. The analyses in this paper provide a useful guide for scholars seeking new inspiration in their research and for potential investors who are seeking to invest research funds in more mature technologies. We conclude that political barriers and public acceptance are the major distinctions between the CCSTP and the conventional techno-paradigm. It is expected that policy instruments and economic instruments are going to play a pivotal role in the accomplishment of global carbon reduction scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS): Bio-Energy vs Fossil Fuels)
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Open AccessArticle Comparison Between Wind Power Prediction Models Based on Wavelet Decomposition with Least-Squares Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN)
Energies 2014, 7(8), 5251-5272; doi:10.3390/en7085251
Received: 5 May 2014 / Revised: 5 August 2014 / Accepted: 5 August 2014 / Published: 14 August 2014
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (1758 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A high penetration of wind energy into the electricity market requires a parallel development of efficient wind power forecasting models. Different hybrid forecasting methods were applied to wind power prediction, using historical data and numerical weather predictions (NWP). A comparative study was carried
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A high penetration of wind energy into the electricity market requires a parallel development of efficient wind power forecasting models. Different hybrid forecasting methods were applied to wind power prediction, using historical data and numerical weather predictions (NWP). A comparative study was carried out for the prediction of the power production of a wind farm located in complex terrain. The performances of Least-Squares Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) with Wavelet Decomposition (WD) were evaluated at different time horizons and compared to hybrid Artificial Neural Network (ANN)-based methods. It is acknowledged that hybrid methods based on LS-SVM with WD mostly outperform other methods. A decomposition of the commonly known root mean square error was beneficial for a better understanding of the origin of the differences between prediction and measurement and to compare the accuracy of the different models. A sensitivity analysis was also carried out in order to underline the impact that each input had in the network training process for ANN. In the case of ANN with the WD technique, the sensitivity analysis was repeated on each component obtained by the decomposition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbines 2014)
Open AccessArticle Comparison and Impact of Waste Heat Recovery Technologies on Passenger Car Fuel Consumption in a Normalized Driving Cycle
Energies 2014, 7(8), 5273-5290; doi:10.3390/en7085273
Received: 19 June 2014 / Revised: 19 July 2014 / Accepted: 8 August 2014 / Published: 14 August 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (529 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this article was to compare different waste heat recovery system technologies designed for automotive applications. A complete literature review is done and results in two comparative graphs. In the second part, simulation models are built and calibrated in order to
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The purpose of this article was to compare different waste heat recovery system technologies designed for automotive applications. A complete literature review is done and results in two comparative graphs. In the second part, simulation models are built and calibrated in order to assess the fuel consumption reduction that can be achieved on a real driving cycle. The strength of this article is that the models are calibrated using actual data. Finally, those simulations results are analyzed and the Rankine cycle and turbocompound are the two most profitable solutions. However the simulations of the turbocompound shows its limitations because the impact on the exhaust pressure drop is not taken into account in the assessment of the car fuel consumption. Fuel reduction of up to 6% could be achieved, depending on the driving cycle and the waste heat recovery technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waste Heat Recovery—Strategy and Practice)
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Open AccessArticle Finite Element Method Modeling of Sensible Heat Thermal Energy Storage with Innovative Concretes and Comparative Analysis with Literature Benchmarks
Energies 2014, 7(8), 5291-5316; doi:10.3390/en7085291
Received: 17 June 2014 / Revised: 22 July 2014 / Accepted: 11 August 2014 / Published: 15 August 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3094 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Efficient systems for high performance buildings are required to improve the integration of renewable energy sources and to reduce primary energy consumption from fossil fuels. This paper is focused on sensible heat thermal energy storage (SHTES) systems using solid media and numerical simulation
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Efficient systems for high performance buildings are required to improve the integration of renewable energy sources and to reduce primary energy consumption from fossil fuels. This paper is focused on sensible heat thermal energy storage (SHTES) systems using solid media and numerical simulation of their transient behavior using the finite element method (FEM). Unlike other papers in the literature, the numerical model and simulation approach has simultaneously taken into consideration various aspects: thermal properties at high temperature, the actual geometry of the repeated storage element and the actual storage cycle adopted. High-performance thermal storage materials from the literatures have been tested and used here as reference benchmarks. Other materials tested are lightweight concretes with recycled aggregates and a geopolymer concrete. Their thermal properties have been measured and used as inputs in the numerical model to preliminarily evaluate their application in thermal storage. The analysis carried out can also be used to optimize the storage system, in terms of thermal properties required to the storage material. The results showed a significant influence of the thermal properties on the performances of the storage elements. Simulation results have provided information for further scale-up from a single differential storage element to the entire module as a function of material thermal properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient Building Design and Operation 2014)
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Open AccessArticle Biodiesel Production from Non-Edible Beauty Leaf (Calophyllum inophyllum) Oil: Process Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)
Energies 2014, 7(8), 5317-5331; doi:10.3390/en7085317
Received: 20 January 2014 / Revised: 23 June 2014 / Accepted: 29 July 2014 / Published: 18 August 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (486 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, the beauty leaf plant (Calophyllum Inophyllum) is being considered as a potential 2nd generation biodiesel source due to high seed oil content, high fruit production rate, simple cultivation and ability to grow in a wide range of climate
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In recent years, the beauty leaf plant (Calophyllum Inophyllum) is being considered as a potential 2nd generation biodiesel source due to high seed oil content, high fruit production rate, simple cultivation and ability to grow in a wide range of climate conditions. However, however, due to the high free fatty acid (FFA) content in this oil, the potential of this biodiesel feedstock is still unrealized, and little research has been undertaken on it. In this study, transesterification of beauty leaf oil to produce biodiesel has been investigated. A two-step biodiesel conversion method consisting of acid catalysed pre-esterification and alkali catalysed transesterification has been utilized. The three main factors that drive the biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)) conversion from vegetable oil (triglycerides) were studied using response surface methodology (RSM) based on a Box-Behnken experimental design. The factors considered in this study were catalyst concentration, methanol to oil molar ratio and reaction temperature. Linear and full quadratic regression models were developed to predict FFA and FAME concentration and to optimize the reaction conditions. The significance of these factors and their interaction in both stages was determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The reaction conditions for the largest reduction in FFA concentration for acid catalysed pre-esterification was 30:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 10% (w/w) sulfuric acid catalyst loading and 75 °C reaction temperature. In the alkali catalysed transesterification process 7.5:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 1% (w/w) sodium methoxide catalyst loading and 55 °C reaction temperature were found to result in the highest FAME conversion. The good agreement between model outputs and experimental results demonstrated that this methodology may be useful for industrial process optimization for biodiesel production from beauty leaf oil and possibly other industrial processes as well. Full article
Open AccessArticle Contribution of Vertical Methane Flux to Shallow Sediment Carbon Pools across Porangahau Ridge, New Zealand
Energies 2014, 7(8), 5332-5356; doi:10.3390/en7085332
Received: 12 June 2014 / Revised: 4 August 2014 / Accepted: 11 August 2014 / Published: 18 August 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1493 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Moderate elevated vertical methane (CH4) flux is associated with sediment accretion and raised fluid expulsion at the Hikurangi subduction margin, located along the northeast coast of New Zealand. This focused CH4 flux contributes to the cycling of inorganic and organic
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Moderate elevated vertical methane (CH4) flux is associated with sediment accretion and raised fluid expulsion at the Hikurangi subduction margin, located along the northeast coast of New Zealand. This focused CH4 flux contributes to the cycling of inorganic and organic carbon in solid phase sediment and pore water. Along a 7 km offshore transect across the Porangahau Ridge, vertical CH4 flux rates range from 11.4 mmol·m−2·a−1 off the ridge to 82.6 mmol·m−2·a−1 at the ridge base. Stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) in pore water and sediment were variable across the ridge suggesting close proximity of heterogeneous carbon sources. Methane stable carbon isotope ratios ranging from −107.9‰ to −60.5‰ and a C1:C2 of 3000 indicate a microbial, or biogenic, source. Near ridge, average δ13C for pore water and sediment inorganic carbon were 13C-depleted (−28.7‰ and −7.9‰, respectively) relative to all core subsamples (−19.9‰ and −2.4‰, respectively) suggesting localized anaerobic CH4 oxidation and precipitation of authigenic carbonates. Through the transect there was low contribution from anaerobic oxidation of CH4 to organic carbon pools; for all cores δ13C values of pore water dissolved organic carbon and sediment organic carbon averaged −24.4‰ and −22.1‰, respectively. Anaerobic oxidation of CH4 contributed to pore water and sediment organic carbon near the ridge as evidenced by carbon isotope values as low as to −42.8‰ and −24.7‰, respectively. Carbon concentration and isotope analyses distinguished contributions from CH4 and phytodetrital carbon sources across the ridge and show a low methane contribution to organic carbon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Ocean Natural Gas Hydrate 2014)
Open AccessArticle A Critical Interpretation and Quantitative Extension of the Sama-Szargut Second Law Rules in an Extended Exergy Perspective
Energies 2014, 7(8), 5357-5373; doi:10.3390/en7085357
Received: 20 May 2014 / Revised: 21 July 2014 / Accepted: 30 July 2014 / Published: 18 August 2014
PDF Full-text (459 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Twenty-five years ago, Gaggioli, Sama and Qian published a series of 10 “second law guidelines” for design and process engineers, nicknamed at that time “the Gaggioli-Sama rules”. These guidelines, some of them previously published by Sama between 1980 and 1983, are a compilation
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Twenty-five years ago, Gaggioli, Sama and Qian published a series of 10 “second law guidelines” for design and process engineers, nicknamed at that time “the Gaggioli-Sama rules”. These guidelines, some of them previously published by Sama between 1980 and 1983, are a compilation of “second law errors” to avoid in the design of energy conversion systems. The list was rearranged several times, until a revised version containing 21 rules was published by Sama and Szargut in 1995. Ever since, these guidelines came to be known as “the Sama-Szargut rules”. The rules are a series of well-formulated and insightful suggestions that reflect a thermodynamicist’s idea that the “best design” is the one that minimizes the overall irreversibility in a process or plant, under the prescribed technological constraints. Characteristically, the concept of “optimal system” is completely absent, the emphasis being on the extensive inclusion of second law reasoning into design decisions. A critical analysis of the rules would suggest that all of them be routinely implemented both in new designs and most important in retrofit projects. A survey of some of the current most common energy conversion installations shows that, quite on the contrary, most of the rules are disregarded in practical applications. This paper argues that the reason for this incongruency is the neglection in the engineering design decision of the real cost of installation, operation and decommissioning of a plant, and proposes a rephrasing of the rules in an extended exergy perspective: if the production cost, including the externalities, is measured in units of equivalent primary exergy, the Sama-Szargut rules can be directly interpreted in this sense, and abidance by the rules results in the reduction of the resource cost for any given objective. Full article
Open AccessArticle Battery Sizing for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Beijing: A TCO Model Based Analysis
Energies 2014, 7(8), 5374-5399; doi:10.3390/en7085374
Received: 15 June 2014 / Revised: 29 July 2014 / Accepted: 11 August 2014 / Published: 20 August 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (653 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes a total cost of ownership (TCO) model for battery sizing of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The proposed systematic TCO model innovatively integrates the Beijing driving database and optimal PHEV energy management strategies developed earlier. The TCO, including battery, fuel,
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This paper proposes a total cost of ownership (TCO) model for battery sizing of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The proposed systematic TCO model innovatively integrates the Beijing driving database and optimal PHEV energy management strategies developed earlier. The TCO, including battery, fuel, electricity, and salvage costs, is calculated in yearly cash flows. The salvage cost, based on battery degradation model, is proposed for the first time. The results show that the optimal battery size for PHEVs in Beijing is 6–8 kWh. Several additional scenarios are also analyzed: (1) 10% increase in battery price or discount rate leads to an optimal battery size of 6 kWh, and 10% increase in fuel price shifts the optimal battery size to 8 kWh; (2) the longer and more dispersive daily range distribution in the U.S. increases the optimal battery size to 14 kWh; (3) the subsidy in China results in an optimal battery size of 13 kWh, while that in the U.S. results in 17 kWh, and a fuel savings rate based subsidy policy is innovatively proposed; (4) the optimal battery size with Li4Ti5O12 batteries is 2 kWh, but the TCO of Li4Ti5O12 batteries is higher than that of LiFePO4 batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hybrid Vehicles)
Open AccessArticle Dynamic Feedforward Control of a Diesel Engine Based on Optimal Transient Compensation Maps
Energies 2014, 7(8), 5400-5424; doi:10.3390/en7085400
Received: 3 July 2014 / Revised: 31 July 2014 / Accepted: 15 August 2014 / Published: 21 August 2014
PDF Full-text (1477 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To satisfy the increasingly stringent emission regulations and a demand for an ever lower fuel consumption, diesel engines have become complex systems with many interacting actuators. As a consequence, these requirements are pushing control and calibration to their limits. The calibration procedure nowadays
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To satisfy the increasingly stringent emission regulations and a demand for an ever lower fuel consumption, diesel engines have become complex systems with many interacting actuators. As a consequence, these requirements are pushing control and calibration to their limits. The calibration procedure nowadays is still based mainly on engineering experience, which results in a highly iterative process to derive a complete engine calibration. Moreover, automatic tools are available only for stationary operation, to obtain control maps that are optimal with respect to some predefined objective function. Therefore, the exploitation of any leftover potential during transient operation is crucial. This paper proposes an approach to derive a transient feedforward (FF) control system in an automated way. It relies on optimal control theory to solve a dynamic optimization problem for fast transients. A partially physics-based model is thereby used to replace the engine. From the optimal solutions, the relevant information is extracted and stored in maps spanned by the engine speed and the torque gradient. These maps complement the static control maps by accounting for the dynamic behavior of the engine. The procedure is implemented on a real engine and experimental results are presented along with the development of the methodology. Full article
Open AccessArticle Capacity Calculation of Shunt Active Power Filters for Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Based on Harmonic Parameter Estimation and Analytical Modeling
Energies 2014, 7(8), 5425-5443; doi:10.3390/en7085425
Received: 1 July 2014 / Revised: 15 August 2014 / Accepted: 18 August 2014 / Published: 22 August 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (908 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The influence of electric vehicle charging stations on power grid harmonics is becoming increasingly significant as their presence continues to grow. This paper studies the operational principles of the charging current in the continuous and discontinuous modes for a three-phase uncontrolled rectification charger
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The influence of electric vehicle charging stations on power grid harmonics is becoming increasingly significant as their presence continues to grow. This paper studies the operational principles of the charging current in the continuous and discontinuous modes for a three-phase uncontrolled rectification charger with a passive power factor correction link, which is affected by the charging power. A parameter estimation method is proposed for the equivalent circuit of the charger by using the measured characteristic AC (Alternating Current) voltage and current data combined with the charging circuit constraints in the conduction process, and this method is verified using an experimental platform. The sensitivity of the current harmonics to the changes in the parameters is analyzed. An analytical harmonic model of the charging station is created by separating the chargers into groups by type. Then, the harmonic current amplification caused by the shunt active power filter is researched, and the analytical formula for the overload factor is derived to further correct the capacity of the shunt active power filter. Finally, this method is validated through a field test of a charging station. Full article
Open AccessArticle Geothermal Potential Evaluation for Northern Chile and Suggestions for New Energy Plans
Energies 2014, 7(8), 5444-5459; doi:10.3390/en7085444
Received: 31 March 2014 / Revised: 4 August 2014 / Accepted: 13 August 2014 / Published: 22 August 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (816 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Chile is a country rich in natural resources, and it is the world’s largest producer and exporter of copper. Mining is the main industry and is an essential part of the Chilean economy, but the country has limited indigenous fossil fuels—over 90% of
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Chile is a country rich in natural resources, and it is the world’s largest producer and exporter of copper. Mining is the main industry and is an essential part of the Chilean economy, but the country has limited indigenous fossil fuels—over 90% of the country’s fossil fuels must be imported. The electricity market in Chile comprises two main independent systems: the Northern Interconnected Power Grid (SING) and the Central Interconnected Power Grid (SIC). Currently, the primary Chilean energy source is imported fossil fuels, whereas hydropower represents the main indigenous source. Other renewables such as wind, solar, biomass and geothermics are as yet poorly developed. Specifically, geothermal energy has not been exploited in Chile, but among all renewables it has the greatest potential. The transition from thermal power plants to renewable energy power plants is an important target for the Chilean Government in order to reduce dependence on imported fossil fuels. In this framework, the proposed study presents an evaluation of the geothermal potential for northern Chile in terms of power generation. The El Tatio, Surire, Puchuldiza, Orriputunco-Olca and Apacheta geothermal fields are considered for the analysis. The estimated electrical power is approximately 1300 MWe, and the energy supply is 10,200 GWh/year. This means that more than 30% of the SING energy could be provided from geothermal energy, reducing the dependence on imported fossil fuels, saving 8 Mton/year of CO2 and supplying the mining industry, which is Chile’s primary energy user. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Gamma-ray Spectrometry in Geothermal Exploration: State of the Art Techniques
Energies 2014, 7(8), 4757-4780; doi:10.3390/en7084757
Received: 30 April 2014 / Revised: 23 June 2014 / Accepted: 7 July 2014 / Published: 24 July 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (975 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gamma-ray spectrometry is a surveying technique that allows the calculation of the heat produced during radioactive decay of potassium, uranium, and thorium within rock. Radiogenic heat producing rocks are often targets for geothermal exploration and production. Hence, refinements in gamma-ray spectrometry surveying will
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Gamma-ray spectrometry is a surveying technique that allows the calculation of the heat produced during radioactive decay of potassium, uranium, and thorium within rock. Radiogenic heat producing rocks are often targets for geothermal exploration and production. Hence, refinements in gamma-ray spectrometry surveying will allow better constraint of resources estimation and help to target drilling. Gamma-rays have long half-lengths compared to other radiation produced during radiogenic decay. This property allows the gamma-rays to penetrate far enough through media to be detected by airborne or ground based surveying. A recent example of ground-based surveying in Scotland shows the ability of gamma-ray spectrometry to quickly and efficiently categorize granite plutons as low or high heat producing. Some sedimentary rocks (e.g., black shales) also have high radiogenic heat production properties and could be future geothermal targets. Topographical, atmospheric and spatial distribution factors (among others) can complicate the collection of accurate gamma-ray data in the field. Quantifying and dealing with such inaccuracies represents an area for further improvement of these techniques for geothermal applications. Full article
Open AccessReview Geophysical Methods for Monitoring Temperature Changes in Shallow Low Enthalpy Geothermal Systems
Energies 2014, 7(8), 5083-5118; doi:10.3390/en7085083
Received: 15 May 2014 / Revised: 15 July 2014 / Accepted: 22 July 2014 / Published: 11 August 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1611 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Low enthalpy geothermal systems exploited with ground source heat pumps or groundwater heat pumps present many advantages within the context of sustainable energy use. Designing, monitoring and controlling such systems requires the measurement of spatially distributed temperature fields and the knowledge of the
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Low enthalpy geothermal systems exploited with ground source heat pumps or groundwater heat pumps present many advantages within the context of sustainable energy use. Designing, monitoring and controlling such systems requires the measurement of spatially distributed temperature fields and the knowledge of the parameters governing groundwater flow (permeability and specific storage) and heat transport (thermal conductivity and volumetric thermal capacity). Such data are often scarce or not available. In recent years, the ability of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), self-potential method (SP) and distributed temperature sensing (DTS) to monitor spatially and temporally temperature changes in the subsurface has been investigated. We review the recent advances in using these three methods for this type of shallow applications. A special focus is made regarding the petrophysical relationships and on underlying assumptions generally needed for a quantitative interpretation of these geophysical data. We show that those geophysical methods are mature to be used within the context of temperature monitoring and that a combination of them may be the best choice regarding control and validation issues. Full article
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Open AccessReview National Deployment of Domestic Geothermal Heat Pump Technology: Observations on the UK Experience 1995–2013
Energies 2014, 7(8), 5460-5499; doi:10.3390/en7085460
Received: 25 July 2014 / Accepted: 13 August 2014 / Published: 22 August 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1233 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
Uptake of geothermal heat pump technology in the UK and corresponding development of a domestic installation industry has progressed significantly in the last decade. This paper summarizes the growth process and reviews the research that has been specifically concerned with conditions in the
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Uptake of geothermal heat pump technology in the UK and corresponding development of a domestic installation industry has progressed significantly in the last decade. This paper summarizes the growth process and reviews the research that has been specifically concerned with conditions in the UK. We discuss the driving forces behind these developments and some of the supporting policy initiatives that have been implemented. Publically funded national trials were completed to assess the performance and acceptance of the technology and validate design and installation standards. We comment on both the technical and non-technical findings of the trials and the related academic research and their relevance to standards development. A number of technical issues can be identified—some of which may be particular to the UK—and we suggest a number of research and development questions that need to be addressed further. Current national support for the technology relies solely on a tariff mechanism and it is uncertain that this will be effective enough to ensure sufficient growth to meet the national renewable heat target in 2020. A broader package of support that includes mandatory measures applied to future housing development and retrofit may be necessary to ensure long-term plans for national deployment and decarbonization of heat are achieved. Industry needs to demonstrate that efficiency standards can be assured, capital costs reduced in the medium-term and that national training schemes are effective. Full article

Other

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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Marino, M.; Misuri, L.; Carati, A.; Brogioli, D. Proof-of-Concept of a Zinc-Silver Battery for the Extraction of Energy from a Concentration Difference. Energies 2014, 7, 3664–3683
Energies 2014, 7(8), 5500-5501; doi:10.3390/en7085500
Received: 2 July 2014 / Accepted: 2 July 2014 / Published: 22 August 2014
PDF Full-text (373 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract We would like to change the authors’ affiliations on Page 3664 of paper [1] from:[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Energy Storage—Battery and Capacitor)

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