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Energies 2014, 7(8), 4895-4909; doi:10.3390/en7084895

Cycle Life of Commercial Lithium-Ion Batteries with Lithium Titanium Oxide Anodes in Electric Vehicles

State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Department of Automotive Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
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Received: 24 June 2014 / Revised: 20 July 2014 / Accepted: 22 July 2014 / Published: 30 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Energy Storage—Battery and Capacitor)
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Abstract

The lithium titanium oxide (LTO) anode is widely accepted as one of the best anodes for the future lithium ion batteries in electric vehicles (EVs), especially since its cycle life is very long. In this paper, three different commercial LTO cells from different manufacturers were studied in accelerated cycle life tests and their capacity fades were compared. The result indicates that under 55 °C, the LTO battery still shows a high capacity fade rate. The battery aging processes of all the commercial LTO cells clearly include two stages. Using the incremental capacity (IC) analysis, it could be judged that in the first stage, the battery capacity decreases mainly due to the loss of anode material and the degradation rate is lower. In the second stage, the battery capacity decreases much faster, mainly due to the degradation of the cathode material. The result is important for the state of health (SOH) estimation and remaining useful life (RUL) prediction of battery management system (BMS) for LTO batteries in EVs. View Full-Text
Keywords: lithium ion battery; capacity fade; incremental capacity (IC); lithium titanium oxide (LTO); electric vehicle (EV) lithium ion battery; capacity fade; incremental capacity (IC); lithium titanium oxide (LTO); electric vehicle (EV)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Han, X.; Ouyang, M.; Lu, L.; Li, J. Cycle Life of Commercial Lithium-Ion Batteries with Lithium Titanium Oxide Anodes in Electric Vehicles. Energies 2014, 7, 4895-4909.

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