Next Article in Journal
Contribution of Vertical Methane Flux to Shallow Sediment Carbon Pools across Porangahau Ridge, New Zealand
Previous Article in Journal
Finite Element Method Modeling of Sensible Heat Thermal Energy Storage with Innovative Concretes and Comparative Analysis with Literature Benchmarks
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Energies 2014, 7(8), 5317-5331; doi:10.3390/en7085317

Biodiesel Production from Non-Edible Beauty Leaf (Calophyllum inophyllum) Oil: Process Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

1
Biofuel Engine Research Facility (BERF), Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane 4000, Australia
2
Centre for Tropical Crops and Biocommodities (CTCB), Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane 4000, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 January 2014 / Revised: 23 June 2014 / Accepted: 29 July 2014 / Published: 18 August 2014
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [486 KB, uploaded 17 March 2015]   |  

Abstract

In recent years, the beauty leaf plant (Calophyllum Inophyllum) is being considered as a potential 2nd generation biodiesel source due to high seed oil content, high fruit production rate, simple cultivation and ability to grow in a wide range of climate conditions. However, however, due to the high free fatty acid (FFA) content in this oil, the potential of this biodiesel feedstock is still unrealized, and little research has been undertaken on it. In this study, transesterification of beauty leaf oil to produce biodiesel has been investigated. A two-step biodiesel conversion method consisting of acid catalysed pre-esterification and alkali catalysed transesterification has been utilized. The three main factors that drive the biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)) conversion from vegetable oil (triglycerides) were studied using response surface methodology (RSM) based on a Box-Behnken experimental design. The factors considered in this study were catalyst concentration, methanol to oil molar ratio and reaction temperature. Linear and full quadratic regression models were developed to predict FFA and FAME concentration and to optimize the reaction conditions. The significance of these factors and their interaction in both stages was determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The reaction conditions for the largest reduction in FFA concentration for acid catalysed pre-esterification was 30:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 10% (w/w) sulfuric acid catalyst loading and 75 °C reaction temperature. In the alkali catalysed transesterification process 7.5:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 1% (w/w) sodium methoxide catalyst loading and 55 °C reaction temperature were found to result in the highest FAME conversion. The good agreement between model outputs and experimental results demonstrated that this methodology may be useful for industrial process optimization for biodiesel production from beauty leaf oil and possibly other industrial processes as well. View Full-Text
Keywords: biodiesel; beauty leaf; transesterification; response surface methodology (RSM) biodiesel; beauty leaf; transesterification; response surface methodology (RSM)
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Jahirul, M.I.; Koh, W.; Brown, R.J.; Senadeera, W.; O'Hara, I.; Moghaddam, L. Biodiesel Production from Non-Edible Beauty Leaf (Calophyllum inophyllum) Oil: Process Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Energies 2014, 7, 5317-5331.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Energies EISSN 1996-1073 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top