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Energies 2014, 7(8), 5083-5118; doi:10.3390/en7085083

Geophysical Methods for Monitoring Temperature Changes in Shallow Low Enthalpy Geothermal Systems

1
Applied Geophysics, University of Liege, Chemin des Chevreuils 1, 4000 Liege, Belgium
2
Department, AQUALE SPRL, Rue Montellier 22, 5380 Noville-les-Bois, Belgium
3
Department of Geophysics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401, USA
4
ISTerre (Institut des Sciences de la Terre), CNRS, UMR CNRS 5275 (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique), Université de Savoie, 73376 Cedex, Le Bourget du Lac, France
5
FNRS (Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique), 1000 Bruxelles, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 May 2014 / Revised: 15 July 2014 / Accepted: 22 July 2014 / Published: 11 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geothermal Energy: Delivering on the Global Potential)
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Abstract

Low enthalpy geothermal systems exploited with ground source heat pumps or groundwater heat pumps present many advantages within the context of sustainable energy use. Designing, monitoring and controlling such systems requires the measurement of spatially distributed temperature fields and the knowledge of the parameters governing groundwater flow (permeability and specific storage) and heat transport (thermal conductivity and volumetric thermal capacity). Such data are often scarce or not available. In recent years, the ability of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), self-potential method (SP) and distributed temperature sensing (DTS) to monitor spatially and temporally temperature changes in the subsurface has been investigated. We review the recent advances in using these three methods for this type of shallow applications. A special focus is made regarding the petrophysical relationships and on underlying assumptions generally needed for a quantitative interpretation of these geophysical data. We show that those geophysical methods are mature to be used within the context of temperature monitoring and that a combination of them may be the best choice regarding control and validation issues. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrical resistivity tomography; self-potential method; distributed temperature sensing; temperature monitoring electrical resistivity tomography; self-potential method; distributed temperature sensing; temperature monitoring
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hermans, T.; Nguyen, F.; Robert, T.; Revil, A. Geophysical Methods for Monitoring Temperature Changes in Shallow Low Enthalpy Geothermal Systems. Energies 2014, 7, 5083-5118.

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