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Energies, Volume 6, Issue 1 (January 2013), Pages 1-565

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Open AccessArticle Regulatory Compliance and Environmental Benefit Analysis of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems in Taiwan
Energies 2013, 6(1), 557-565; https://doi.org/10.3390/en6010557
Received: 2 October 2012 / Revised: 8 January 2013 / Accepted: 10 January 2013 / Published: 22 January 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (183 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The energy conservation achieved by utilizing waste heat in the energy and industrial sectors has became more and more important after the energy crisis in the 1970s because it plays a vital role in the potential energy-efficiency improvement. In this regard, cogeneration (combined
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The energy conservation achieved by utilizing waste heat in the energy and industrial sectors has became more and more important after the energy crisis in the 1970s because it plays a vital role in the potential energy-efficiency improvement. In this regard, cogeneration (combined heat and power, CHP) systems are thus becoming attractive due to the energy, economic, and environmental policies for pursuing stable electricity supply, sustainable development and environmental pollution mitigation in Taiwan. The objective of this paper is to present an updated analysis of CHP systems in Taiwan during the period from 1990 to 2010. The description in the paper is thus based on an analysis of electricity supply/consumption and its sources from CHP systems during the past two decades, and centered on two important regulations in compliance with CHP systems (i.e., Energy Management Law and Environmental Impact Assessment Act). Based on the total net power generation from CHP systems (i.e., 35,626 GWh) in 2011, it was found that the carbon dioxide reduction benefits were estimated to be around 20,000 Gg. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combined Heat and Power – Strategy and Practice)
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Open AccessArticle Enhanced Operation of Electricity Distribution Grids Through Smart Metering PLC Network Monitoring, Analysis and Grid Conditioning
Energies 2013, 6(1), 539-556; https://doi.org/10.3390/en6010539
Received: 2 October 2012 / Revised: 28 November 2012 / Accepted: 10 January 2013 / Published: 21 January 2013
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (1457 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Low Voltage (LV) electricity distribution grid operations can be improved through a combination of new smart metering systems’ capabilities based on real time Power Line Communications (PLC) and LV grid topology mapping. This paper presents two novel contributions. The first one is a
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Low Voltage (LV) electricity distribution grid operations can be improved through a combination of new smart metering systems’ capabilities based on real time Power Line Communications (PLC) and LV grid topology mapping. This paper presents two novel contributions. The first one is a new methodology developed for smart metering PLC network monitoring and analysis. It can be used to obtain relevant information from the grid, thus adding value to existing smart metering deployments and facilitating utility operational activities. A second contribution describes grid conditioning used to obtain LV feeder and phase identification of all connected smart electric meters. Real time availability of such information may help utilities with grid planning, fault location and a more accurate point of supply management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grid and the Future Electrical Network)
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Open AccessReview Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: A Review
Energies 2013, 6(1), 514-538; https://doi.org/10.3390/en6010514
Received: 9 November 2012 / Revised: 7 December 2012 / Accepted: 21 December 2012 / Published: 21 January 2013
Cited by 158 | PDF Full-text (541 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Catalytic pyrolysis is a promising thermochemical conversion route for lignocellulosic biomass that produces chemicals and fuels compatible with current, petrochemical infrastructure. Catalytic modifications to pyrolysis bio-oils are geared towards the elimination and substitution of oxygen and oxygen-containing functionalities in addition to increasing the
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Catalytic pyrolysis is a promising thermochemical conversion route for lignocellulosic biomass that produces chemicals and fuels compatible with current, petrochemical infrastructure. Catalytic modifications to pyrolysis bio-oils are geared towards the elimination and substitution of oxygen and oxygen-containing functionalities in addition to increasing the hydrogen to carbon ratio of the final products. Recent progress has focused on both hydrodeoxygenation and hydrogenation of bio-oil using a variety of metal catalysts and the production of aromatics from bio-oil using cracking zeolites. Research is currently focused on developing multi-functional catalysts used in situ that benefit from the advantages of both hydrodeoxygenation and zeolite cracking. Development of robust, highly selective catalysts will help achieve the goal of producing drop-in fuels and petrochemical commodities from wood and other lignocellulosic biomass streams. The current paper will examine these developments by means of a review of existing literature. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Gas Path Health Monitoring for a Turbofan Engine Based on a Nonlinear Filtering Approach
Energies 2013, 6(1), 492-513; https://doi.org/10.3390/en6010492
Received: 21 September 2012 / Revised: 4 December 2012 / Accepted: 27 December 2012 / Published: 17 January 2013
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (723 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Different approaches for gas path performance estimation of dynamic systems are commonly used, the most common being the variants of the Kalman filter. The extended Kalman filter (EKF) method is a popular approach for nonlinear systems which combines the traditional Kalman filtering and
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Different approaches for gas path performance estimation of dynamic systems are commonly used, the most common being the variants of the Kalman filter. The extended Kalman filter (EKF) method is a popular approach for nonlinear systems which combines the traditional Kalman filtering and linearization techniques to effectively deal with weakly nonlinear and non-Gaussian problems. Its mathematical formulation is based on the assumption that the probability density function (PDF) of the state vector can be approximated to be Gaussian. Recent investigations have focused on the particle filter (PF) based on Monte Carlo sampling algorithms for tackling strong nonlinear and non-Gaussian models. Considering the aircraft engine is a complicated machine, operating under a harsh environment, and polluted by complex noises, the PF might be an available way to monitor gas path health for aircraft engines. Up to this point in time a number of Kalman filtering approaches have been used for aircraft turbofan engine gas path health estimation, but the particle filters have not been used for this purpose and a systematic comparison has not been published. This paper presents gas path health monitoring based on the PF and the constrained extend Kalman particle filter (cEKPF), and then compares the estimation accuracy and computational effort of these filters to the EKF for aircraft engine performance estimation under rapid faults and general deterioration. Finally, the effects of the constraint mechanism and particle number on the cEKPF are discussed. We show in this paper that the cEKPF outperforms the EKF, PF and EKPF, and conclude that the cEKPF is the best choice for turbofan engine health monitoring. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Encouraging Environmentally Friendlier Cars via Fiscal Measures: General Methodology and Application to Belgium
Energies 2013, 6(1), 471-491; https://doi.org/10.3390/en6010471
Received: 27 November 2012 / Revised: 10 January 2013 / Accepted: 14 January 2013 / Published: 17 January 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (531 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a Belgian tax reform plan is elaborated to respond to the EU proposal that requires member states to restructure passenger car taxation systems, preferentially based on the CO2 emissions of the car. A tax orientation on CO2 emissions
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In this paper, a Belgian tax reform plan is elaborated to respond to the EU proposal that requires member states to restructure passenger car taxation systems, preferentially based on the CO2 emissions of the car. A tax orientation on CO2 emissions alone might however favour diesel vehicles, characterised by a higher fuel efficiency, whereas they release more polluting emissions (PM and NOx) than comparable gasoline vehicles. This paper introduces a methodology, the Ecoscore, as a potential tax assessment basis. The Ecoscore is based on a well-to-wheel framework and enables a comparison of the environmental burden caused by vehicles with different drive trains and using different fuels. A new proposal for a fixed vehicle taxation system, based on the Ecoscore, is launched. In addition, its impact on the life cycle cost of conventional as well as alternative fuelled cars is measured in order to examine its steering effect towards a cleaner vehicle choice. The overall result is that current tax distortions can be corrected by restructuring the vehicle registration tax and annual circulation tax, based on the Ecoscore. To stimulate behavioural changes, such a fiscal policy should however be paired with additional policies that act on the other important aspects that determine the car purchase decision. Full article
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Open AccessArticle State of Charge Estimation Using the Extended Kalman Filter for Battery Management Systems Based on the ARX Battery Model
Energies 2013, 6(1), 444-470; https://doi.org/10.3390/en6010444
Received: 6 November 2012 / Revised: 11 December 2012 / Accepted: 24 December 2012 / Published: 17 January 2013
Cited by 63 | PDF Full-text (935 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
State of charge (SOC) is a critical factor to guarantee that a battery system is operating in a safe and reliable manner. Many uncertainties and noises, such as fluctuating current, sensor measurement accuracy and bias, temperature effects, calibration errors or even sensor failure,
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State of charge (SOC) is a critical factor to guarantee that a battery system is operating in a safe and reliable manner. Many uncertainties and noises, such as fluctuating current, sensor measurement accuracy and bias, temperature effects, calibration errors or even sensor failure, etc. pose a challenge to the accurate estimation of SOC in real applications. This paper adds two contributions to the existing literature. First, the auto regressive exogenous (ARX) model is proposed here to simulate the battery nonlinear dynamics. Due to its discrete form and ease of implemention, this straightforward approach could be more suitable for real applications. Second, its order selection principle and parameter identification method is illustrated in detail in this paper. The hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC) cycles are implemented on the 60AH LiFePO4 battery module for the model identification and validation. Based on the proposed ARX model, SOC estimation is pursued using the extended Kalman filter. Evaluation of the adaptability of the battery models and robustness of the SOC estimation algorithm are also verified. The results indicate that the SOC estimation method using the Kalman filter based on the ARX model shows great performance. It increases the model output voltage accuracy, thereby having the potential to be used in real applications, such as EVs and HEVs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicle to Grid)
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Open AccessArticle Decisions on Energy Demand Response Option Contracts in Smart Grids Based on Activity-Based Costing and Stochastic Programming
Energies 2013, 6(1), 425-443; https://doi.org/10.3390/en6010425
Received: 20 November 2012 / Revised: 21 December 2012 / Accepted: 8 January 2013 / Published: 17 January 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (668 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Smart grids enable a two-way energy demand response capability through which a utility company offers its industrial customers various call options for energy load curtailment. If a customer has the capability to accurately determine whether to accept an offer or not, then in
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Smart grids enable a two-way energy demand response capability through which a utility company offers its industrial customers various call options for energy load curtailment. If a customer has the capability to accurately determine whether to accept an offer or not, then in the case of accepting an offer, the customer can earn both an option premium to participate, and a strike price for load curtailments if requested. However, today most manufacturing companies lack the capability to make the correct contract decisions for given offers. This paper proposes a novel decision model based on activity-based costing (ABC) and stochastic programming, developed to accurately evaluate the impact of load curtailments and determine as to whether or not to accept an energy load curtailment offer. The proposed model specifically targets state-transition flexible and Quality-of-Service (QoS) flexible energy use activities to reduce the peak energy demand rate. An illustrative example with the proposed decision model under a call-option based energy demand response scenario is presented. As shown from the example results, the proposed decision model can be used with emerging smart grid opportunities to provide a competitive advantage to the manufacturing industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grid and the Future Electrical Network)
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Open AccessArticle PAT Design Strategy for Energy Recovery in Water Distribution Networks by Electrical Regulation
Energies 2013, 6(1), 411-424; https://doi.org/10.3390/en6010411
Received: 23 November 2012 / Revised: 8 January 2013 / Accepted: 10 January 2013 / Published: 17 January 2013
Cited by 52 | PDF Full-text (944 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the management of water distribution networks, large energy savings can be yielded by exploiting the head drop due to the network pressure control strategy, i.e., for leak reductions. Hydropower in small streams is already exploited, but technical solutions combining efficiency and economic
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In the management of water distribution networks, large energy savings can be yielded by exploiting the head drop due to the network pressure control strategy, i.e., for leak reductions. Hydropower in small streams is already exploited, but technical solutions combining efficiency and economic convenience are still required. In water distribution networks, an additional design problem comes out from the necessity of ensuring a required head drop under variable operating conditions, i.e., head and discharge variations. Both a hydraulic regulation (HR)—via a series-parallel hydraulic circuit- and an electrical regulation (ER)—via inverter- are feasible solutions. A design procedure for the selection of a production device in a series-parallel hydraulic circuit has been recently proposed. The procedure, named VOS (Variable Operating Strategy), is based on the overall plant efficiency criteria and is applied to a water distribution network where a PAT (pump as a turbine) is used in order to produce energy. In the present paper the VOS design procedure has been extended to the electrical regulation and a comparison between HR and ER efficiency and flexibility within a water distribution network is shown: HR was found more flexible than ER and more efficient. Finally a preliminary economic study has been carried out in order to show the viability of both systems, and a shorter payback period of the electromechanical equipment was found for HR mode. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Li-Ion Pouch Cells for Vehicle Applications — Studies of Water Transmission and Packing Materials
Energies 2013, 6(1), 400-410; https://doi.org/10.3390/en6010400
Received: 12 November 2012 / Revised: 21 December 2012 / Accepted: 11 January 2013 / Published: 16 January 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (964 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study includes analysis of encapsulation materials from lithium-ion pouch cells and water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) measurements. WVTR measurements are performed on both fresh and environmentally stressed lithium-ion pouch cells. Capacity measurements are performed on both the fresh and the environmentally stressed
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This study includes analysis of encapsulation materials from lithium-ion pouch cells and water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) measurements. WVTR measurements are performed on both fresh and environmentally stressed lithium-ion pouch cells. Capacity measurements are performed on both the fresh and the environmentally stressed battery cells to identify possible influences on electrochemical performance. Preparation of the battery cells prior to WVTR measurements includes opening of battery cells and extraction of electrode material, followed by resealing the encapsulations and adhesively mounting of gas couplings. A model describing the water diffusion through the thermal welds of the encapsulation are set up based on material analysis of the encapsulation material. Two WVTR equipments with different type of detectors are evaluated in this study. The results from the WVTR measurements show how important it is to perform this type of studies in dry environment and apply a rigorous precondition sequence before testing. Results from modelling confirm that the WVTR method has potential to be used for measurements of water diffusion into lithium-ion pouch cells. Consequently, WVTR measurements should be possible to use as a complement or alternative method to for example Karl Fisher titration. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Comparison of Optimal Operation of a Residential Fuel Cell Co-Generation System Using Clustered Demand Patterns Based on Kullback-Leibler Divergence
Energies 2013, 6(1), 374-399; https://doi.org/10.3390/en6010374
Received: 9 November 2012 / Revised: 3 December 2012 / Accepted: 21 December 2012 / Published: 16 January 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (3248 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
When evaluating residential energy systems like co-generation systems, hot water and electricity demand profiles are critical. In this paper, the authors aim to extract basic time-series demand patterns from two kinds of measured demand (electricity and domestic hot water), and also aim to
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When evaluating residential energy systems like co-generation systems, hot water and electricity demand profiles are critical. In this paper, the authors aim to extract basic time-series demand patterns from two kinds of measured demand (electricity and domestic hot water), and also aim to reveal effective demand patterns for primary energy saving. Time-series demand data are categorized with a hierarchical clustering method using a statistical pseudo-distance, which is represented by the generalized Kullback-Leibler divergence of two Gaussian mixture distributions. The classified demand patterns are built using hierarchical clustering and then a comparison is made between the optimal operation of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell co-generation system and the operation of a reference system (a conventional combination of a condensing gas boiler and electricity purchased from the grid) using the appropriately built demand profiles. Our results show that basic demand patterns are extracted by the proposed method, and the heat-to-power ratio of demand, the amount of daily demand, and demand patterns affect the primary energy saving of the co-generation system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Ventilation Heat Recovery from Wood-Burning Domestic Flues. A Theoretical Analysis Based on a Triple Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger
Energies 2013, 6(1), 351-373; https://doi.org/10.3390/en6010351
Received: 9 November 2012 / Revised: 24 December 2012 / Accepted: 5 January 2013 / Published: 15 January 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (396 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a new air-heating system concept for energy-efficient dwellings. It is a system designed to heat a low-energy building by coupling a heat-recovery ventilation system with a three-fluid heat exchanger located on the chimney of a wood-pellet stove. The proposed work
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This paper presents a new air-heating system concept for energy-efficient dwellings. It is a system designed to heat a low-energy building by coupling a heat-recovery ventilation system with a three-fluid heat exchanger located on the chimney of a wood-pellet stove. The proposed work focuses on the heat transfer that occurs between flue gases, the ventilation air and the combustion air within a triple concentric tube heat exchanger with no insulation at its outer surface. The main objective is to predict outlet temperature for the specific geometry of the heat exchanger studied here. Thus, the governing differential equations are derived for a counter-co-current flow arrangement of the three fluids. Then analytical solutions for the steady-state temperature distribution are obtained as well as the amount of heat transferred to the outside. An expression for the effectiveness of the heat exchanger is also proposed. Based on these results, calculations are performed on a case study to predict the fluid temperature distribution along the heat exchanger. Finally, a parametric study is carried out on this case study to assess the influence of the relevant parameters on the effectiveness of the heat exchanger. In addition, computation of heat losses to the outside justifies whether insulation is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient Buildings and Green Buildings)
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Open AccessReview Sustainability of the Biorefinery Industry for Fuel Production
Energies 2013, 6(1), 329-350; https://doi.org/10.3390/en6010329
Received: 12 November 2012 / Revised: 17 December 2012 / Accepted: 6 January 2013 / Published: 14 January 2013
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (475 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biofuels have been extensively explored and applied in the Brazilian market. In Brazil, ethanol and biodiesel are produced on an industrial scale. Ethanol is commercialized and used in engines in both the hydrated form (96% °GL) and the anhydrous form, mixed with gasoline
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Biofuels have been extensively explored and applied in the Brazilian market. In Brazil, ethanol and biodiesel are produced on an industrial scale. Ethanol is commercialized and used in engines in both the hydrated form (96% °GL) and the anhydrous form, mixed with gasoline at a proportion of up to 25% by volume. In turn, biodiesel is blended with diesel in a proportion of 5% by volume. Thus, the goal of the use of biofuels is to contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse gases and other pollutants emitted into the atmosphere during burning. This article describes some recent developments in the characterization of the environmental and economic impacts of the production of these biofuels from different biomass sources. On this regard, this review presents results of life-cycle assessments (LCAs), life-cycle cost assessments (LCCAs) and Structural Path Analysis (SPA), this last one depicting a sectorial perspective rather than LCA process level data approaches. The results showed that the inclusion of biofuels in transportation activities can lead to the mitigation of the environmental impacts of certain activities, such as emissions of greenhouse gases. However, greater attention must be paid to the improvement of agricultural management to decrease fuel, fertilizer and herbicide consumption. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Simulation Research on an Electric Vehicle Chassis System Based on a Collaborative Control System
Energies 2013, 6(1), 312-328; https://doi.org/10.3390/en6010312
Received: 16 October 2012 / Revised: 24 December 2012 / Accepted: 7 January 2013 / Published: 14 January 2013
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (488 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a collaborative control system for an electric vehicle chassis based on a centralized and hierarchical control architecture. The centralized controller was designed for the suspension and steering system, which is used for improving ride comfort and handling stability; the hierarchical
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This paper presents a collaborative control system for an electric vehicle chassis based on a centralized and hierarchical control architecture. The centralized controller was designed for the suspension and steering system, which is used for improving ride comfort and handling stability; the hierarchical controller was designed for the braking system, which is used for distributing the proportion of hydraulic braking and regenerative braking to improve braking performance. These two sub-controllers function at the same level of the vehicle chassis control system. In order to reduce the potential conflict between the two sub-controllers and realize a coordination optimization of electric vehicle performance, a collaborative controller was built, which serves as the upper controller to carry out an overall coordination analysis according to vehicle signals and revises the decisions of sub-controllers. A simulation experiment was carried out with the MATLAB/Simulink software. The simulation results show that the proposed collaborative control system can achieve an optimized vehicle handling stability and braking safety. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Optimal Allocation of Wind Turbines by Considering Transmission Security Constraints and Power System Stability
Energies 2013, 6(1), 294-311; https://doi.org/10.3390/en6010294
Received: 10 September 2012 / Revised: 27 December 2012 / Accepted: 27 December 2012 / Published: 14 January 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (320 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel optimization methodology consisting of finding the near optimal location of wind turbines (WTs) on a planned transmission network in a secure and cost-effective way is presented on this paper. While minimizing the investment costs of WTs, the algorithm allocates the turbines
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A novel optimization methodology consisting of finding the near optimal location of wind turbines (WTs) on a planned transmission network in a secure and cost-effective way is presented on this paper. While minimizing the investment costs of WTs, the algorithm allocates the turbines so that a desired wind power energy-penetration level is reached. The optimization considers both transmission security and power system stability constraints. The results of the optimization provide regulators with a support instrument to give proper signals to WT investors, in order to achieve secure and cost effective wind power network integration. The proposal is especially aimed at countries in the initial stage of wind power development, where the WT network integration process can still be influenced by policy-makers. The proposed methodology is validated with a real power system. Obtained results are compared with those generated from a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, in which the WT network allocation is made according to existing WT projects. The proposed WT network allocation scheme not only reduces the total investment costs associated with a determined wind power energy target, but also improves power system stability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Long Term Performance Study of a Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Fed with Alcohol Blends
Energies 2013, 6(1), 282-293; https://doi.org/10.3390/en6010282
Received: 7 November 2012 / Revised: 17 December 2012 / Accepted: 5 January 2013 / Published: 11 January 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1062 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of alcohol blends in direct alcohol fuel cells may be a more environmentally friendly and less toxic alternative to the use of methanol alone in direct methanol fuel cells. This paper assesses the behaviour of a direct methanol fuel cell fed
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The use of alcohol blends in direct alcohol fuel cells may be a more environmentally friendly and less toxic alternative to the use of methanol alone in direct methanol fuel cells. This paper assesses the behaviour of a direct methanol fuel cell fed with aqueous methanol, aqueous ethanol and aqueous methanol/ethanol blends in a long term experimental study followed by modelling of polarization curves. Fuel cell performance is seen to decrease as the ethanol content rises, and subsequent operation with aqueous methanol only partly reverts this loss of performance. It seems that the difference in the oxidation rate of these alcohols may not be the only factor affecting fuel cell performance. Full article
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