Energies 2013, 6(1), 220-234; doi:10.3390/en6010220
Article

Evaluation of the Water Scarcity Energy Cost for Users

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Received: 26 November 2012; in revised form: 24 December 2012 / Accepted: 25 December 2012 / Published: 9 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Efficient Buildings and Green Buildings)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: In systems experiencing water scarcity and consequent intermittent supply, users often adopt private tanks that collect water during service periods and supply users when the service is not available. The tank may be fed by gravity or by private pumping stations depending on the network pressure level. Once water resources are collected, the tank can supply users by gravity if it is located on the rooftop or by additional pumping if underground. Private tanks thus increase the energy cost of the water supply service for users by introducing several small pumping structures inside the network. The present paper aims to evaluate this users’ energy cost for different private tank configurations. A real case study was analysed, and the results showed that intermittent distribution causes inequalities not only in users’ access to water resource but also costs that users have to bear to have access to water.
Keywords: distribution networks; energy cost; intermittent supply; water scarcity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fontanazza, C.M.; Freni, G.; Loggia, G.L.; Notaro, V.; Puleo, V. Evaluation of the Water Scarcity Energy Cost for Users. Energies 2013, 6, 220-234.

AMA Style

Fontanazza CM, Freni G, Loggia GL, Notaro V, Puleo V. Evaluation of the Water Scarcity Energy Cost for Users. Energies. 2013; 6(1):220-234.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fontanazza, Chiara M.; Freni, Gabriele; Loggia, Goffredo L.; Notaro, Vincenza; Puleo, Valeria. 2013. "Evaluation of the Water Scarcity Energy Cost for Users." Energies 6, no. 1: 220-234.

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