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Evaluation of the Water Scarcity Energy Cost for Users
Facoltà di Ingegneria ed Architettura, Università di Enna "Kore", Cittadella Universitaria, Enna 94100, Italy
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, Aerospaziale e dei Materiali, Università di Palermo, viale delle Scienze, Palermo 90128, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 November 2012; in revised form: 24 December 2012 / Accepted: 25 December 2012 / Published: 9 January 2013
Abstract: In systems experiencing water scarcity and consequent intermittent supply, users often adopt private tanks that collect water during service periods and supply users when the service is not available. The tank may be fed by gravity or by private pumping stations depending on the network pressure level. Once water resources are collected, the tank can supply users by gravity if it is located on the rooftop or by additional pumping if underground. Private tanks thus increase the energy cost of the water supply service for users by introducing several small pumping structures inside the network. The present paper aims to evaluate this users’ energy cost for different private tank configurations. A real case study was analysed, and the results showed that intermittent distribution causes inequalities not only in users’ access to water resource but also costs that users have to bear to have access to water.
Keywords: distribution networks; energy cost; intermittent supply; water scarcity
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MDPI and ACS Style
Fontanazza, C.M.; Freni, G.; Loggia, G.L.; Notaro, V.; Puleo, V. Evaluation of the Water Scarcity Energy Cost for Users. Energies 2013, 6, 220-234.
Fontanazza CM, Freni G, Loggia GL, Notaro V, Puleo V. Evaluation of the Water Scarcity Energy Cost for Users. Energies. 2013; 6(1):220-234.
Fontanazza, Chiara M.; Freni, Gabriele; Loggia, Goffredo L.; Notaro, Vincenza; Puleo, Valeria. 2013. "Evaluation of the Water Scarcity Energy Cost for Users." Energies 6, no. 1: 220-234.