Evaluation of the Water Scarcity Energy Cost for Users
AbstractIn systems experiencing water scarcity and consequent intermittent supply, users often adopt private tanks that collect water during service periods and supply users when the service is not available. The tank may be fed by gravity or by private pumping stations depending on the network pressure level. Once water resources are collected, the tank can supply users by gravity if it is located on the rooftop or by additional pumping if underground. Private tanks thus increase the energy cost of the water supply service for users by introducing several small pumping structures inside the network. The present paper aims to evaluate this users’ energy cost for different private tank configurations. A real case study was analysed, and the results showed that intermittent distribution causes inequalities not only in users’ access to water resource but also costs that users have to bear to have access to water.
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Fontanazza, C.M.; Freni, G.; Loggia, G.L.; Notaro, V.; Puleo, V. Evaluation of the Water Scarcity Energy Cost for Users. Energies 2013, 6, 220-234.
Fontanazza CM, Freni G, Loggia GL, Notaro V, Puleo V. Evaluation of the Water Scarcity Energy Cost for Users. Energies. 2013; 6(1):220-234.Chicago/Turabian Style
Fontanazza, Chiara M.; Freni, Gabriele; Loggia, Goffredo L.; Notaro, Vincenza; Puleo, Valeria. 2013. "Evaluation of the Water Scarcity Energy Cost for Users." Energies 6, no. 1: 220-234.