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Energies 2013, 6(1), 251-281; doi:10.3390/en6010251

Smart Grid Technologies in Europe: An Overview

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Received: 29 September 2012 / Revised: 5 December 2012 / Accepted: 18 December 2012 / Published: 9 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grid and the Future Electrical Network)
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Abstract: The old electricity network infrastructure has proven to be inadequate, with respect to modern challenges such as alternative energy sources, electricity demand and energy saving policies. Moreover, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) seem to have reached an adequate level of reliability and flexibility in order to support a new concept of electricity network — the smart grid. In this work, we will analyse the state-of-the-art of smart grids, in their technical, management, security, and optimization aspects. We will also provide a brief overview of the regulatory aspects involved in the development of a smart grid, mainly from the viewpoint of the European Union.
Keywords: smart grids; energy; renewables; grid intelligence; energy efficiency; energy storage smart grids; energy; renewables; grid intelligence; energy efficiency; energy storage
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ardito, L.; Procaccianti, G.; Menga, G.; Morisio, M. Smart Grid Technologies in Europe: An Overview. Energies 2013, 6, 251-281.

AMA Style

Ardito L, Procaccianti G, Menga G, Morisio M. Smart Grid Technologies in Europe: An Overview. Energies. 2013; 6(1):251-281.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ardito, Luca; Procaccianti, Giuseppe; Menga, Giuseppe; Morisio, Maurizio. 2013. "Smart Grid Technologies in Europe: An Overview." Energies 6, no. 1: 251-281.

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