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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 14, Issue 12 (December 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) In 2012 in the United Kingdom, a number of people caught Seoul hantavirus from their pet rats. Pet [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Real-Time Measurements and Characterization of Airborne Particulate Matter from a Primary Silicon Carbide Production Plant
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1611; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14121611
Received: 13 November 2017 / Revised: 7 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
Airborne particulate matter in the silicon carbide (SiC) industry is a known health hazard. The aims of this study were to elucidate whether the particulate matter generated inside the Acheson furnace during active operation is representative of the overall particulate matter in the
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Airborne particulate matter in the silicon carbide (SiC) industry is a known health hazard. The aims of this study were to elucidate whether the particulate matter generated inside the Acheson furnace during active operation is representative of the overall particulate matter in the furnace hall, and whether the Acheson furnaces are the main sources of ultrafine particles (UFP) in primary SiC production. The number concentration of ultrafine particles was evaluated using an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPITM, Dekati Ltd., Tampere, Finland), a Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPSTM, TSI, Shoreview, MN, USA) and a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC, TSI, Shoreview, MN, USA). The results are discussed in terms of particle number concentration, particle size distribution and are also characterized by means of electron microscopy (TEM/SEM). Two locations were investigated; the industrial Acheson process furnace hall and a pilot furnace hall; both of which represent an active operating furnace. The geometric mean of the particle number concentration in the Acheson process furnace hall was 7.7 × 104 particles/cm3 for the UFP fraction and 1.0 × 105 particles/cm3 for the submicrometre fraction. Particulate matter collected at the two sites was analysed by electron microscopy. The PM from the Acheson process furnace hall is dominated by carbonaceous particles while the samples collected near the pilot furnace are primarily rich in silicon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality and Health)
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Open AccessArticle Protective Effects of Ambient Ozone on Incidence and Outcomes of Ischemic Stroke in Changzhou, China: A Time-Series Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1610; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14121610
Received: 2 November 2017 / Revised: 22 November 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
The potential beneficial effect of ozone (O3) on stroke had been identified experimentally and clinically, but these effects remain controversial in population-based studies. This study aimed to explore the epidemiological association between O3 and risk of ischemic stroke. Ischemic stroke
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The potential beneficial effect of ozone (O3) on stroke had been identified experimentally and clinically, but these effects remain controversial in population-based studies. This study aimed to explore the epidemiological association between O3 and risk of ischemic stroke. Ischemic stroke related health data and air pollution data were obtained from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention and Environmental Monitoring Center in Changzhou between 2015 and 2016, respectively. The associations between the short-term exposure to O3 and daily ischemic stroke onsets and deaths were examined based on time-series generalized additive Poisson model. During the study period, daily ischemic stroke onsets and deaths decreased 0.340% (95% confidence interval (CI) −0.559% to −0.120%) and 0.697% (95% CI −1.103% to −0.290%) with an interquartile range (IQR) (41.1 µg/m3) increase in levels of ambient O3, respectively. The protective effects of O3 were more significant in men and elders and in the cool season than those in women and young people and in the warm season, respectively. The negative association was independent of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2 or CO exposure. Acute O3 exposure was associated with decreased risk of ischemic stroke. These findings will help provide new insights into the relationship between ischemic stroke and ambient O3 concentrations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Association between Cesarean Section and Weight Status in Chinese Children and Adolescents: A National Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1609; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14121609
Received: 5 November 2017 / Revised: 9 December 2017 / Accepted: 16 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
Previous research on the association between cesarean section (CS) and childhood obesity has yielded inconsistent findings. This study assessed the secular trend of CS and explored the relationship between CS and the risks of overweight and obesity in Chinese children and adolescents. Data
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Previous research on the association between cesarean section (CS) and childhood obesity has yielded inconsistent findings. This study assessed the secular trend of CS and explored the relationship between CS and the risks of overweight and obesity in Chinese children and adolescents. Data came from a national multicenter school-based study conducted in seven provinces of China in 2013. Covariate data including weight, height and delivery mode were extracted. Poisson regression was applied to determine the risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risks of overweight and obesity associated with the delivery mode. A total of 18,780 (41.2%) subjects were born by CS between 1997 and 2006. The rate of CS increased from 27.2% in 1997 to 54.1% in 2006. After adjusting for major confounders, the RRs (95% CI) of overweight and obesity among subjects born by CS were 1.21 (1.15 to 1.27) and 1.51 (1.42 to 1.61), respectively. Similar results were observed in different subgroups stratified by sex, age, and region. In summary, the CS rate increased sharply in China between 1997 and 2006. CS was associated with increased risks of overweight and obesity in offspring after accounting for major confounding factors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Is Job Control a Double-Edged Sword? A Cross-Lagged Panel Study on the Interplay of Quantitative Workload, Emotional Dissonance, and Job Control on Emotional Exhaustion
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1608; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14121608
Received: 13 November 2017 / Revised: 8 December 2017 / Accepted: 16 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
Previous meta-analytic findings have provided ambiguous evidence on job control as a buffering moderator of the adverse impact of job demands on psychological well-being. To disentangle these mixed findings, we examine the moderating effect of job control on the adverse effects of quantitative
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Previous meta-analytic findings have provided ambiguous evidence on job control as a buffering moderator of the adverse impact of job demands on psychological well-being. To disentangle these mixed findings, we examine the moderating effect of job control on the adverse effects of quantitative workload and emotional dissonance as distinct work-related demands on emotional exhaustion over time. Drawing on the job demands-control model, the limited strength model of self-control, and the matching principle we propose that job control can facilitate coping with work-related demands but at the same time may also require employees’ self-control. Consequently, we argue that job control buffers the adverse effects of quantitative workload while it reinforces the adverse effects of emotional dissonance, which also necessitates self-control. We examine the proposed relations among employees from an energy supplying company (N = 139) in a cross-lagged panel study with a six-month time lag. Our results demonstrate a mix of causal and reciprocal effects of job characteristics on emotional exhaustion over time. Furthermore, as suggested, our data provides evidence for contrasting moderating effects of job control. That is, job control buffers the adverse effects of quantitative workload while it reinforces the adverse effects of emotional dissonance on emotional exhaustion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Work Stress and the Development of Chronic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle School Collective Efficacy and Bullying Behaviour: A Multilevel Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1607; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14121607
Received: 20 November 2017 / Revised: 12 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
As with other forms of violent behaviour, bullying is the result of multiple influences acting on different societal levels. Yet the majority of studies on bullying focus primarily on the characteristics of individual bullies and bullied. Fewer studies have explored how the characteristics
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As with other forms of violent behaviour, bullying is the result of multiple influences acting on different societal levels. Yet the majority of studies on bullying focus primarily on the characteristics of individual bullies and bullied. Fewer studies have explored how the characteristics of central contexts in young people’s lives are related to bullying behaviour over and above the influence of individual-level characteristics. This study explores how teacher-rated school collective efficacy is related to student-reported bullying behaviour (traditional and cyberbullying victimization and perpetration). A central focus is to explore if school collective efficacy is related similarly to both traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Analyses are based on combined information from two independent data collections conducted in 2016 among 11th grade students (n = 6067) and teachers (n = 1251) in 58 upper secondary schools in Stockholm. The statistical method used is multilevel modelling, estimating two-level binary logistic regression models. The results demonstrate statistically significant between-school differences in all outcomes, except traditional bullying perpetration. Strong school collective efficacy is related to less traditional bullying perpetration and less cyberbullying victimization and perpetration, indicating that collective norm regulation and school social cohesion may contribute to reducing the occurrence of bullying. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Youth Violence as a Public Health Issue)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Ovsiankina’s Great Relief: How Supplemental Work during the Weekend May Contribute to Recovery in the Face of Unfinished Tasks
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1606; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14121606
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 30 November 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
Unfinished tasks have been identified as a significant job stressor that impairs employee recovery after work. Classic experimental research by Ovsiankina has shown that people tend to resume yet unfinished tasks to satisfy their need for closure. We apply this notion to current
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Unfinished tasks have been identified as a significant job stressor that impairs employee recovery after work. Classic experimental research by Ovsiankina has shown that people tend to resume yet unfinished tasks to satisfy their need for closure. We apply this notion to current working life and examine supplemental work after hours as a means to achieve peace of mind. We investigate how progress towards goal accomplishment through supplemental work may facilitate recovery in terms of psychological detachment, relaxation, autonomy, and mastery experiences. We conducted a week-level diary study among 83 employees over a period of 14 consecutive weeks, which yielded 575 observations in total and 214 matched observations of unfinished tasks, supplemental work during the weekend, progress, and recovery experiences. Unfinished tasks were assessed on Friday. Supplemental work and recovery experiences were assessed on Monday. Multilevel modeling analyses provide evidence that unfinished tasks at the end of the work week are associated with lower levels of detachment at the intraindividual level, tend to relate to lower relaxation, but are unrelated to autonomy and mastery. Progress towards finishing tasks during the weekend alleviates the detrimental effects of unfinished tasks on both kinds of recovery experiences. Supplemental work is negatively linked to detachment, but largely unrelated to the other recovery experiences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress and Health)
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Open AccessArticle Maternal Exposure to Air Pollutants and Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Taiwan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1604; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14121604
Received: 22 October 2017 / Revised: 26 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
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Abstract
Mounting evidence has shown an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in association with elevated exposure to air pollution. However, limited evidence is available concerning the effect of specific air pollutant(s) on GDM incidence. We conducted this case-control study on 6717 mothers
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Mounting evidence has shown an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in association with elevated exposure to air pollution. However, limited evidence is available concerning the effect of specific air pollutant(s) on GDM incidence. We conducted this case-control study on 6717 mothers with GDM diagnosed in 2006–2013 and 6717 age- and year of delivery-matched controls to further address the risk of GDM in relation to specific air pollutant. Both cases and controls were selected from a cohort of 1-million beneficiaries of Taiwan’s National Health Insurance program registered in 2005. Maternal exposures to mean daily air pollutant concentration, derived from 76 fixed air quality monitoring stations within the 12-week period prior to pregnancy and during the 1st and 2nd trimesters, were assessed by the spatial analyst method (i.e., ordinary kriging) with the ArcGIS software. After controlling for potential confounders and other air pollutants, an increase in pre-pregnancy exposure of 1 inter-quartile range (IQR) for PM2.5 and SO2 was found to associate with a significantly elevated odds ratio (OR) of GDM at 1.10 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–1.18 and 1.37 (95% CI 1.30–1.45), respectively. Exposures to PM2.5 and SO2 during the 1st and 2nd trimesters were also associated with significantly increased ORs, which were 1.09 (95% CI 1.02–1.17) and 1.07 (95% CI 1.01–1.14) for PM2.5, and 1.37 (95% CI 1.30–1.45) and 1.38 (95% CI 1.31–1.46) for SO2. It was concluded that higher pre- and post-pregnancy exposures to PM2.5 and SO2 for mothers were associated with a significantly but modestly elevated risk of GDM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Open AccessReview Supporting Active Mobility and Green Jobs through the Promotion of Cycling
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1603; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14121603
Received: 27 October 2017 / Revised: 22 November 2017 / Accepted: 28 November 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
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Abstract
This article is a summary of the main findings of the study “Riding towards the green economy: cycling and green jobs”, which was developed in the context of the Transport, Health and Environment pan-European Programme (THE PEP). It builds on previous work under
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This article is a summary of the main findings of the study “Riding towards the green economy: cycling and green jobs”, which was developed in the context of the Transport, Health and Environment pan-European Programme (THE PEP). It builds on previous work under THE PEP, which demonstrated the job creation potential of cycling and of green and healthy transport more generally. The report summarized in this article collected data on jobs associated with cycling directly from city authorities and analysed these to re-assess previous estimates of the job creation potential of cycling. It concluded that the number of cycling-related jobs in the pan-European Region could increase by 435,000 in selected major cities if they increased their cycling share to that of the Danish capital Copenhagen. The implications and potential role of municipal and sub-national authorities in facilitating cycling while supporting economic development are then discussed. These findings indicate that investment in policies that promote cycling could deliver not only important benefits for health, the environment and the quality of urban life, but could also contribute to a sizable creation of job opportunities. Authorities need to be proactive in promoting cycling in order to deliver these benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Transportation and Health)
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Open AccessArticle Environmental Factors Correlated with Culturable Enterococci Concentrations in Tropical Recreational Waters: A Case Study in Escambron Beach, San Juan, Puerto Rico
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1602; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14121602
Received: 8 November 2017 / Revised: 12 December 2017 / Accepted: 16 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
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Abstract
Enterococci concentration variability at Escambron Beach, San Juan, Puerto Rico, was examined in the context of environmental conditions observed during 2005–2015. Satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST), turbidity, direct normal irradiance, and dew point were combined with local precipitation, winds, and mean sea level
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Enterococci concentration variability at Escambron Beach, San Juan, Puerto Rico, was examined in the context of environmental conditions observed during 2005–2015. Satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST), turbidity, direct normal irradiance, and dew point were combined with local precipitation, winds, and mean sea level (MSL) observations in a stepwise multiple regression analyses (Akaike Information Criteria model selection). Precipitation, MSL, irradiance, SST, and turbidity explained 20% of the variation in observed enterococci concentrations based upon these analyses. Changes in these parameters preceded increases in enterococci concentrations by 24 h up to 11 days, particularly during positive anomalies of turbidity, SST, and 480–960 mm of accumulated (4 days) precipitation, which relates to bacterial ecology. Weaker, yet still significant, increases in enterococci concentrations were also observed during positive dew point anomalies. Enterococci concentrations decreased with elevated irradiance and MSL anomalies. Unsafe enterococci concentrations per US EPA recreational water quality guidelines occurred when 4-day cumulative precipitation ranged 481–960 mm; irradiance < 667 W·m−2; daily average turbidity anomaly >0.005 sr−1; SST anomaly >0.8 °C; and 3-day average MSL anomaly <−18.8 cm. This case study shows that satellite-derived environmental data can be used to inform future water quality studies and protect human health. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Outcomes in the Utilization of Single Percutaneous Cholecystostomy in a Low-Income Population
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1601; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14121601
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 24 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
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Abstract
Numerous studies have investigated the applicable populations for percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC) procedures, but the outcomes of PC in low-income populations (LIPs) have been insufficiently studied. Data for 11,184 patients who underwent PC were collected from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan
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Numerous studies have investigated the applicable populations for percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC) procedures, but the outcomes of PC in low-income populations (LIPs) have been insufficiently studied. Data for 11,184 patients who underwent PC were collected from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan during 2003 and 2012. The overall crude rate of single PC for the LIP was 64% higher than that for the general population (GP). After propensity score matching for the LIP and GP at a ratio of 1:5, the outcome analysis of patients who underwent PC showed that in-hospital mortality was significantly higher in the LIP group than in the GP group, but one-year recurrence was lower. The rates of 30-day mortality and in-hospital complications were higher for the LIP patients than for the GP patients, and the rate of routine discharge was lower, but the differences were not significant. In conclusion, LIP patients undergoing PC exhibit poor prognoses relative to GP patients, indicating that a low socioeconomic status has an adverse impact on the outcome of PC. We suggest that surgeons fully consider the patient’s financial situation during the operation and further consider the possible poor post-surgical outcomes for LIP patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Evidence-Based Review of Impacts, Strategies and Tools to Mitigate Urban Heat Islands
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1600; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14121600
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 4 December 2017 / Accepted: 4 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
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Abstract
The impacts of climate changes on cities, which are home to over half of the world’s population, are already being felt. In many cases, the intensive speed with which urban centres have been growing means that little attention has been paid to the
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The impacts of climate changes on cities, which are home to over half of the world’s population, are already being felt. In many cases, the intensive speed with which urban centres have been growing means that little attention has been paid to the role played by climatic factors in maintaining quality of life. Among the negative consequences of rapid city growth is the expansion of the problems posed by urban heat islands (UHIs), defined as areas in a city that are much warmer than other sites, especially in comparison with rural areas. This paper analyses the consistency of the UHI-related literature in three stages: first it outlines its characteristics and impacts in a wide variety of cities around the world, which poses pressures to public health in many different countries. Then it introduces strategies which may be employed in order to reduce its effects, and finally it analyses available tools to systematize the initial high level assessment of the phenomenon for multidisciplinary teams involved in the urban planning process. The analysis of literature on the characteristics, impacts, strategies and digital tools to assess on the UHI, reveals the wide variety of parameters, methods, tools and strategies analysed and suggested in the different studies, which does not always allow to compare or standardize the diagnosis or solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Health: An Interdisciplinary Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle Comprehensive Performance Evaluation for Hydrological and Nutrients Simulation Using the Hydrological Simulation Program–Fortran in a Mesoscale Monsoon Watershed, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1599; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14121599
Received: 29 October 2017 / Revised: 27 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
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Abstract
The Hydrological Simulation Program–Fortran (HSPF) is a hydrological and water quality computer model that was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Comprehensive performance evaluations were carried out for hydrological and nutrient simulation using the HSPF model in the Xitiaoxi watershed in
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The Hydrological Simulation Program–Fortran (HSPF) is a hydrological and water quality computer model that was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Comprehensive performance evaluations were carried out for hydrological and nutrient simulation using the HSPF model in the Xitiaoxi watershed in China. Streamflow simulation was calibrated from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2007 and then validated from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2010 using daily observed data, and nutrient simulation was calibrated and validated using monthly observed data during the period from July 2009 to July 2010. These results of model performance evaluation showed that the streamflows were well simulated over the study period. The determination coefficient (R2) was 0.87, 0.77 and 0.63, and the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (Ens) was 0.82, 0.76 and 0.65 for the streamflow simulation in annual, monthly and daily time-steps, respectively. Although limited to monthly observed data, satisfactory performance was still achieved during the quantitative evaluation for nutrients. The R2 was 0.73, 0.82 and 0.92, and the Ens was 0.67, 0.74 and 0.86 for nitrate, ammonium and orthophosphate simulation, respectively. Some issues may affect the application of HSPF were also discussed, such as input data quality, parameter values, etc. Overall, the HSPF model can be successfully used to describe streamflow and nutrients transport in the mesoscale watershed located in the East Asian monsoon climate area. This study is expected to serve as a comprehensive and systematic documentation of understanding the HSPF model for wide application and avoiding possible misuses. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Environmental Regulation on Employment in Resource-Based Areas of China—An Empirical Research Based on the Mediating Effect Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1598; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14121598
Received: 13 November 2017 / Revised: 14 December 2017 / Accepted: 15 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
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Abstract
While environmental pollution is becoming more and more serious, many countries are adopting policies to control pollution. At the same time, the environmental regulation will inevitably affect economic and social development, especially employment growth. The environmental regulation will not only affect the scale
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While environmental pollution is becoming more and more serious, many countries are adopting policies to control pollution. At the same time, the environmental regulation will inevitably affect economic and social development, especially employment growth. The environmental regulation will not only affect the scale of employment directly, but it will also have indirect effects by stimulating upgrades in the industrial structure and in technological innovation. This paper examines the impact of environmental regulation on employment, using a mediating model based on the data from five typical resource-based provinces in China from 2000 to 2015. The estimation is performed based on the system GMM (Generalized Method of Moments) estimator. The results show that the implementation of environmental regulation in resource-based areas has both a direct effect and a mediating effect on employment. These findings provide policy implications for these resource-based areas to promote the coordinating development between the environment and employment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decision Models in Green Growth and Sustainable Development)
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Open AccessCase Report How Do the First Days Count? A Case Study of Qatar Experience in Emergency Risk Communication during the MERS-CoV Outbreak
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1597; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14121597
Received: 1 November 2017 / Revised: 1 December 2017 / Accepted: 9 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
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Abstract
This case study is the first to be developed in the Middle East region to document what happened during the response to the 2013 MERS outbreak in Qatar. It provides a description of key epidemiologic events and news released from a prime daily
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This case study is the first to be developed in the Middle East region to document what happened during the response to the 2013 MERS outbreak in Qatar. It provides a description of key epidemiologic events and news released from a prime daily newspaper and main Emergency Risk Communication (ERC) actions that were undertaken by public health authorities. Using the Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication (CERC) theoretical framework, the study analyzes how the performed ERC strategies during the first days of the outbreak might have contributed to the outbreak management. Methods: MERS-CoV related events were chronologically tracked, together with the relevant stories that were published in a major newspaper over the course of three distinct phases of the epidemic. The collected media stories were then assessed against the practiced emergency risk communication (ERC) activities during the same time frame. Results: The Crisis & Emergency Risk Communication (CERC) framework was partially followed during the early days of the MERS-CoV epidemic, which were characterized by overwhelming uncertainty. The SCH’s commitment to a proactive and open risk communication strategy since day one, contributed to creating the SCH’s image as a credible source of information and allowed for the quick initiation of the overall response efforts. Yet, conflicting messages and over reassurance were among the observed pitfalls of the implemented ERC strategy. Conclusion: The adoption of CERC principles can help restore and maintain the credibility of responding agencies. Further work is needed to develop more rigorous and comprehensive research strategies that address sharing of information by mainstream as well as social media for a more accurate assessment of the impact of the ERC strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Public Health and Disasters)
Open AccessArticle Gene-by-Psychosocial Factor Interactions Influence Diastolic Blood Pressure in European and African Ancestry Populations: Meta-Analysis of Four Cohort Studies
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1596; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14121596
Received: 2 October 2017 / Revised: 4 December 2017 / Accepted: 7 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
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Abstract
Inter-individual variability in blood pressure (BP) is influenced by both genetic and non-genetic factors including socioeconomic and psychosocial stressors. A deeper understanding of the gene-by-socioeconomic/psychosocial factor interactions on BP may help to identify individuals that are genetically susceptible to high BP in specific
[...] Read more.
Inter-individual variability in blood pressure (BP) is influenced by both genetic and non-genetic factors including socioeconomic and psychosocial stressors. A deeper understanding of the gene-by-socioeconomic/psychosocial factor interactions on BP may help to identify individuals that are genetically susceptible to high BP in specific social contexts. In this study, we used a genomic region-based method for longitudinal analysis, Longitudinal Gene-Environment-Wide Interaction Studies (LGEWIS), to evaluate the effects of interactions between known socioeconomic/psychosocial and genetic risk factors on systolic and diastolic BP in four large epidemiologic cohorts of European and/or African ancestry. After correction for multiple testing, two interactions were significantly associated with diastolic BP. In European ancestry participants, outward/trait anger score had a significant interaction with the C10orf107 genomic region (p = 0.0019). In African ancestry participants, depressive symptom score had a significant interaction with the HFE genomic region (p = 0.0048). This study provides a foundation for using genomic region-based longitudinal analysis to identify subgroups of the population that may be at greater risk of elevated BP due to the combined influence of genetic and socioeconomic/psychosocial risk factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene-Environment Interactions and Disease)
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