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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1585; doi:10.3390/ijerph14121585

Do Clinicians Ask Pregnant Women about Exposures to Tobacco and Cannabis Smoking, Second-Hand-Smoke and E-Cigarettes? An Australian National Cross-Sectional Survey

1
School of Medicine and Public Health, The University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia
2
Hunter Medical Research Institute, Newcastle, NSW 2305, Australia
3
Clarence Specialist Clinic, Grafton, NSW 2460, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 September 2017 / Revised: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 16 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing Exposure to Second-Hand Tobacco Smoke)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [311 KB, uploaded 16 December 2017]

Abstract

Clinicians often ask pregnant women about tobacco smoking, but their practices of asking about other smoking and nicotine exposures are unknown. This study analysed how often clinicians ask pregnant women about their use of e-cigarettes, cannabis, chewing tobacco, and second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. Two cross-sectional surveys were undertaken. A random sample of 500 General Practitioner (GP) members were invited from the National Faculty of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health (NFATSIH) to complete an on-line survey, and 5571 GP and Obstetrician (OBS) members of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RANZCOG) were sent a paper survey by mail. Questions on frequency of asking about the exposures used Likert Scales, later dichotomized to “often-always” and “never-sometimes”. Logistic regressions estimated associations between clinician type and asking about cannabis, e-cigarettes, chewing tobacco, and SHS. An adjusted model reduced potential confounders of location, guidelines, gender and population. n = 378 GPs and OBS participated (6.2% response). In total, 13–14% asked “often-always” about e-cigarettes; 58% cannabis; 38% cannabis with tobacco; 27% SHS, and 10% chewing tobacco—compared to 95% of the sample asking about cigarette smoking. After adjustment, the odds of RANZCOG GPs (OR 0.34) and OBS (OR 0.63) asking about cannabis were lower compared to NFATSIH GPs. Clinician type was non-significant for asking about e-cigarettes, chewing tobacco and SHS. Surveyed Australian GPs and obstetricians asked less frequently about e-cigarettes, chewing, SHS exposure, and cannabis, potentially missing important exposures for mother and child. View Full-Text
Keywords: pregnancy; electronic cigarettes; cannabis; tobacco; smoking; tobacco; smokeless tobacco pregnancy; electronic cigarettes; cannabis; tobacco; smoking; tobacco; smokeless tobacco
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gould, G.S.; Zeev, Y.B.; Tywman, L.; Oldmeadow, C.; Chiu, S.; Clarke, M.; Bonevski, B. Do Clinicians Ask Pregnant Women about Exposures to Tobacco and Cannabis Smoking, Second-Hand-Smoke and E-Cigarettes? An Australian National Cross-Sectional Survey. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1585.

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